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Australian Intellectual Property Law (4th Edition)

Download Australian Intellectual Property Law (4th Edition) written by Mark J. Davison, Ann L. Monotti, Leanne Wiseman in PDF format. This book is under the category Law and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 1108746950; 0511750307/9781108746953/ 9780511750304. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

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Specifications

book-author

Mark J. Davison, Ann L. Monotti, Leanne Wiseman

publisher

Cambridge University Press; 4th Edition

file-type

PDF

pages

808 pages

language

English

asin

B0868Q73FZ

isbn10

1108746950; 0511750307

isbn13

9781108746953/ 9780511750304


Book Description

Australian Intellectual Property Law; 4th Edition (PDF) offers a comprehensive and detailed; yet concise and accessible discussion of intellectual property law in Australia. This copy has been thoroughly revised to include the most recent developments in intellectual property law; including substantial case law and discussion of the proposed and enacted amendments to the Patents Act 1990 (Cth); the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth); and the Plant Breeder’s Rights Act 1994 (Cth). The textbook has been rearranged but continues to present a complete discussion of the black-letter aspects of the law. Beginning with copyright; then followed by design law; patents; confidential information; plant breeder’s rights; then lastly trademarks. The work ends with a section on enforcing legal rights and civil remedies. Penned by highly-respected intellectual property law researchers this text is an important resource for academics; both postgraduate and undergraduate students; and other professionals working with intellectual property.

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NOTE: The product only includes the ebook; Australian Intellectual Property Law; 4th Edition in PDF. No access codes are included.

.

book-author

Mark J. Davison, Ann L. Monotti, Leanne Wiseman

publisher

Cambridge University Press; 4th Edition

file-type

PDF

pages

808 pages

language

English

asin

B0868Q73FZ

isbn10

1108746950; 0511750307

isbn13

9781108746953/ 9780511750304

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Half title
Title page
Imprints page
Dedication
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
Table of cases
Table of statutes
Table of statutory instruments
Part I Introduction
1 Introduction
1.1 The nature of intellectual property
1.2 Theories of intellectual property
1.2.1 The ‘property’ in intellectual property
1.2.2 Natural or personality rights
1.2.3 Incentive to create and disseminate
1.2.4 Protection for investment
1.2.5 Rent seeking
1.2.6 A combination of all the above
1.3 The intellectual property regimes
1.3.1 Copyright and related rights
1.3.2 Designs
1.3.3 Confidential information
1.3.4 Patents
1.3.5 Plant breeder’s rights
1.3.6 Passing off
1.3.7 Registered trade marks
1.4 Impact of new technology
1.5 Internationalisation of intellectual property
1.5.1 World Intellectual Property Organization
1.5.2 TRIPS
1.5.3 Plurilateral and bilateral agreements
1.5.4 Investor–state dispute settlement
1.5.5 Harmonisation of intellectual property procedures
1.6 Intellectual property in Australia
1.6.1 History of Australian intellectual property law
1.6.2 Constitutional law issues
1.7 Scheme of the book
Part II Copyright, designs and related rights
2 Copyright: introduction
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Justifications
2.2.1 Utilitarian arguments
2.2.2 Natural rights arguments
2.3 History
2.3.1 The British legacy
2.3.2 The Copyright Act 1968 and its reforms
2.3.2.1 Reprographic reproduction
2.3.2.2 CLRC and other reviews
2.3.2.3 Digital agenda reforms
2.3.2.4 AUSFTA and WIPO commitments
2.3.2.5 Film directors’ rights
2.3.2.6 Technological protection measures
2.3.2.7 Resale royalty rights
2.3.2.8 Digital economy and online piracy
2.3.2.9 Productivity Commission review
2.3.2.10 Disability access
2.3.2.11 Copyright modernisation
2.3.2.12 Administration of copyright licences
2.4 International influences
2.4.1 Berne Convention
2.4.2 Universal Copyright Convention
2.4.3 Rome Convention
2.4.4 TRIPS
2.4.5 WIPO internet treaties
2.4.6 AUSFTA
2.4.7 Marrakesh Treaty
2.4.8 Beijing Treaty
2.4.9 Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement
2.4.10 Future reforms
3 Copyright: subsistence
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Subject matter
3.2.1 Works (Part III)
3.2.1.1 Literary works
3.2.1.1.1 Names, titles and trade marks
3.2.1.1.2 Tables and compilations
3.2.1.1.3 Computer programs
3.2.1.2 Dramatic works
3.2.1.3 Musical works
3.2.1.4 Artistic works
3.2.1.4.1 Paintings
3.2.1.4.2 Sculptures
3.2.1.4.3 Drawings
3.2.1.4.4 Engravings
3.2.1.4.5 Photographs
3.2.1.4.6 Buildings or models of a building
3.2.1.4.7 Artistic craftsmanship
3.2.2 Subject matter other than works (Part IV)
3.2.2.1 Films
3.2.2.2 Sound recordings
3.2.2.3 Broadcasts
3.2.2.4 Published editions
3.3 Recorded in material form
3.4 Connected to Australia
3.5 ‘Originality’
3.5.1 Original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works
3.5.2 Subject matter other than works
4 Copyright: authorship, first ownership, and nature and duration of rights
4.1 Introduction
4.2 ‘Authorship’ and first ownership
4.2.1 Who is the author?
4.2.1.1 Literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works
4.2.1.2 Cinematograph films
4.2.1.3 Sound recordings
4.2.1.4 Broadcasts
4.2.1.5 Published editions
4.2.2 Joint authorship
4.2.3 Orphan works
4.3 Exceptions to first ownership
4.3.1 Works created by employees
4.3.1.1 Who is an employee?
4.3.1.2 Was the work created ‘in pursuance of the terms of employment’?
4.3.2 Works created by journalists
4.3.3 Commissioned works
4.3.4 Crown copyright
4.4 Nature of the rights
4.4.1 The right of reproduction
4.4.2 The right to publish the work
4.4.3 The right to perform the work in public
4.4.4 The right to communicate the work to the public
4.4.5 The right to make an adaptation of the work
4.4.6 The right of commercial rental
4.5 Technological protection measures
4.5.1 Anti-circumvention
4.5.1.1 Circumventing an access control TPM
4.5.1.1.1 Exceptions
4.5.1.2 Aiding and abetting in the circumvention of a TPM
4.5.1.2.1 Exceptions
4.5.1.3 Providing a circumvention service
4.5.1.3.1 Exceptions
4.5.1.4 Criminal actions
4.5.1.5 Defences to liability for criminal actions
4.5.2 Rights management information
4.5.3 Unauthorised access to encoded broadcasts
4.6 Duration
5 Copyright: exploitation, infringement and defences
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Exploitation
5.2.1 Assignment
5.2.2 Licences
5.2.2.1 Express licences
5.2.2.2 Implied licences
5.2.2.3 Compulsory and statutory licences
5.2.2.3.1 Musical works, sound recordings, broadcasts and Crown copyright
5.2.2.3.2 Educational statutory licences
5.2.3 Collective administration
5.2.3.1 Collecting societies
5.2.3.1.1 Copyright Agency
5.2.3.1.2 Screenrights
5.2.3.1.3 APRA AMCOS
5.2.3.1.4 PPCA
5.2.3.2 The Copyright Tribunal of Australia
5.3 Infringement
5.3.1 Direct infringement
5.3.1.1 Activities within copyright owner’s exclusive control
5.3.1.2 Alleged infringing work derived from copyright work
5.3.1.3 Unauthorised act done on whole or substantial part of copyright work
5.3.1.4 Authorisation
5.3.1.4.1 The meaning of ‘authorisation’
5.3.1.4.2 Liability of internet service providers
5.3.2 Indirect infringement
5.3.2.1 Parallel importation
5.3.2.2 Books
5.3.2.3 Sound recordings
5.3.2.4 Books, periodicals and printed music in electronic format, and computer programs
5.3.2.5 Non-infringing accessories to the article
5.4 Relief for copyright infringement
5.4.1 Injunctions
5.4.2 Damages
5.4.2.1 Additional damages
5.4.3 Innocent infringement
5.4.4 Conversion or detention
5.4.5 Groundless threats to sue
5.4.6 Criminal offences
5.5 Defences and limitations
5.5.1 Fair dealing
5.5.1.1 Permitted purposes
5.5.1.1.1 Research or study
5.5.1.1.2 Criticism or review
5.5.1.1.3 Reporting news
5.5.1.1.4 Professional advice and legal proceedings
5.5.1.1.5 Parody or satire
5.5.1.1.6 Access by persons with a disability
5.5.1.2 The dealing must be ‘fair’
5.5.2 Time shifting
5.5.3 Format shifting
5.5.4 Exceptions for archives, libraries and key cultural institutions
5.5.5 Educational uses
5.5.6 Organisations assisting persons with a disability
5.5.7 Artistic works
5.5.8 Computer programs
5.5.9 Temporary and incidental reproductions
5.5.10 Legal materials
5.5.11 Government uses
5.5.12 Reading or recitation in public
5.5.13 Sound recordings
5.5.14 Films
5.5.15 Public interest
5.5.16 Contracting out of the defences
5.5.17 Future reforms
6 Areas related to copyright: moral rights, performers’ rights, artist’s resale rights, and other rights
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Moral rights
6.2.1 The right of attribution
6.2.2 The right of integrity
6.2.3 The right to object to false attribution
6.2.4 Limits on moral rights
6.2.4.1 ‘Reasonable in all the circumstances’
6.2.4.2 Consent
6.2.5 Remedies for infringement of moral rights
6.2.6 Indigenous communal moral rights?
6.3 Performers’ rights
6.3.1 Performers’ moral rights
6.4 Artist’s resale rights
6.5 Circuit layouts
6.5.1 Nature and scope of circuit layouts
6.5.2 Subsistence
6.5.3 Exclusive rights
6.5.4 Ownership
6.5.5 Exploitation
6.5.6 Duration
6.5.7 Infringement
6.5.8 Exceptions and defences
6.5.8.1 Innocent commercial exploitation
6.5.9 Remedies
6.5.10 Overlap with copyright and design protection?
6.6 Public and educational lending rights
7 Designs
7.1 Introduction
7.2 History
7.3 The registration process
7.3.1 Who can apply?
7.3.2 Requirements of the application
7.3.3 Request for registration or publication
7.3.4 Publication
7.3.5 Registration
7.3.6 Priority date
7.3.7 Duration
7.3.8 Post-registration examination
7.4 Criteria for protection
7.4.1 Meaning of ‘design’
7.4.1.1 Visual features
7.4.1.2 Product
7.4.1.2.1 Spare parts
7.4.2 New and distinctive
7.5 Ownership
7.6 Rights
7.7 Infringement
7.7.1 Primary infringement
7.7.2 Secondary infringement
7.8 Defences
7.8.1 The right of repair for spare parts defence
7.8.1.1 ‘Repair’
7.8.1.2 ‘Overall appearance of a product’
7.8.1.3 Onus of proof
7.8.2 Consent and parallel importation
7.8.3 Crown use and supply
7.9 Remedies
7.9.1 Unjustified threats
7.10 Copyright–design overlap
7.10.1 Registration of a corresponding design
7.10.2 Industrial application of a corresponding design
7.11 Future reforms
Part III Confidential information, patents and plant breeder’s rights
8 Equitable doctrine of breach of confidence
8.1 Introduction
8.1.1 Overview
8.1.2 Subsistence of equitable obligations of confidence alongside comparable contractual obligations
8.2 Origins of the equitable doctrine of breach of confidence
8.3 Elements of the action
8.3.1 Must be able to identify the information with specificity
8.3.2 Information must have the necessary quality of confidence
8.3.2.1 Ideas
8.3.2.2 Concept of relative secrecy and the public domain
8.3.2.3 Information based on public knowledge and ideas
8.3.2.4 Guidelines for necessary quality of confidence for business or trade secrets
8.3.3 Information given or received to import an obligation of confidence
8.3.3.1 Receipt of information in circumstances that import an obligation of confidence
8.3.3.2 Encrypted information
8.3.3.3 Verbal confidences: inadvertent eavesdropping
8.3.3.4 Verbal confidences: eavesdropping and telephone tapping
8.3.3.5 Inadvertent acquisition of written confidences
8.3.3.6 Surreptitious acquisition through theft or use of telephoto lens
8.3.4 Unauthorised use or disclosure of the information
8.3.5 The scope of the obligation
8.3.6 The need to show detriment
8.3.7 Reasonableness of obtaining a remedy
8.4 How long does the obligation last?
8.4.1 Express contractual obligations
8.4.2 Equitable obligations
8.4.3 Disclosure by the confider
8.4.4 Disclosure by the confidant
8.4.5 Disclosure by third party after confidence is imposed
8.5 Entitlement
8.6 Special circumstances: during employment
8.7 Special circumstances: after employment
8.7.1 Contract
8.7.1.1 Express terms
8.7.1.2 Implied duty of good faith
8.7.2 Equitable principles of confidence
8.8 Defences: public interest in disclosure
8.8.1 Background
8.8.2 Nature of a justification for disclosure in the public interest in Australia
8.9 Remedies
8.9.1 General
8.9.2 The springboard principle
8.9.3 Damages
8.10 Relationship between confidential information and patents
8.11 Relationship between confidential information and copyright
8.12 International dimensions
9 Patents for inventions: introduction
9.1 What is a patent for invention?
9.2 Origins of patent protection
9.3 Development of patent law in Australia
9.4 Rationales of patent protection
9.5 Types of patent
9.5.1 Standard and innovation patents
9.5.2 Selection patents
9.5.3 Combination patents
9.6 Types of application
9.6.1 Convention applications
9.6.2 PCT applications
9.6.3 Divisional applications
9.6.4 Patents of addition
9.7 Procedure for obtaining a standard patent
9.7.1 The application
9.7.2 Pre-examination
9.7.3 Examination
9.7.4 Acceptance and publication
9.7.5 Opposition
9.7.6 Re-examination
9.7.7 Grant
9.8 Processing an application for an innovation patent
9.9 Patent term
9.10 Extension of term of standard patents for pharmaceutical substances
9.10.1 The application
9.10.2 Calculation of the term of extension
9.11 Requirement of claims to have a priority date
9.11.1 Complete applications
9.11.2 Convention applications
9.11.3 PCT applications
9.11.4 Required disclosure in a priority document
9.12 The role of priority dates
9.13 Withdrawal and lapsing of applications and ceasing of patents
9.13.1 Withdrawal of patents
9.13.2 Lapsing of patents
9.13.3 Ceasing of patents
9.14 International aspects
9.14.1 Paris Convention
9.14.2 TRIPS
9.14.3 Budapest Treaty
9.14.4 European Patent Convention
9.14.5 Patent Law Treaty and proposed Substantive Patent Law Treaty
10 Patents for inventions: validity
10.1 Statutory requirements
10.2 A two-tier system
10.3 The concept of invention
10.4 Manner of manufacture
10.4.1 Time at which manner of manufacture is raised
10.4.2 Background to the meaning of ‘manner of manufacture’
10.4.3 NRDC v Commissioner of Patents: meaning of ‘manner of manufacture’
10.4.3.1 The judgment
10.4.3.2 NRDC guiding factors
10.4.4 Application of NRDC principles to expand scope and remove classes of unpatentable inventions
10.4.5 Computer programs and computer-implemented methods
10.4.5.1 Computer programs
10.4.5.2 Computer-implemented methods
10.4.6 Genes and biological materials
10.4.7 Methods of medical treatment for humans
10.4.8 Discoveries, ideas, intellectual information and other unpatentable subject matter
10.4.9 Reform proposals
10.5 Generally inconvenient
10.6 Novelty
10.6.1 Introduction
10.6.2 Time at which novelty is raised
10.6.3 Statutory requirements: overview
10.6.4 Time at which to construe and read documentary disclosures
10.6.5 Prior art base
10.6.5.1 Historical provisions
10.6.5.1.1 Patents Act 1952
10.6.5.1.2 Patents Act 1990: 30 April 1991 to 23 May 2001
10.6.5.1.3 Patents Act 1990: 24 May 2001 to 31 March 2002
10.6.5.2 Current prior art base
10.6.5.2.1 Documents and acts
10.6.5.2.2 Prior unpublished specifications: ‘whole of contents’
10.6.6 Person skilled in the relevant art: the skilled addressee
10.6.7 The meaning of ‘prior information made publicly available’
10.6.8 Test for ‘anticipation’
10.6.8.1 General principles
10.6.8.2 Anticipation through prior use
10.6.8.3 Implicit disclosure and inevitable outcome
10.6.9 Prohibition on ‘mosaics’
10.6.10 Making information available in certain circumstances: disclosure with consent
10.6.10.1 Showing, use and publication at recognised exhibition
10.6.10.2 Publication before learned society
10.6.10.3 Working the invention in public for purposes of reasonable trial
10.6.10.4 General grace period
10.6.11 Making information available in certain circumstances: non-consensual disclosure
10.6.12 Novelty by way of selection
10.6.13 Relationship with inventive step and innovative step
10.7 Inventive and innovative step: principles
10.7.1 Introduction
10.7.2 Time at which inventive or innovative step is raised
10.7.3 Statutory requirements: overview
10.7.4 Inventive step: prior art base and relevant information for purposes of comparison
10.7.4.1 Patents Act 1952
10.7.4.2 Patents Act 1990: 30 April 1991 to 31 March 2002
10.7.4.3 Patents Act 1990: 1 April 2002 to 14 April 2013
10.7.4.4 From 15 April 2013 to present
10.7.5 Innovative step: prior art base and relevant information for purposes of comparison
10.7.6 Innovative step: level of advance and assessment
10.7.7 Summary of differences
10.8 Inventive step: elements in the assessment
10.8.1 Obvious: very plain
10.8.2 Person skilled in the relevant art
10.8.3 Common general knowledge
10.8.4 Information a skilled person could be reasonably expected to ascertain, understand and regard as relevant
10.8.5 Standard required: scintilla of inventiveness
10.8.6 Expert evidence ‘tainted by hindsight’
10.8.7 Secondary factors to assist assessment of obviousness
10.8.7.1 Long-felt want and its successful solution
10.8.7.2 Commercial success
10.8.7.3 Expectation of success
10.8.7.4 Problem and solution
10.8.8 Objection to reliance on hindsight
10.9 Threshold quality of ‘inventiveness’
10.9.1 The issue
10.9.2 Assessment of the threshold quality of ‘inventiveness’
10.9.3 Innovation patents and the threshold issue
10.10 Utility
10.10.1 General
10.10.2 Meaning of ‘useful’
10.11 Secret use
10.11.1 General
10.11.2 Rationale
10.11.3 The relationship with novelty
10.11.4 The meaning of ‘secret’
10.11.5 The meaning of ‘use’
10.11.6 Use for reasonable trial or experiment only
10.11.7 Use occurring solely in a confidential disclosure
10.11.8 Patentee use for any purpose other than trade or commerce
10.11.9 Use on behalf of the government
10.11.10 Onus of proof
10.11.11 Grace period
10.12 Express exclusions from patentability
10.12.1 Human beings and biological processes for their generation
10.12.2 Plants and animals
10.12.3 Contrary to law
10.12.4 Mere mixtures
10.12.5 International obligations
10.13 Internal requirements for patent specifications: s 40
10.13.1 Evolution of the specification and function of claims
10.13.2 Statutory provisions for internal requirements for patent specifications
10.13.3 Construction of specification for s 40 purposes
10.13.4 Stages for consideration of s 40 requirements
10.13.5 The relationship between s 40 and other grounds of invalidity
10.13.6 Requirements relating to provisional specifications: s 40(1)
10.13.7 Requirements relating to complete specifications: s 40(2)(a), (aa)
10.13.7.1 Requirement to describe the invention fully
10.13.7.2 Best method
10.13.7.3 Time for meeting the requirements to describe the invention fully
10.13.8 End with claims defining the invention: s 40(2)(b), (c)
10.13.9 Claims must be clear and succinct: s 40(3)
10.13.10 Claims must be supported by the matter disclosed in the specification: s 40(3)
10.13.11 Consistory clause and fair basing
10.13.12 Comparison with fair basis assessment: priority dates
10.13.13 Claims must relate to one invention only: s 40(4)
11 Patents for inventions: allocation of rights and ownership, the Register and dealings
11.1 Entitlement to grant
11.1.1 Criteria for inventorship
11.1.1.1 The invention, conception of the invention or inventive concept
11.1.1.2 The nature of the contribution
11.1.1.3 Joint inventorship
11.1.2 Entitled to have patent assigned to person: s 15(1)(b)
11.1.3 Derives title to invention from inventor: s 15(1)(c)
11.2 Ownership and co-ownership
11.2.1 The notion of co-ownership
11.2.2 Rights of co-owners
11.2.3 Directions to co-owners
11.2.4 Grant of patent
11.2.5 Proprietary rights in the patent
11.3 Employee inventions
11.3.1 Express provisions in the employment contract
11.3.2 Implied duty to assign inventions: the duty of good faith
11.3.3 Fiduciary duties
11.4 Crown use of patents for inventions
11.4.1 Introduction
11.4.2 Exploitation of inventions by the Crown
11.4.3 Scope of the exploitation right
11.4.4 ‘For the services of the Commonwealth or a State’
11.4.5 Obligations of the Crown
11.4.6 Procedures available to a patentee
11.4.7 Remuneration and terms for exploitation
11.4.8 Exploitation of invention to cease under court order
11.4.9 Supply of products by Commonwealth to foreign countries
11.4.10 Acquisition of inventions or patents by the Commonwealth
11.4.11 Assignments of inventions to the Commonwealth
11.4.12 Review of Crown use
11.5 Dealings with inventions
11.5.1 General principles
11.5.2 Assignments
11.5.3 Exclusive licences
11.5.4 Non-exclusive and sole licences
11.6 Compulsory licences
11.6.1 Application
11.6.1.1 Court is satisfied that certain conditions exist
11.6.1.2 Court is satisfied that there is anti-competitive behaviour
11.6.2 Effect of compulsory licence on other patents
11.6.3 Operation of the order
11.6.4 Remuneration payable
11.6.5 Revocation
11.6.6 Other circumstances for compulsory licence
11.6.7 International requirements
11.6.8 Patented pharmaceutical inventions
11.7 Contracts
11.7.1 Void conditions
11.7.2 Conditions that are not void
11.7.3 Defence to infringement proceedings
11.7.4 Termination of contract after patent ceases to be in force
11.8 The Register and official documents
11.8.1 Contents of the Register
11.8.2 Inspection and access to the Register
11.8.3 False entries
11.8.4 Evidence
11.8.5 Power of patentee to deal with patent
12 Patents for inventions: exploitation, infringement and revocation
12.1 The role of the patent specification
12.2 General principles for construction of patent specification
12.3 Claim construction
12.3.1 Introduction
12.3.2 ‘Pith and marrow’
12.3.3 Purposive construction
12.4 Exclusive rights of the patentee
12.4.1 Nature of exclusive rights
12.4.2 Concept of an implied licence on sale
12.4.3 No grant of positive rights
12.5 Direct infringement
12.5.1 Exclusive right to make a patented product
12.5.2 Exclusive right to use
12.5.3 Exclusive right to keep
12.5.4 Exclusive right to import the invention
12.5.5 Concept of parallel importation
12.5.6 Authorisation
12.5.7 Liability as a joint tortfeasor through ‘common design’ or ‘procurement’
12.6 Contributory infringement
12.6.1 Introduction
12.6.2 ‘Supply’ of a ‘product’: s 117(1)
12.6.3 Infringing uses: s 117(2)
12.6.3.1 Section 117(2)(a)
12.6.3.2 Section 117(2)(b)
12.6.3.2.1 Not a staple commercial product
12.6.3.2.2 Supplier had reason to believe the person would put it to that use
12.6.3.3 Section 117(2)(c)
12.6.4 Infringement of a product patent by supply of component parts
12.7 Misleading and deceptive conduct
12.8 Defences to infringement
12.8.1 Use in or on foreign vessels, aircraft or vehicles
12.8.2 Prior use of an invention: s 119
12.8.2.1 Overview
12.8.2.2 Current provision
12.8.3 Acts for obtaining regulatory approval of pharmaceuticals and non-pharmaceuticals
12.8.4 Private acts
12.8.5 Experimental and research use
12.9 Infringement proceedings
12.10 Relief for infringement
12.11 Non-infringement declarations
12.12 Unjustified threats of infringement proceedings
12.13 Revocation of patents
12.13.1 Statutory provisions
12.13.2 Lack of entitlement
12.13.3 Fraud and false suggestion or misrepresentation
12.13.4 Litigation: parties to proceedings
13 Plant breeder’s rights
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Plant breeding: technical background
13.3 Subject matter of PBR
13.4 Registrability and grant of PBR
13.4.1 The variety has a breeder
13.4.1.1 Meaning of ‘discovery’
13.4.1.2 Meaning of selective propagation
13.4.2 The variety is distinct
13.4.2.1 Common knowledge
13.4.3 The variety is uniform
13.4.4 The variety is stable
13.4.5 The variety has not been exploited or has only recently been exploited
13.4.6 Time at which the variety must meet the DUS criteria
13.5 PBR applications
13.5.1 Right to apply for PBR
13.5.2 Form of application for PBR
13.5.3 Priority dates
13.5.4 Acceptance and rejection
13.5.5 Variation of the application after acceptance
13.5.6 Application after acceptance: substantive examination and test growing requirements
13.5.7 Objections
13.5.8 Access to the application and any objection
13.5.9 Status of accepted applications
13.5.10 Deposit of propagating material
13.6 Grant of PBR
13.6.1 Requirements
13.6.2 Entry of details in the Register
13.6.3 Effect of grant of PBR
13.6.4 Term of protection
13.7 Rights in PBR
13.7.1 General nature of PBR in propagating material
13.7.2 Extension beyond propagating material: essentially derived varieties
13.7.3 Extension beyond propagating material: certain dependent plant varieties
13.7.4 Extension beyond propagating material: harvested material
13.7.5 Extension beyond propagating material: products obtained from harvested material
13.7.6 Concept of exhaustion of rights
13.8 Limitations on PBR
13.8.1 Private, experimental or breeding purposes
13.8.2 Farmer’s rights
13.8.3 Breeder’s rights in harvested material and products from crops grown with farm-saved seed
13.8.4 Other restrictions on rights
13.8.5 Reasonable public access
13.9 Ownership and co-ownership
13.10 Exploiting PBR: licensing and other forms
13.10.1 Assignment of PBR
13.10.2 Licences
13.11 Revocation of PBR
13.12 Surrender of PBR
13.13 Infringement of rights
13.13.1 What amounts to infringement?
13.13.2 Exemptions from infringement
13.13.3 Prior user rights
13.14 Enforcement of rights
13.14.1 Actions for infringement
13.14.2 Non-infringement declarations
13.14.3 Unjustified threats of infringement proceedings
13.14.4 Jurisdiction
13.14.5 Offences and conduct by directors, servants and agents
13.15 The Register
13.16 Remedies
13.17 Relationships between PBR and other intellectual property regimes
13.17.1 PBR and patents
13.17.2 PBR and trade marks
13.18 Other international conventions
Part IV Trade marks
14 Passing off
14.1 History of passing off
14.1.1 Common law and passing off
14.1.2 Equity and passing off
14.2 Elements of passing off
14.3 The reputation of the plaintiff
14.3.1 Location of reputation
14.3.2 Ownership of reputation
14.3.3 Joint ownership of reputation
14.3.4 Dual ownership: honest concurrent user and use of own name
14.3.5 Reputation in descriptive words and insignia: secondary meanings
14.3.6 Reputation in packaging and appearance
14.3.7 Reputation of marketing image
14.3.8 Reputation in personality
14.3.9 Abandonment of reputation
14.4 The misrepresentation
14.4.1 Misrepresentation, confusion and deception
14.4.2 The target of the representation
14.4.3 Misrepresentations of the trade origin of goods
14.4.4 Different quality of goods
14.4.5 Character merchandising
14.5 Passing off and the internet
14.5.1 Domain names
14.5.2 Australian passing off cases and the internet
14.5.3 Uniform dispute resolution policy
14.5.4 Australian uniform dispute resolution policy
14.5.5 Meta-tags
14.5.6 Keyword advertising
14.6 Effect of disclaimers
14.7 A holistic perspective
14.8 Damage
14.9 Statutory causes of action
14.9.1 Application of the legislation
14.9.2 ‘In trade or commerce’
14.9.3 ‘Engage in conduct’
14.9.4 ‘Misleading or deceptive’
14.10 Comparison with passing off
14.10.1 Sections 29, 33 and 34 of sch 2
14.10.2 Comparison with trade mark infringement
14.11 Remedies
15 Registered trade marks
15.1 History of registered trade marks
15.2 Drawbacks of passing off
15.3 Functions of trade marks
15.3.1 Reducing search costs
15.3.2 Managing property interests
15.3.3 Promoting the product
15.4 Overview of the registration process
15.5 Definition of a trade mark
15.6 Definition of a sign
15.6.1 Aspect of packaging, shape
15.6.2 Colour
15.6.3 Sounds
15.6.4 Scents
15.7 ‘Used or intended to be used’
15.7.1 Unconditional intention
15.7.2 Objective test of intention
15.7.3 Use by others
15.8 Distinguishing goods or services
15.8.1 ‘Dealt with or provided’
15.8.2 ‘In the course of trade’
15.8.3 ‘By a person’
15.9 Ownership
15.9.1 First use in Australia
15.9.2 Distributorship arrangements
15.9.3 Creation or adoption of an overseas trade mark
15.9.4 Persons who can own a trade mark
15.10 Certification trade marks
15.10.1 Requirements for registration
15.10.2 Certification by other means
15.11 Collective trade marks
15.12 Defensive trade marks
15.13 Overview of requirements at examination of standard trade mark applications
15.14 National signs not to be used as trade marks
15.15 Signs prescribed under s 39(2)
15.16 Trade mark cannot be represented graphically: s 40
15.17 Trade mark not distinguishing goods or services: s 41
15.17.1 Inherent distinctiveness
15.17.2 Partial inherent distinctiveness: use and intended use
15.17.3 Distinctiveness through use
15.17.4 Functional shapes
15.17.5 Colour trade marks
15.18 Scandalous trade marks: s 42
15.19 Use contrary to law: s 42
15.20 Deceptive or confusing trade marks: s 43
15.21 Trade marks identical or similar to existing trade marks: s 44
15.21.1 Substantially identical with
15.21.2 Or deceptively similar to
15.21.3 The context of the comparison
15.21.4 Similar goods
15.21.5 Similar services
15.21.6 Closely related goods and services
15.21.7 A global assessment
15.22 Honest concurrent user
15.23 Prior continuous user
15.24 Other legislation
15.24.1 Protection of sporting events
15.24.2 Business names
15.24.3 Wine Australia Act 2013
15.24.4 Protection for particular industries
15.25 Overview of grounds of opposition
15.26 Another trade mark’s prior reputation: s 60
15.26.1 Relationship with honest concurrent user and prior continuous user provisions
15.27 Geographical indications: s 61
15.27.1 Definition of a geographical indication
15.27.2 Interpretation
15.27.3 Exceptions
15.28 Application made in bad faith
15.29 Overview of rectification of the Register
15.30 Amendment or cancellation by the Registrar
15.31 Overview of rectification by the court
15.31.1 Aggrieved person
15.32 Errors and omissions: s 85
15.33 Contravention of conditions or limits: s 86
15.34 Effect of ss 24 and 25 on s 87
15.35 Cancellation, removal or amendment: s 88(2)
15.36 Transitional provisions and presumptive validity
15.36.1 Fraud
15.36.2 Contrary to s 28 of the repealed legislation
15.36.3 Not distinctive when proceedings commence
15.37 General discretion not to rectify
15.38 Grounds for opposition
15.39 Fraud, false suggestion or misrepresentation
15.40 Use likely to deceive or cause confusion
15.41 Rectification not granted if registered owner not at fault
15.42 Removal for non-use
15.42.1 General discretion
15.42.2 Changes to non-use under the Trade Marks Amendment Act 2006
16 Exploitation of registered trade marks
16.1 Overview of infringement of trade marks
16.1.1 Use as a trade mark
16.1.2 Use as descriptive term rather than as trade mark
16.1.3 Sign used to distinguish goods and services from others
16.1.4 Substantially identical with or deceptively similar to
16.1.5 Relevance of the defendant’s conduct
16.1.6 Relevance of the plaintiff’s trade mark’s reputation
16.2 Section 120(1)
16.2.1 The goods or services for which the trade mark is registered
16.3 Section 120(2)
16.4 Section 120(3)
16.4.1 Anti-dilution
16.4.2 Well known
16.4.3 Used in relation to unrelated goods or services
16.4.4 Indicating a connection with the owner
16.4.5 Owner’s interests adversely affected
16.4.6 Anti-dilution or passing off?
16.4.7 Comparison with passing off
16.5 Oral use of a trade mark
16.6 Two-dimensional device infringed by three-dimensional shape
16.7 Parallel importing
16.7.1 Parallel importing and exclusive licensees
16.7.2 Section 122A
16.7.3 Parallel importing and passing off
16.8 Second-hand goods
16.9 Trade mark infringement and the internet
16.10 Breach of certain restrictions: s 121
16.11 Groundless threats of legal proceedings
16.12 Acts not constituting infringement
16.12.1 In good faith
16.12.2 Good faith use of a name: s 122(1)(a)
16.12.3 Good faith use of a sign: s 122(1)(b)
16.12.4 Good faith used to indicate purpose: s 122(1)(c)
16.12.5 Use of trade mark for comparative advertising: s 122(1)(d)
16.12.6 Exercising right to use trade mark: s 122(1)(e)
16.12.7 Defendant may obtain registration of similar trade mark: s 122(1)(f)
16.12.8 Non-infringement due to condition or limitation: s 122(1)(g)
16.12.9 Disclaimers: s 122(1)(h)
16.13 Trade mark applied by or with consent of registered owner
16.14 Prior continuous use defence: s 124
16.15 No damages for infringement during non-use period: s 127
16.16 Remedies
16.17 Assignment of trade marks
16.17.1 Process of assignment
16.17.2 Assignment of certification trade marks
16.17.3 Assignment of collective trade marks
16.17.4 Assignment of defensive trade marks
16.18 Licensing of trade marks
16.18.1 Quality control
16.18.2 Financial control
16.18.3 Other forms of control
16.18.4 Franchising
16.18.5 Assignment of licences
16.19 Voluntary recording of interests and claims
16.20 International treaty obligations
Part V Enforcement of rights
17 Remedies and miscellaneous issues
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Pre-trial remedies
17.2.1 Anton Piller orders
17.2.2 Representative orders
17.2.3 Interlocutory injunctions
17.3 Permanent injunctions
17.4 Groundless threats
17.5 Damages
17.6 Account of profits
17.7 Criminal liability
17.8 Customs seizure
17.9 Jurisdiction
17.10 Intellectual property and freedom of competition
17.10.1 Per se prohibitions
17.10.2 Rule of reason prohibitions
17.10.3 Abolition of exemptions under s 51(3)
Index

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