Sale!

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach (5th Edition)

Download Chemistry: A Molecular Approach (5th Edition) written by Nivaldo J. Tro in PDF format. This book is under the category Chemistry and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 0134874374; 0134989694/9780134874371;9780134989693. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

$19.99

Specifications

book-author

Nivaldo J. Tro

publisher

Pearson; 5th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

1320 pages

language

English

asin

B07R7C3MF2

isbn10

0134874374; 0134989694

isbn13

9780134874371;9780134989693


Book Description

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach; 5th edition (PDF) offers chemistry visually through multi-level images—macroscopic; molecular; and symbolic representations—to assist college students in seeing the connections between the world they see around them; the atoms and molecules that make the world; and the formulas they write down on paper. Interactive; digital versions of select worked examples guide students on how to break down problems using Tro’s unique “Sort; Strategize; Solve; and Check” technique and then complete a step in the example. To build conceptual understanding; Dr. Tro uses an active learning approach through interactive media that instructs students to pause during videos to make sure they understand before continuing.

The 5th Edition couples digital; pedagogical innovation with insights from learning design and educational research to create an integrated; active; and easy-to-use framework. The new edition introduces a fully integrated book and media package that streamlines course set up actively involves students in becoming expert problem solvers; and makes it possible for professors to teach the general chemistry course effectively and easily.

P.S We can also arrange Tro’s Chemistry: A Molecular Approach; 5e; test bank and other instructor resources. Contact us if you want them

NOTE: The product only includes the ebook; Chemistry: A Molecular Approach; 5th edition in PDF. No access codes are included.

book-author

Nivaldo J. Tro

publisher

Pearson; 5th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

1320 pages

language

English

asin

B07R7C3MF2

isbn10

0134874374; 0134989694

isbn13

9780134874371;9780134989693

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Cover
Title Page
Copyright Page
About the Author
Brief Contents
Interactive eText Media Contents
Contents
Preface
1 Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving
1.1 Atoms and Molecules
1.2 The Scientific Approach to Knowledge
THE NATURE OF SCIENCE: Thomas S. Kuhn and Scientific Revolutions
1.3 The Classification of Matter
The States of Matter: Solid, Liquid, and Gas
Classifying Matter by Composition: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
Separating Mixtures
1.4 Physical and Chemical Changes and Physical and Chemical Properties
1.5 Energy: A Fundamental Part of Physical and Chemical Change
1.6 The Units of Measurement
Standard Units
The Meter: A Measure of Length
The Kilogram: A Measure of Mass
The Second: A Measure of Time
The Kelvin: A Measure of Temperature
Prefix Multipliers
Derived Units: Volume and Density
Volume
Density
Calculating Density
CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE: Bone Density
1.7 The Reliability of a Measurement
Counting Significant Figures
Exact Numbers
Significant Figures in Calculations
Precision and Accuracy
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: Integrity in Data Gathering
1.8 Solving Chemical Problems
Converting from One Unit to Another
General Problem-Solving Strategy
Units Raised to a Power
Order-of-Magnitude Estimations
Problems Involving an Equation
1.9 Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Identifying Patterns in Data
Interpreting Graphs
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
2 Atoms and Elements
2.1 Brownian Motion: Atoms Confirmed
2.2 Early Ideas about the Building Blocks of Matter
2.3 Modern Atomic Theory and the Laws That Led to It
The Law of Conservation of Mass
The Law of Definite Proportions
The Law of Multiple Proportions
John Dalton and the Atomic Theory
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: Atoms and Humans
2.4 The Discovery of the Electron
Cathode Rays
Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment: The Charge of the Electron
2.5 The Structure of the Atom
2.6 Subatomic Particles: Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons in Atoms
Elements: Defined by Their Numbers of Protons
Isotopes: When the Number of Neutrons Varies
Ions: Losing and Gaining Electrons
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: Where Did Elements Come From?
2.7 Finding Patterns: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table
Modern Periodic Table Organization
Ions and the Periodic Table
CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE: The Elements of Life
2.8 Atomic Mass: The Average Mass of an Element’s Atoms
Mass Spectrometry: Measuring the Mass of Atoms and Molecules
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: Evolving Atomic Masses
2.9 Molar Mass: Counting Atoms by Weighing Them
The Mole: A Chemist’s “Dozen”
Converting between Number of Moles and Number of Atoms
Converting between Mass and Amount (Number of Moles)
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
3 Molecules and Compounds
3.1 Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water
3.2 Chemical Bonds
Ionic Bonds
Covalent Bonds
3.3 Representing Compounds: Chemical Formulas and Molecular Models
Types of Chemical Formulas
Molecular Models
3.4 An Atomic-Level View of Elements and Compounds
3.5 Ionic Compounds: Formulas and Names
Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds
Naming Ionic Compounds
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal That Forms Only One Type of Cation
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal That Forms More Than One Kind of Cation
Naming Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions
Hydrated Ionic Compounds
3.6 Molecular Compounds: Formulas and Names
Naming Molecular Compounds
Naming Acids
Naming Binary Acids
Naming Oxyacids
CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT: Acid Rain
3.7 Summary of Inorganic Nomenclature
3.8 Formula Mass and the Mole Concept for Compounds
Molar Mass of a Compound
Using Molar Mass to Count Molecules by Weighing
3.9 Composition of Compounds
Mass Percent Composition as a Conversion Factor
Conversion Factors from Chemical Formulas
CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE Methylmercury in Fish
3.10 Determining a Chemical Formula from Experimental Data
Determining Molecular Formulas for Compounds
Combustion Analysis
3.11 Organic Compounds
Hydrocarbons
Functionalized Hydrocarbons
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
4 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Quantities
4.1 Climate Change and the Combustion of Fossil Fuels
4.2 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
4.3 Reaction Stoichiometry: How Much Carbon Dioxide?
Making Pizza: The Relationships among Ingredients
Making Molecules: Mole-to-Mole Conversions
Making Molecules: Mass-to-Mass Conversions
4.4 Stoichiometric Relationships: Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, Percent Yield, and Reactant in Excess
Calculating Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield
Calculating Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield from Initial Reactant Masses
4.5 Three Examples of Chemical Reactions: Combustion, Alkali Metals, and Halogens
Combustion Reactions
Alkali Metal Reactions
Halogen Reactions
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
5 Introduction to Solutions and Aqueous Reactions
5.1 Molecular Gastronomy and the Spherified Cherry
5.2 Solution Concentration
Solution Concentration
Using Molarity in Calculations
Solution Dilution
5.3 Solution Stoichiometry
5.4 Types of Aqueous Solutions and Solubility
Electrolyte and Nonelectrolyte Solutions
The Solubility of Ionic Compounds
5.5 Precipitation Reactions
5.6 Representing Aqueous Reactions: Molecular, Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations
5.7 Acid–Base Reactions
Acid–Base Reactions
Acid–Base Titrations
5.8 Gas-Evolution Reactions
5.9 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions
Oxidation States
Identifying Redox Reactions
The Activity Series: Predicting Whether a Redox Reaction Is Spontaneous
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: Bleached Blonde
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
6 Gases
6.1 Supersonic Skydiving and the Risk of Decompression
6.2 Pressure: The Result of Molecular Collisions
Pressure Units
The Manometer: A Way to Measure Pressure in the Laboratory
CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE: Blood Pressure
6.3 The Simple Gas Laws: Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law, and Avogadro’s Law
Boyle’s Law: Volume and Pressure
Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: Extra-Long Snorkels
Avogadro’s Law: Volume and Amount (in Moles)
6.4 The Ideal Gas Law
6.5 Applications of the Ideal Gas Law: Molar Volume, Density, and Molar Mass of a Gas
Molar Volume at Standard Temperature and Pressure
Density of a Gas
Molar Mass of a Gas
6.6 Mixtures of Gases and Partial Pressures
Deep-Sea Diving and Partial Pressures
Collecting Gases over Water
6.7 Gases in Chemical Reactions: Stoichiometry Revisited
Molar Volume and Stoichiometry
ANALYZING AND INTERPRETING DATA: Good News about Our Nation’s Air Quality
6.8 Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model for Gases
How Kinetic Molecular Theory Explains Pressure and the Simple Gas Laws
Kinetic Molecular Theory and the Ideal Gas Law
Temperature and Molecular Velocities
6.9 Mean Free Path, Diffusion, and Effusion of Gases
6.10 Real Gases: The Effects of Size and Intermolecular Forces
The Effect of the Finite Volume of Gas Particles
The Effect of Intermolecular Forces
Van der Waals Equation
Real Gases
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
7 Thermochemistry
7.1 Chemical Hand Warmers
7.2 The Nature of Energy: Key Definitions
Types of Energy
Energy Conservation and Energy Transfer
Units of Energy
7.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics: There Is No Free Lunch
Internal Energy
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: Redheffer’s Perpetual Motion Machine
Heat and Work
7.4 Quantifying Heat and Work
Heat
Temperature Changes and Heat Capacity
Thermal Energy Transfer
Work: Pressure–Volume Work
7.5 Measuring ΔE for Chemical Reactions: Constant-Volume Calorimetry
7.6 Enthalpy: The Heat Evolved in a Chemical Reaction at Constant Pressure
Exothermic and Endothermic Processes: A Molecular View
Stoichiometry Involving ΔH: Thermochemical Equations
7.7 Constant-Pressure Calorimetry: Measuring ΔH[sub(rxn)]
7.8 Relationships Involving ΔH[sub(rxn)]
7.9 Determining Enthalpies of Reaction from Standard Enthalpies of Formation
Standard States and Standard Enthalpy Changes
Calculating the Standard Enthalpy Change for a Reaction
7.10 Energy Use and the Environment
Energy Consumption
Environmental Problems Associated with Fossil Fuel Use
Air Pollution
Global Climate Change
CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT: Renewable Energy
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
8 The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom
8.1 Schrödinger’s Cat
8.2 The Nature of Light
The Wave Nature of Light
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE Radiation: Treatment for Cancer
Interference and Diffraction
The Particle Nature of Light
8.3 Atomic Spectroscopy and the Bohr Model
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: Atomic Spectroscopy, a Bar Code for Atoms
8.4 The Wave Nature of Matter: The de Broglie Wavelength, the Uncertainty Principle, and Indeterminacy
The de Broglie Wavelength
The Uncertainty Principle
Indeterminacy and Probability Distribution Maps
8.5 Quantum Mechanics and the Atom
Solutions to the Schrödinger Equation for the Hydrogen Atom
Atomic Spectroscopy Explained
8.6 The Shapes of Atomic Orbitals
s Orbitals (l = 0)
p Orbitals (I = 1)
d Orbitals (I = 2)
f Orbitals (I = 3)
The Phase of Orbitals
The Shape of Atoms
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
9 Periodic Properties of the Elements
9.1 Nerve Signal Transmission
9.2 The Development of the Periodic Table
9.3 Electron Configurations: How Electrons Occupy Orbitals
Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle
Sublevel Energy Splitting in Multielectron Atoms
Coulomb’s Law
Shielding
Penetration
Electron Spatial Distributions and Sublevel Splitting
Electron Configurations for Multielectron Atoms
9.4 Electron Configurations, Valence Electrons, and the Periodic Table
Orbital Blocks in the Periodic Table
Writing an Electron Configuration for an Element from Its Position in the Periodic Table
The Transition and Inner Transition Elements
9.5 The Explanatory Power of the Quantum-Mechanical Model
9.6 Periodic Trends in the Size of Atoms and Effective Nuclear Charge
Effective Nuclear Charge
Atomic Radii and the Transition Elements
9.7 Ions: Electron Configurations, Magnetic Properties, Ionic Radii, and Ionization Energy
Electron Configurations and Magnetic Properties of Ions
Ionic Radii
Ionization Energy
Trends in First Ionization Energy
Exceptions to Trends in First Ionization Energy
Trends in Second and Successive Ionization Energies
9.8 Electron Affinities and Metallic Character
Electron Affinity
Metallic Character
9.9 Periodic Trends Summary
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
10 Chemical Bonding I: The Lewis Model
10.1 Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs
10.2 Types of Chemical Bonds
10.3 Representing Valence Electrons with Dots
10.4 Ionic Bonding: Lewis Symbols and Lattice Energies
Ionic Bonding and Electron Transfer
Lattice Energy: The Rest of the Story
The Born–Haber Cycle
Trends in Lattice Energies: Ion Size
Trends in Lattice Energies: Ion Charge
Ionic Bonding: Models and Reality
CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE: Ionic Compounds in Medicine
10.5 Covalent Bonding: Lewis Structures
Single Covalent Bonds
Double and Triple Covalent Bonds
Covalent Bonding: Models and Reality
10.6 Electronegativity and Bond Polarity
Electronegativity
Bond Polarity, Dipole Moment, and Percent Ionic Character
10.7 Lewis Structures of Molecular Compounds and Polyatomic Ions
Writing Lewis Structures for Molecular Compounds
Writing Lewis Structures for Polyatomic Ions
10.8 Resonance and Formal Charge
Resonance
Formal Charge
10.9 Exceptions to the Octet Rule: Odd-Electron Species, Incomplete Octets, and Expanded Octets
Odd-Electron Species
Incomplete Octets
CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT: Free Radicals and the Atmospheric Vacuum Cleaner
Expanded Octets
10.10 Bond Energies and Bond Lengths
Bond Energy
Using Average Bond Energies to Estimate Enthalpy Changes for Reactions
Bond Lengths
10.11 Bonding in Metals: The Electron Sea Model
CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT: The Lewis Structure of Ozone
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
11 Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes, Valence Bond Theory, and Molecular Orbital Theory
11.1 Morphine: A Molecular Imposter
11.2 VSEPR Theory: The Five Basic Shapes
Two Electron Groups: Linear Geometry
Three Electron Groups: Trigonal Planar Geometry
Four Electron Groups: Tetrahedral Geometry
Five Electron Groups: Trigonal Bipyramidal Geometry
Six Electron Groups: Octahedral Geometry
11.3 VSEPR Theory: The Effect of Lone Pairs
Four Electron Groups with Lone Pairs
Five Electron Groups with Lone Pairs
Six Electron Groups with Lone Pairs
11.4 VSEPR Theory: Predicting Molecular Geometries
Representing Molecular Geometries on Paper
Predicting the Shapes of Larger Molecules
11.5 Molecular Shape and Polarity
Vector Addition
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: How Soap Works
11.6 Valence Bond Theory: Orbital Overlap as a Chemical Bond
11.7 Valence Bond Theory: Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
sp[sup(3)] Hybridization
sp[sup(3)] Hybridization and Double Bonds
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: The Chemistry of Vision
sp Hybridization and Triple Bonds
sp[sup(3)] d and sp[sup(3)]d[sup(2)] Hybridization
Writing Hybridization and Bonding Schemes
11.8 Molecular Orbital Theory: Electron Delocalization
Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAOs)
Period Two Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules
Second-Period Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules
Polyatomic Molecules
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
12 Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces
12.1 Water, No Gravity
12.2 Solids, Liquids, and Gases: A Molecular Comparison
Differences between States of Matter
Changes between States
12.3 Intermolecular Forces: The Forces That Hold Condensed States Together
Dispersion Force
Dipole–Dipole Force
Hydrogen Bonding
Ion–Dipole Force
CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE: Hydrogen Bonding in DNA
12.4 Intermolecular Forces in Action: Surface Tension, Viscosity, and Capillary Action
Surface Tension
Viscosity
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: Viscosity and Motor Oil
Capillary Action
12.5 Vaporization and Vapor Pressure
The Process of Vaporization
The Energetics of Vaporization
Vapor Pressure and Dynamic Equilibrium
Temperature Dependence of Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point
The Clausius–Clapeyron Equation
The Critical Point: The Transition to an Unusual State of Matter
12.6 Sublimation and Fusion
Sublimation
Fusion
Energetics of Melting and Freezing
12.7 Heating Curve for Water
12.8 Phase Diagrams
The Major Features of a Phase Diagram
Navigation within a Phase Diagram
The Phase Diagrams of Other Substances
12.9 Water: An Extraordinary Substance
CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT: Water Pollution
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
13 Solids and Modern Materials
13.1 Friday Night Experiments: The Discovery of Graphene
13.2 X-Ray Crystallography
13.3 Unit Cells and Basic Structures
Cubic Unit Cells
Closest-Packed Structures
13.4 The Fundamental Types of Crystalline Solids
Molecular Solids
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: Chocolate, An Edible Material
Ionic Solids
Atomic Solids
13.5 The Structures of Ionic Solids
13.6 Network Covalent Atomic Solids: Carbon and Silicates
Carbon
Silicates
13.7 Ceramics, Cement, and Glass
Ceramics
Cement
Glass
13.8 Semiconductors and Band Theory
Molecular Orbitals and Energy Bands
Doping: Controlling the Conductivity of Semiconductors
13.9 Polymers and Plastics
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: Kevlar
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
14 Solutions
14.1 Thirsty Solutions: Why You Shouldn’t Drink Seawater
14.2 Types of Solutions and Solubility
Nature’s Tendency toward Mixing: Entropy
The Effect of Intermolecular Forces
14.3 Energetics of Solution Formation
Energy Changes in Solution Formation
Aqueous Solutions and Heats of Hydration
14.4 Solution Equilibrium and Factors Affecting Solubility
The Temperature Dependence of the Solubility of Solids
Factors Affecting the Solubility of Gases in Water
14.5 Expressing Solution Concentration
CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT: Lake Nyos
Molarity
Molality
Parts by Mass and Parts by Volume
Using Parts by Mass (or Parts by Volume) in Calculations
Mole Fraction and Mole Percent
CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT: The Dirty Dozen
14.6 Colligative Properties: Vapor Pressure Lowering, Freezing Point Depression, Boiling Point Elevation, and Osmotic Pressure
Vapor Pressure Lowering
Vapor Pressures of Solutions Containing a Volatile (Nonelectrolyte) Solute
Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: Antifreeze in Frogs
Osmotic Pressure
14.7 Colligative Properties of Strong Electrolyte Solutions
Strong Electrolytes and Vapor Pressure
Colligative Properties and Medical Solutions
14.8 Colloids
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
15 Chemical Kinetics
15.1 Catching Lizards
15.2 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction
Definition of Reaction Rate
Measuring Reaction Rates
15.3 The Rate Law: The Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate
The Three Common Reaction Orders (n = 0, 1, and 2)
Determining the Order of a Reaction
Reaction Order for Multiple Reactants
15.4 The Integrated Rate Law: The Dependence of Concentration on Time
The Integrated Rate Law
The Half-Life of a Reaction
15.5 The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate
The Arrhenius Equation
The Activation Energy, Frequency Factor, and Exponential Factor
Arrhenius Plots: Experimental Measurements of the Frequency Factor and the Activation Energy
The Collision Model: A Closer Look at the Frequency Factor
15.6 Reaction Mechanisms
Rate Laws for Elementary Steps
Rate-Determining Steps and Overall Reaction Rate Laws
Mechanisms with a Fast Initial Step
15.7 Catalysis
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis
Enzymes: Biological Catalysts
CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE: Enzyme Catalysis and the Role of Chymotrypsin in Digestion
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
16 Chemical Equilibrium
16.1 Fetal Hemoglobin and Equilibrium
16.2 The Concept of Dynamic Equilibrium
16.3 The Equilibrium Constant (K)
Expressing Equilibrium Constants for Chemical Reactions
The Significance of the Equilibrium Constant
CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE: Life and Equilibrium
Relationships between the Equilibrium Constant and the Chemical Equation
16.4 Expressing the Equilibrium Constant in Terms of Pressure
Relationship Between Kp and Kc
Units of K
16.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria: Reactions Involving Solids and Liquids
16.6 Calculating the Equilibrium Constant from Measured Equilibrium Concentrations
16.7 The Reaction Quotient: Predicting the Direction of Change
16.8 Finding Equilibrium Concentrations
Finding Equilibrium Concentrations from the Equilibrium Constant and All but One of the Equilibrium Concentrations of the Reactants and Products
Finding Equilibrium Concentrations from the Equilibrium Constant and Initial Concentrations or Pressures
Simplifying Approximations in Working Equilibrium Problems
16.9 Le Châtelier’s Principle: How a System at Equilibrium Responds to Disturbances
The Effect of a Concentration Change on Equilibrium
The Effect of a Volume (or Pressure) Change on Equilibrium
The Effect of a Temperature Change on Equilibrium
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
17 Acids and Bases
17.1 Heartburn
17.2 The Nature of Acids and Bases
17.3 Definitions of Acids and Bases
The Arrhenius Definition
The Brønsted–Lowry Definition
17.4 Acid Strength and the Acid Ionization Constant (K[sub(a)])
Strong Acids
Weak Acids
The Acid Ionization Constant (Ka[sub(a)])
17.5 Autoionization of Water and pH
The pH Scale: A Way to Quantify Acidity and Basicity
pOH and Other p Scales
CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE Ulcers
17.6 Finding the [H[sub(3)])O[sup(+)])] and pH of Strong and Weak Acid Solutions
Strong Acids
Weak Acids
Percent Ionization of a Weak Acid
Mixtures of Acids
17.7 Base Solutions
Strong Bases
Weak Bases
Finding the [OH-] and pH of Basic Solutions
CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE: What’s in My Antacid?
17.8 The Acid–Base Properties of Ions and Salts
Anions as Weak Bases
Cations as Weak Acids
Classifying Salt Solutions as Acidic, Basic, or Neutral
17.9 Polyprotic Acids
Finding the pH of Polyprotic Acid Solutions
Finding the Concentration of the Anions for a Weak Diprotic Acid Solution
17.10 Acid Strength and Molecular Structure
Binary Acids
Oxyacids
17.11 Lewis Acids and Bases
Molecules That Act as Lewis Acids
Cations That Act as Lewis Acids
17.12 Acid Rain
Effects of Acid Rain
Acid Rain Legislation
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
18 Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium
18.1 The Danger of Antifreeze
18.2 Buffers: Solutions That Resist pH Change
Calculating the pH of a Buffer Solution
The Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation
Calculating pH Changes in a Buffer Solution
The Stoichiometry Calculation
The Equilibrium Calculation
Buffers Containing a Base and Its Conjugate Acid
18.3 Buffer Effectiveness: Buffer Range and Buffer Capacity
Relative Amounts of Acid and Base
Absolute Concentrations of the Acid and Conjugate Base
Buffer Range
CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE: Buffer Effectiveness in Human Blood
Buffer Capacity
18.4 Titrations and pH Curves
The Titration of a Strong Acid with a Strong Base
The Titration of a Weak Acid with a Strong Base
The Titration of a Weak Base with a Strong Acid
The Titration of a Polyprotic Acid
Indicators: pH-Dependent Colors
18.5 Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product Constant
Ksp and Molar Solubility
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY Hard Water
Ksp and Relative Solubility
The Effect of a Common Ion on Solubility
The Effect of pH on Solubility
18.6 Precipitation
Selective Precipitation
18.7 Qualitative Chemical Analysis
Group 1: Insoluble Chlorides
Group 2: Acid- Insoluble Sulfides
Group 3: Base-Insoluble Sulfides and Hydroxides
Group 4: Insoluble Phosphates
Group 5: Alkali Metals and NH4+
18.8 Complex Ion Equilibria
The Effect of Complex Ion Equilibria on Solubility
The Solubility of Amphoteric Metal Hydroxides
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
19 Free Energy and Thermodynamics
19.1 Cold Coffee and Dead Universes
19.2 Spontaneous and Nonspontaneous Processes
19.3 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Entropy
The Entropy Change upon the Expansion of an Ideal Gas
19.4 Entropy Changes Associated with State Changes
Entropy and State Change: The Concept
Entropy and State Changes: The Calculation
19.5 Heat Transfer and Changes in the Entropy of the Surroundings
The Temperature Dependence of ΔS[sub(surr)]
Quantifying Entropy Changes in the Surroundings
19.6 Gibbs Free Energy
The Effect of ΔH, ΔS, and T on Spontaneity
19.7 Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions: Calculating ΔS°rxn
Defining Standard States and Standard Entropy Changes
Standard Molar Entropies (S°) and the Third Law of Thermodynamics
Calculating the Standard Entropy Change (ΔS°rxn ) for a Reaction
19.8 Free Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions: Calculating ΔG°rxn
Calculating Standard Free Energy Changes with ΔG° rxn = Δ H°rxn – TΔS°rxn
Calculating ΔG° rxn with Tabulated Values of Free Energies of Formation
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: Making a Nonspontaneous Process Spontaneous
Calculating ΔG°[sub(rxn)] for a Stepwise Reaction from the Changes in Free Energy for Each of the Steps
Why Free Energy Is “Free”
19.9 Free Energy Changes for Nonstandard States: The Relationship between Δ G°rxn and Δ Grxn
Standard versus Nonstandard States
The Free Energy Change of a Reaction under Nonstandard Conditions
Standard Conditions
Equilibrium Conditions
Other Nonstandard Conditions
19.10 Free Energy and Equilibrium: Relating ? G°rxn to the Equilibrium Constant (K)
The Relationship between Δ G°rxn and K
The Temperature Dependence of the Equilibrium Constant
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
20 Electrochemistry
20.1 Lightning and Batteries
20.2 Balancing Oxidation–Reduction Equations
20.3 Voltaic (or Galvanic) Cells: Generating Electricity from Spontaneous Chemical Reactions
The Voltaic Cell
Current and Potential Difference
Anode, Cathode, and Salt Bridge
Electrochemical Cell Notation
20.4 Standard Electrode Potentials
Predicting the Spontaneous Direction of an Oxidation–Reduction Reaction
Predicting Whether a Metal Will Dissolve in Acid
20.5 Cell Potential, Free Energy, and the Equilibrium Constant
The Relationship between ΔG° and E°cell
The Relationship between E°cell and K
20.6 Cell Potential and Concentration
Cell Potential under Nonstandard Conditions: The Nernst Equation
Concentration Cells
CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE: Concentration Cells in Human Nerve Cells
20.7 Batteries: Using Chemistry to Generate Electricity
Dry-Cell Batteries
Lead–Acid Storage Batteries
Other Rechargeable Batteries
Fuel Cells
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: The Fuel-Cell Breathalyzer
20.8 Electrolysis: Driving Nonspontaneous Chemical Reactions with Electricity
Predicting the Products of Electrolysis
Stoichiometry of Electrolysis
20.9 Corrosion: Undesirable Redox Reactions
Corrosion of Iron
Preventing the Corrosion of Iron
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
21 Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry
21.1 Diagnosing Appendicitis
21.2 The Discovery of Radioactivity
21.3 Types of Radioactivity
Alpha (α) Decay
Beta (β) Decay
Gamma (γ) Ray Emission
Positron Emission
Electron Capture
21.4 The Valley of Stability: Predicting the Type of Radioactivity
Magic Numbers
Radioactive Decay Series
21.5 Detecting Radioactivity
21.6 The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay and Radiometric Dating
The Integrated Rate Law
Radiocarbon Dating: Using Radioactivity to Measure the Age of Fossils and Artifacts
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: Radiocarbon Dating and the Shroud of Turin
Uranium/Lead Dating
The Age of Earth
21.7 The Discovery of Fission: The Atomic Bomb and Nuclear Power
The Manhattan Project
Nuclear Power: Using Fission to Generate Electricity
Problems with Nuclear Power
21.8 Converting Mass to Energy: Mass Defect and Nuclear Binding Energy
Mass Defect and Nuclear Binding Energy
The Nuclear Binding Energy Curve
21.9 Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun
21.10 Nuclear Transmutation and Transuranium Elements
21.11 The Effects of Radiation on Life
Acute Radiation Damage
Increased Cancer Risk
Genetic Defects
Measuring Radiation Exposure and Dose
21.12 Radioactivity in Medicine and Other Applications
Diagnosis in Medicine
Radiotherapy in Medicine
Other Applications
Self-Assessment Quiz
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
22 Organic Chemistry
22.1 Fragrances and Odors
22.2 Carbon: Why It Is Unique
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR DAY: Vitalism and the Perceived Differences between Organic and Inorganic Compounds
22.3 Hydrocarbons: Compounds Containing Only Carbon and Hydrogen
Drawing Hydrocarbon Structures
Stereoisomerism and Optical Isomerism
Rotation of Polarized Light
Chemical Behavior in a Chiral Environment
22.4 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons
Naming Alkanes
22.5 Alkenes and Alkynes
Naming Alkenes and Alkynes
Geometric (Cis–Trans) Isomerism in Alkenes
22.6 Hydrocarbon Reactions
Reactions of Alkanes
Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes
22.7 Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Naming Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Reactions of Aromatic Compounds
22.8 Functional Groups
22.9 Alcohols
Naming Alcohols
About Alcohols
Alcohol Reactions
22.10 Aldehydes and Ketones
Naming Aldehydes and Ketones
About Aldehydes and Ketones
Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions
22.11 Carboxylic Acids and Esters
Naming Carboxylic Acids and Esters
About Carboxylic Acids and Esters
Carboxylic Acid and Ester Reactions
22.12 Ethers
Naming Ethers
About Ethers
22.13 Amines
Amine Reactions
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
23 Biochemistry
23.1 Diabetes and the Synthesis of Human Insulin
23.2 Lipids
Fatty Acids
Fats and Oils
Other Lipids
23.3 Carbohydrates
Simple Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Disaccharides
Complex Carbohydrates
23.4 Proteins and Amino Acids
Amino Acids: The Building Blocks of Proteins
Peptide Bonding between Amino Acids
23.5 Protein Structure
Primary Structure
Secondary Structure
Tertiary Structure
Quaternary Structure
23.6 Nucleic Acids: Blueprints for Proteins
The Basic Structure of Nucleic Acids
The Genetic Code
23.7 DNA Replication, the Double Helix, and Protein Synthesis
DNA Replication and the Double Helix
Protein Synthesis
CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE: The Human Genome Project
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
24 Chemistry of the Nonmetals
24.1 Insulated Nanowires
24.2 The Main-Group Elements: Bonding and Properties
24.3 Silicates: The Most Abundant Matter in Earth’s Crust
Quartz
Aluminosilicates
Individual Silicate Units, Silicate Chains, and Silicate Sheets
24.4 Boron and Its Remarkable Structures
Elemental Boron
Boron–Halogen Compounds: Trihalides
Boron–Oxygen Compounds
Boron–Hydrogen Compounds: Boranes
24.5 Carbon, Carbides, and Carbonates
Amorphous Carbon
Carbides
Carbon Oxides
Carbonates
24.6 Nitrogen and Phosphorus: Essential Elements for Life
Elemental Nitrogen and Phosphorus
Nitrogen Compounds
Phosphorus Compounds
24.7 Oxygen
Elemental Oxygen
Uses for Oxygen
Oxides
Ozone
24.8 Sulfur: A Dangerous but Useful Element
Elemental Sulfur
Hydrogen Sulfide and Metal Sulfides
Sulfur Dioxide
Sulfuric Acid
24.9 Halogens: Reactive Elements with High Electronegativity
Elemental Fluorine and Hydrofluoric Acid
Elemental Chlorine
Halogen Compounds
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
25 Metals and Metallurgy
25.1 Vanadium: A Problem and an Opportunity
25.2 The General Properties and Natural Distribution of Metals
25.3 Metallurgical Processes
Separation
Pyrometallurgy
Hydrometallurgy
Electrometallurgy
Powder Metallurgy
25.4 Metal Structures and Alloys
Alloys
Substitutional Alloys
Alloys with Limited Solubility
Interstitial Alloys
25.5 Sources, Properties, and Products of Some of the 3d Transition Metals
Titanium
Chromium
Manganese
Cobalt
Copper
Nickel
Zinc
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
26 Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
26.1 The Colors of Rubies and Emeralds
26.2 Properties of Transition Metals
Electron Configurations
Atomic Size
Ionization Energy
Electronegativity
Oxidation States
26.3 Coordination Compounds
Naming Coordination Compounds
26.4 Structure and Isomerization
Structural Isomerism
Stereoisomerism
26.5 Bonding in Coordination Compounds
Valence Bond Theory
Crystal Field Theory
26.6 Applications of Coordination Compounds
Chelating Agents
Chemical Analysis
Coloring Agents
Biomolecules
Hemoglobin and Cytochrome C
CHAPTER IN REVIEW: Self-Assessment Quiz
Terms
Concepts
Equations and Relationships
Learning Outcomes
EXERCISES: Review Questions
Problems by Topic
Cumulative Problems
Challenge Problems
Conceptual Problems
Questions for Group Work
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Answers to Conceptual Connections
Appendix I: Common Mathematical Operations in Chemistry
Appendix II: Useful Data
Appendix III: Answers to Selected Exercises
Appendix IV: Answers to In-Chapter Practice Problems
Glossary
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Photo and Text Credits
Index
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

Recent Posts

5 tips for a good business blog

Are you also looking for a good structure for your business blogs? That you finally have a serious and good structure for all your texts that are online? On your website but also on social media. In this review you will find 5 tips from Susanna Florie from her book: How do you…

Study tips from a budding engineer

“Why engineering?” is a question I get often. The answer for me is simple: I like to solve problems. Engineering is a popular field for many reasons. Perhaps this is because almost everything around us is created by engineers in one way or another, and there are always new, emerging and exciting technologies impacting…

How do I study mathematics and pass my exam?

Not sure how best to study math ? Are you perhaps someone who starts studying the day before the exam? Then you know yourself that your situation is not the most ideal. Unfortunately, there is no magic bullet to make you a maths crack or pass your exam in no time . It is important to know that mathematics always builds on…