Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology (12th Edition)

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Download Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology (12th Edition) written by Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens, Dennis G. Tasa in PDF format. This book is under the category Geology and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 134074254/9780134074252. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

SKU: 04525b2d9943 Category: Tag:

Specifications

book-author

Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens, Dennis G. Tasa

publisher

Pearson; 12th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

816 pages

language

English

asin

B01M6635OB

isbn10

134074254

isbn13

9780134074252


Book Description

With its strong readability and engaging; awesome instructive illustrations; this trusted bestseller returns with a hybrid and streamlined focus on core principles. The eBook; Tarbuck and Lutgens’s Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology 12e (PDF) maintains a learning objective-driven approach throughout every chapter: The PDF etextbook provides readers with a structured learning path; tied to learning objectives with opportunities for readers to demonstrate their understanding at the end of each section. The authors’ emphasis on relevance and being current includes the latest thinking in the field; particularly in the dynamic area of plate tectonics.

Learning Objective-driven text book; using augmented reality to bring geology to life

The latest 12th Edition; Pearson Science’s first augmented reality; hybrid text book; uses the BouncePages image recognition app (FREE on both Android and iOS stores) to connect readers’ digital gadgets to the printed hardcopy textbook; enhancing their learning and reading experience. Tarbuck and Lutgens’s innovative SmartFigures feature has been expanded; adding new digital content via Mobile Field Trips; Project Condor; by Michael Collier; Animated Figures; and additional tutorial videos from Callan Bentley.

Also available with Mastering Geology (sold separately)

Mastering™ Geology is an online tutorial; homework; and assessment program designed to work with this textbook to engage college students and improve results. Interactive; self-paced tutorials provide individualized coaching to help students stay on track. With a wide range of activities available; geology students can actively understand; learn; and retain even the most difficult of concepts. 

Note: You are purchasing a standalone PDF product; Mastering Geology does not come packaged with this content.

 

 

 

Additional information

book-author

Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens, Dennis G. Tasa

publisher

Pearson; 12th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

816 pages

language

English

asin

B01M6635OB

isbn10

134074254

isbn13

9780134074252

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Cover……Page 1
Dedication……Page 6
Brief Contents……Page 7
Table of Contents……Page 8
Smart Figures……Page 17
Preface……Page 20
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Geology……Page 31
Physical and Historical Geology……Page 33
Geology, People, and the Environment……Page 34
Geo Graphics 1.1: World Population Passes 7 Billion……Page 35
The Birth of Modern Geology……Page 37
Geology Today……Page 38
The Magnitude of Geologic Time……Page 39
1.3: The Nature of Scientific Inquiry……Page 40
Scientific Methods……Page 41
1.4: Earth as a System……Page 42
Earth’s Spheres……Page 43
The Earth System……Page 46
Origin of Our Solar System……Page 48
Geo Graphics 1.2: Solar System: Size and Scale……Page 50
Formation of Earth’s Layered Structure……Page 51
1.6: Earth’s Internal Structure……Page 52
Earth’s Core……Page 53
The Basic Cycle……Page 54
Alternative Paths……Page 55
Major Features of the Ocean Floor……Page 57
Major Features of the Continents……Page 58
Concepts in Review……Page 62
Chapter 2: Plate Tectonics: A Scientific Revolution Unfolds……Page 65
2.1: From Continental Drift to Plate Tectonics……Page 67
Evidence: The Continental Jigsaw Puzzle……Page 68
Evidence: Fossils Matching Across the Seas……Page 69
Evidence: Rock Types and Geologic Features……Page 70
Evidence: Ancient Climates……Page 71
Rejection of the Drift Hypothesis……Page 72
Earth’s Major Plates……Page 73
Plate Movement……Page 74
Oceanic Ridges and Seafloor Spreading……Page 75
Continental Rifting……Page 77
Oceanic-Continental Convergence……Page 79
Oceanic-Oceanic Convergence……Page 80
Continental-Continental Convergence……Page 81
2.7: Transform Plate Boundaries……Page 82
The Breakup of Pangaea……Page 85
Plate Tectonics in the Future……Page 86
Evidence: Ocean Drilling……Page 87
Evidence: Mantle Plumes and Hot Spots……Page 88
Evidence: Paleomagnetism……Page 89
Measuring Plate Motion from Space……Page 92
Models of Plate-Mantle Convection……Page 94
Concepts in Review……Page 96
Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals……Page 101
Defining a Mineral……Page 103
What Is a Rock?……Page 104
Properties of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons……Page 105
Elements: Defined by Their Number of Protons……Page 106
The Octet Rule and Chemical Bonds……Page 107
Covalent Bonds: Electron Sharing……Page 108
Hybrid Bonds……Page 109
Crystallization of Molten Rock……Page 110
Deposition as a Result of Biological Processes……Page 111
Optical Properties……Page 113
Mineral Strength……Page 114
Density and Specific Gravity……Page 116
Mineral Structures……Page 117
Structural Variations in Minerals……Page 119
Silicate Versus Nonsilicate Minerals……Page 120
Silicate Structures……Page 121
Joining Silicate Structures……Page 122
The Light Silicates……Page 123
The Dark Silicates……Page 126
3.10: Important Nonsilicate Minerals……Page 127
Geo Graphics 3.2: Gemstones……Page 130
Concepts in Review……Page 131
Chapter 4: Magma, Igneous Rocks, and Intrusive Activity……Page 135
The Nature of Magma……Page 137
Igneous Processes……Page 138
4.2: Igneous Compositions……Page 139
Other Compositional Groups……Page 140
4.3: Igneous Textures: What Can They Tell Us?……Page 141
Types of Igneous Textures……Page 142
Granitic (Felsic) Igneous Rocks……Page 145
Pyroclastic Rocks……Page 148
Geo Graphics 4.1: Granite: An Intrusive Igneous Rock……Page 149
Generating Magma from Solid Rock……Page 152
Bowen’s Reaction Series and the Composition of Igneous Rocks……Page 154
Magmatic Differentiation and Crystal Settling……Page 155
Assimilation and Magma Mixing……Page 156
Formation of Andesitic and Granitic Magmas……Page 157
Nature of Intrusive Bodies……Page 158
Tabular Intrusive Bodies: Dikes and Sills……Page 160
Massive Intrusive Bodies: Batholiths, Stocks, and Laccoliths……Page 161
Concepts in Review……Page 164
Chapter 5: Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards……Page 169
Factors Affecting Viscosity……Page 171
Quiescent Versus Explosive Eruptions……Page 172
Lava Flows……Page 174
Geo Graphics 5.1: Eruption of Mount St. Helens……Page 175
Gases……Page 177
Pyroclastic Materials……Page 178
5.3: Anatomy of a Volcano……Page 179
Shield Volcanoes of Hawaii……Page 180
5.5: Cinder Cones……Page 182
Geo Graphics 5.2: Kilauea’s East Rift Zone Eruption……Page 183
Parícutin: Life of a Garden-Variety Cinder Cone……Page 185
5.6: Composite Volcanoes……Page 186
Pyroclastic Flow: A Deadly Force of Nature……Page 188
Lahars: Mudflows on Active and Inactive Cones……Page 189
Other Volcanic Hazards……Page 190
Calderas……Page 191
Lava Domes……Page 195
Volcanic Necks and Pipes……Page 197
Volcanism at Convergent Plate Boundaries……Page 198
Intraplate Volcanism……Page 201
5.10: Monitoring Volcanic Activity……Page 203
Concepts in Review……Page 205
Chapter 6: Weathering and Soils……Page 209
6.1: Weathering……Page 211
Frost Wedging……Page 212
Sheeting……Page 213
Geo Graphics 6.1: Some Everyday Examples of Weathering……Page 214
Geo Graphics 6.2: The Old Man of the Mountain……Page 215
Biological Activity……Page 216
Dissolution……Page 217
Oxidation……Page 218
Hydrolysis……Page 219
Spheroidal Weathering……Page 220
Rock Characteristics……Page 221
Differential Weathering……Page 222
What Is Soil?……Page 223
Soil Texture and Structure……Page 224
Plants and Animals……Page 225
Topography……Page 226
The Soil Profile……Page 227
Classifying Soils……Page 228
Clearing the Tropical Rain Forest: A Case Study of Human Impact on Soil……Page 230
Soil Erosion: Losing a Vital Resource……Page 231
Geo Graphics 6.3: The 1930s Dust Bowl: An Environmental Disaster……Page 233
Concepts in Review……Page 235
Chapter 7: Sedimentary Rocks……Page 239
Importance……Page 241
Origins……Page 242
7.2: Detrital Sedimentary Rocks……Page 243
Shale……Page 244
Sandstone……Page 245
Conglomerate and Breccia……Page 247
Limestone……Page 248
Geo Graphics 7.1: Limestone: An Important and Versatile Commodity……Page 249
Dolostone……Page 251
Chert……Page 252
Evaporites……Page 253
7.4: Coal: An Organic Sedimentary Rock……Page 254
Lithification……Page 255
7.6: Classification of Sedimentary Rocks……Page 256
Types of Sedimentary Environments……Page 258
Sedimentary Structures……Page 262
7.8: The Carbon Cycle and Sedimentary Rocks……Page 265
Concepts in Review……Page 266
Chapter 8: Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks……Page 269
8.1: What Is Metamorphism?……Page 271
Heat as a Metamorphic Agent……Page 272
Confining Pressure……Page 273
Chemically Active Fluids……Page 274
The Importance of Parent Rock……Page 275
Foliation……Page 276
Foliated Textures……Page 277
Other Metamorphic Textures……Page 278
Foliated Metamorphic Rocks……Page 280
Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rocks……Page 281
8.5: Metamorphic Environments……Page 282
Geo Graphics 8.1: Marble……Page 283
Contact, or Thermal, Metamorphism……Page 285
Hydrothermal Metamorphism……Page 286
Regional Metamorphism……Page 287
Other Metamorphic Environments……Page 288
Geo Graphics 8.2: Impact Metamorphism……Page 289
Index Minerals and Metamorphic Grade……Page 290
Common Metamorphic Facies……Page 292
Metamorphic Facies and Plate Tectonics……Page 293
Mineral Stability and Metamorphic Environments……Page 294
Concepts in Review……Page 296
Chapter 9: Geologic Time……Page 301
Numerical and Relative Dates……Page 303
Principle of Superposition……Page 304
Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships……Page 305
Unconformities……Page 306
Applying Relative Dating Principles……Page 310
Geo Graphics 9.1: Dating the Lunar Surface……Page 311
Types of Fossils……Page 312
Conditions Favoring Preservation……Page 313
Geo Graphics 9.2: How is paleontology different from archaeology?……Page 314
Fossils and Correlation……Page 315
9.4: Numerical Dating with Radioactivity……Page 317
Radiometric Dating……Page 318
Using Radioactive Isotopes……Page 319
Dating with Carbon-14……Page 320
Structure of the Time Scale……Page 321
Precambrian Time……Page 322
Terminology and the Geologic Time Scale……Page 323
9.6: Determining Numerical Dates for Sedimentary Strata……Page 324
Concepts in Review……Page 326
Chapter 10: Crustal Deformation……Page 331
Stress: The Force That Deforms Rocks……Page 333
Strain: A Change in Shape Caused by Stress……Page 334
Types of Deformation……Page 335
Factors That Affect Rock Strength……Page 336
Ductile Versus Brittle Deformation and the Resulting Rock Structures……Page 337
Anticlines and Synclines……Page 338
Domes and Basins……Page 340
Monoclines……Page 341
Dip-Slip Faults……Page 342
Strike-Slip Faults……Page 344
What Do Faults Have in Common?……Page 345
Geo Graphics 10.1: The San Andreas Fault System……Page 347
Joints……Page 349
Strike and Dip……Page 350
Concepts in Review……Page 352
Chapter 11: Earthquakes and Earthquake Hazards……Page 355
11.1: What Is an Earthquake?……Page 358
Aftershocks and Foreshocks……Page 359
Strike-slip Faults and Transform Plate Boundaries……Page 361
Fault Rupture and Propagation……Page 362
Instruments That Record Earthquakes……Page 363
Seismic Waves……Page 364
11.4: Locating the Source of an Earthquake……Page 366
Magnitude Scales……Page 368
Destruction from Seismic Vibrations……Page 371
Landslides and Ground Subsidence……Page 372
Fire……Page 373
What Is a Tsunami?……Page 374
Earthquakes Associated with Plate Boundaries……Page 377
Damaging Earthquakes East of the Rockies……Page 378
Short-Range Predictions……Page 380
Geo Graphics 11.1: Seismic Risks on the San Andreas Fault System……Page 381
Long-Range Forecasts……Page 384
Concepts in Review……Page 386
Chapter 12: Earth’s Interior……Page 391
How Does Gravity Affect Density?……Page 393
Seismic Velocities……Page 395
Interactions Between Seismic Waves and Earth’s Layers……Page 396
Crust……Page 397
Geo Graphics 12.1: Recreating the Deep Earth……Page 398
Mantle……Page 399
Core……Page 401
12.4: Earth’s Temperature……Page 402
Heat Flow……Page 403
Earth’s Temperature Profile……Page 405
Seismic Tomography……Page 407
Earth’s Magnetic Field……Page 409
Concepts in Review……Page 412
Chapter 13: Origin and Evolution of the Ocean Floor……Page 415
Mapping the Seafloor……Page 417
Provinces of the Ocean Floor……Page 421
Passive Continental Margins……Page 422
Active Continental Margins……Page 423
Abyssal Plains……Page 425
Volcanic Structures on the Ocean Floor……Page 426
Geo Graphics 13.1: Explaining Coral Atolls: Darwin’s Hypothesis……Page 427
13.4: Anatomy of the Oceanic Ridge……Page 429
Why Are Oceanic Ridges Elevated?……Page 431
Spreading Rates and Ridge Topography……Page 432
How Does Oceanic Crust Form?……Page 433
Evolution of an Ocean Basin……Page 434
Geo Graphics 13.2: Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents……Page 435
Mechanisms for Continental Rifting……Page 439
Why Oceanic Lithosphere Subducts……Page 441
Subducting Plates: The Demise of Ocean Basins……Page 442
Concepts in Review……Page 444
Chapter 14: Mountain Building……Page 447
14.1: Mountain Building……Page 449
Features of Subduction Zones……Page 450
Extension and Back-Arc Spreading……Page 451
Island Arc-Type Mountain Building……Page 452
Andean-Type Mountain Building……Page 453
Sierra Nevada, Coast Ranges, and Great Valley……Page 454
14.4: Collisional Mountain Belts……Page 455
Cordilleran-Type Mountain Building……Page 456
The Himalayas……Page 457
The Appalachians……Page 459
The Basin and Range Province……Page 462
14.6: What Causes Earth’s Varied Topography?……Page 463
How Is Isostasy Related to Changes in Elevation?……Page 464
Geo Graphics 14.1: The Laramide Rockies……Page 465
Mantle Convection: A Cause of Vertical Crustal Movement……Page 467
Concepts in Review……Page 468
Chapter 15: Mass Wasting: The Work of Gravity……Page 471
The Role of Mass Wasting in Landform Development……Page 473
Slopes Change Through Time……Page 474
Geo Graphics 15.1: Landslides as Natural Disasters……Page 475
The Role of Water……Page 476
Removal of Vegetation……Page 477
Earthquakes as Triggers……Page 478
Landslides Without Triggers?……Page 479
Type of Motion……Page 480
Geo Graphics 15.2: Landslide Risks: United States and Worldwide……Page 481
Rate of Movement……Page 483
Rockslide……Page 484
Debris Flow……Page 486
Earthflow……Page 488
Solifluction……Page 489
The Sensitive Permafrost Landscape……Page 490
Concepts in Review……Page 492
Chapter 16: Running Water……Page 495
16.1: Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cycle……Page 497
16.2: Running Water……Page 498
Drainage Basins……Page 499
River Systems……Page 500
Drainage Patterns……Page 501
16.3: Streamflow Characteristics……Page 502
Factors Affecting Flow Velocity……Page 503
Geo Graphics 16.1: What Are the Largest Rivers?……Page 505
Changes Downstream……Page 506
Transport of Sediment by Streams……Page 507
Deposition of Sediment by Streams……Page 509
Alluvial Channels……Page 510
Base Level and Graded Streams……Page 512
Valley Deepening……Page 513
Valley Widening……Page 514
Incised Meanders and Stream Terraces……Page 515
The Mississippi River Delta……Page 517
Alluvial Fans……Page 520
Types of Floods……Page 521
Geo Graphics 16.2: Flash Floods……Page 522
Flood Recurrence Intervals……Page 523
Flood Control……Page 524
Concepts in Review……Page 526
Chapter 17: Groundwater……Page 529
Geologic Importance of Groundwater……Page 531
Groundwater: A Basic Resource……Page 532
Variations in the Water Table……Page 533
Porosity……Page 536
Permeability, Aquitards, and Aquifers……Page 537
A Simple Groundwater Flow System……Page 538
Different Scales of Movement……Page 539
Wells……Page 540
Artesian Systems……Page 541
Hot Springs……Page 544
Geysers……Page 545
Subsidence……Page 547
Geo Graphics 17.1: Drought Impacts the Hydrologic System……Page 548
Saltwater Intrusion……Page 549
Groundwater Contamination……Page 550
Caverns……Page 552
Karst Topography……Page 554
Concepts in Review……Page 557
Chapter 18: Glaciers and Glaciation……Page 561
Valley (Alpine) Glaciers……Page 563
Ice Sheets……Page 564
Other Types of Glaciers……Page 566
Geo Graphics 18.1: Antarctica Fact File……Page 567
How Glaciers Move……Page 569
Observing and Measuring Movement……Page 571
Budget of a Glacier: Accumulation Versus Wastage……Page 572
How Glaciers Erode……Page 575
Landforms Created by Glacial Erosion……Page 577
Glacial Drift……Page 581
Landforms Made of Till……Page 582
Landforms Made of Stratified Drift……Page 584
Crustal Subsidence and Rebound……Page 586
Changes to Rivers and Valleys……Page 587
Ice Dams Create Proglacial Lakes……Page 588
Pluvial Lakes……Page 589
Historical Development of the Glacial Theory……Page 590
Causes of Ice Ages……Page 591
Concepts in Review……Page 594
Chapter 19: Deserts and Wind……Page 599
What Is Meant by Dry……Page 601
Subtropical Deserts and Steppes……Page 602
Middle-Latitude Deserts and Steppes……Page 603
The Role of Water……Page 605
19.3: Basin and Range: The Evolution of a Desert Landscape……Page 606
Geo Graphics 19.1: Common Misconceptions About Deserts……Page 607
Suspended Load……Page 611
Deflation and Blowouts……Page 612
Ventifacts and Yardangs……Page 613
Sand Deposits……Page 615
Types of Sand Dunes……Page 616
Loess (Silt) Deposits……Page 617
Concepts in Review……Page 619
Chapter 20: Shorelines……Page 623
The Coastal Zone……Page 625
Basic Features of the Coastal Zone……Page 626
Circular Orbital Motion……Page 628
Waves in the Surf Zone……Page 629
Wave Erosion……Page 630
Sand Movement on the Beach……Page 631
20.4: Shoreline Features……Page 633
Erosional Features……Page 634
Depositional Features……Page 635
The Evolving Shore……Page 636
Coastal Classification……Page 637
Pacific Coast……Page 638
Geo Graphics 20.1: A Brief Tour of America’s Coasts……Page 639
Profile of a Hurricane……Page 642
Hurricane Destruction……Page 643
Detecting and Tracking Hurricanes……Page 645
Hard Stabilization……Page 647
Alternatives to Hard Stabilization……Page 649
Causes of Tides……Page 651
Tidal Currents……Page 652
Concepts in Review……Page 654
Chapter 21: Global Climate Change……Page 659
Climate-Geology Connections……Page 661
Climates Change……Page 662
Proxy Data……Page 663
Oxygen Isotope Analysis……Page 664
Tree Rings: Archives of Environmental History……Page 665
Other Types of Proxy Data……Page 666
Composition of the Atmosphere……Page 667
Extent and Structure of the Atmosphere……Page 668
Energy from the Sun……Page 671
Heating the Atmosphere: The Greenhouse Effect……Page 672
Volcanic Activity and Climate Change……Page 674
Solar Variability and Climate……Page 677
Rising CO2 Levels……Page 678
The Atmosphere’s Response……Page 679
The Role of Trace Gases……Page 680
How Aerosols Influence Climate……Page 682
Computer Models of Climate: Important yet Imperfect Tools……Page 684
Sea-Level Rise……Page 686
The Changing Arctic……Page 687
The Potential for “Surprises”……Page 689
Concepts in Review……Page 691
Chapter 22: Earth’s Evolution Through Geologic Time……Page 695
The Right Planet……Page 697
The Right Time……Page 698
From Planetesimals to Protoplanets……Page 700
Earth’s Primitive Atmosphere……Page 702
Oxygen in the Atmosphere……Page 703
Evolution of the Oceans……Page 704
Earth’s First Continents……Page 705
The Making of North America……Page 707
Supercontinents of the Precambrian……Page 708
Paleozoic History……Page 710
Mesozoic History……Page 711
Cenozoic History……Page 712
Origin of Life……Page 713
Earth’s First Life: Prokaryotes……Page 715
Early Paleozoic Life-Forms……Page 716
Vertebrates Move to Land……Page 717
The Great Permian Extinction……Page 718
Reptiles Take Over the Land, Sea, and Sky……Page 720
Demise of the Dinosaurs……Page 721
From Reptiles to Mammals……Page 723
Marsupial and Placental Mammals……Page 724
Humans: Mammals with Large Brains and Bipedal Locomotion……Page 725
Large Mammals and Extinction……Page 726
Concepts in Review……Page 727
Chapter 23: Energy and Mineral Resources……Page 731
23.1: Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources……Page 733
23.2: Energy Resources: Fossil Fuels……Page 734
Coal……Page 735
Geo Graphics 23.1: Coal: A Major Energy Source……Page 736
Oil and Natural Gas……Page 737
Concerns Regarding Nuclear Development……Page 741
Solar Energy……Page 742
Wind Energy……Page 743
Hydroelectric Power……Page 744
Geothermal Energy……Page 745
Biomass: Renewable Energy from Plants and Animals……Page 746
Tidal Power……Page 747
23.5: Mineral Resources……Page 748
Magmatic Differentiation and Ore Deposits……Page 750
Hydrothermal Deposits……Page 751
Metamorphic Processes……Page 752
Weathering and Ore Deposits……Page 753
Placer Deposits……Page 754
23.8: Nonmetallic Mineral Resources……Page 755
Industrial Minerals……Page 756
Concepts in Review……Page 758
Chapter 24: Touring Our Solar System……Page 761
Nebular Theory: Formation of the Solar System……Page 763
The Planets: Internal Structures and Atmospheres……Page 764
Planetary Impacts……Page 767
24.2: Earth’s Moon: A Chip off the Old Block……Page 768
How Did the Moon Form?……Page 769
Mercury: The Innermost Planet……Page 771
Venus: The Veiled Planet……Page 772
Mars: The Red Planet……Page 773
Geo Graphics 24.1: Mars Exploration……Page 777
Jupiter: Lord of the Heavens……Page 779
Saturn: The Elegant Planet……Page 781
Uranus and Neptune: Twins……Page 783
24.5: Small Solar System Bodies……Page 785
Asteroids: Leftover Planetesimals……Page 786
Geo Graphics 24.2: Is Earth on a Collision Course?……Page 787
Comets: Dirty Snowballs……Page 789
Meteoroids: Visitors to Earth……Page 790
Dwarf Planets……Page 792
Concepts in Review……Page 794
Appendix A: Metric and English Units Compared……Page 797
Glossary……Page 798
Index……Page 811

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