Environmental Engineering: Fundamentals; Sustainability; Design (2nd Edition)

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Download Environmental Engineering: Fundamentals; Sustainability; Design (2nd Edition) written by James R. Mihelcic, Julie B. Zimmerman in PDF format. This book is under the category Engineering and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 1118741498/9781118741498. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

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Specifications

book-author

James R. Mihelcic, Julie B. Zimmerman

publisher

Wiley; 2nd edition

file-type

PDF

pages

704 pages

language

English

asin

B00I86TB76

isbn10

1118741498

isbn13

9781118741498


Book Description

Simpy the best eBook in its class; Environmental Engineering: Fundamentals; Sustainability; Design 2nd edition (PDF) by Mihelcic and Zimmerman has evolved from the traditional approach centered on characterizing; describing; quantifying; and monitoring current environmental problems to one that is focused on the design and development of innovative new solutions that work. The breadth and depth of coverage is appropriate for a one- or two-semester undergraduate course; having been streamlined to a manageable 11 chapters in the new 2nd edition.

Additional information

book-author

James R. Mihelcic, Julie B. Zimmerman

publisher

Wiley; 2nd edition

file-type

PDF

pages

704 pages

language

English

asin

B00I86TB76

isbn10

1118741498

isbn13

9781118741498

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Chapter One Sustainable Design, Engineering, and Innovation 1 1.1 Background: Evolution from Environmental Protection to Sustainability 2 1.2 The Path Forward: Operationalizing Sustainability 8 1.2.1 Life Cycle Thinking 11 1.2.2 Systems Thinking 17 1.3 Engineering for Sustainability 21 1.3.1 Frameworks for Sustainable Design 22 1.3.2 The Importance of Design and Innovation in Advancing Sustainability 24 1.4 Measuring Sustainability 27 1.5 Policies Driving Green Engineering and Sustainability 30 1.5.1 Regulations 30 1.5.2 Voluntary Programs 31 1.6 Designing Tomorrow 32 Key Terms 32 Chapter One Problems 33 References 36 Chapter Two Environmental Measurements 37 2.1 Mass Concentration Units 38 2.1.1 Mass/Mass Units 38 2.1.2 Mass/Volume Units: mg/L and g/m3 40 2.2 Volume/Volume and Mole/Mole Units 40 2.2.1 Using the Ideal Gas Law to Convert ppmv to g/m3 42 2.3 Partial-Pressure Units 44 2.4 Mole/Volume Units 46 2.5 Other Types of Units 48 2.5.1 Normality 48 2.5.2 Concentration as a Common Constituent 51 2.5.3 Concentrations of Carbon Dioxide and Other GHGs 52 2.5.4 Reporting Particle Concentrations in Air and Water 58 2.5.5 Representation by Effect 60 Key Terms 61 Chapter Two Problems 62 References 67 Chapter Three Chemistry 68 3.1 Approaches in Environmental Chemistry 69 3.2 Activity and Concentration 69 3.3 Reaction Stoichiometry 72 3.4 Thermodynamic Laws 72 3.5 Volatilization 76 3.6 Air Water Equilibrium 80 3.6.1 Henry s Law Constant with Units for a Gas Dissolving in a Liquid 80 3.6.2 Dimensionless Henry s Law Constant for a Species Transferring from the Liquid Phase into the Gas Phase 81 3.7 Acid Base Chemistry 83 3.7.1 pH 83 3.7.2 Definition of Acids and Bases and their Equilibrium Constants 84 3.7.3 Carbonate System, Alkalinity, and Buffering Capacity 86 3.8 Oxidation Reduction 89 3.9 Precipitation Dissolution 91 3.10 Adsorption, Absorption, and Sorption 94 3.11 Kinetics 101 3.11.1 The Rate Law 101 3.11.2 Zero-Order and First-Order Reactions 103 3.11.3 Pseudo First-Order Reactions 104 3.11.4 Half-Life and Its Relationship to the Rate Constant 106 3.11.5 Effect of Temperature on Rate Constants 108 Key Terms 109 Chapter Three Problems 110 References 114 Chapter Four Physical Processes 115 4.1 Mass Balances 116 4.1.1 Control Volume 117 4.1.2 Terms of the Mass Balance Equation for a CMFR 117 4.1.3 Reactor Analysis: The CMFR 122 4.1.4 Batch Reactor 129 4.1.5 Plug-Flow Reactor 130 4.1.6 Retention Time and Other Expressions for V/Q 135 4.1.7 Materials Flow Analysis and Urban Metabolism 138 4.2 Energy Balances 140 4.2.1 Forms of Energy 140 4.2.2 Conducting an Energy Balance 142 4.2.3 Impact of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Earth s Energy Balance 145 4.2.4 Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Insulation, Infiltration, and Thermal Walls 151 4.2.5 Urban Heat Island 157 4.3 Buildings: Right Sizing and Energy 160 4.4 Mass Transport Processes 164 4.4.1 Advection and Dispersion 164 4.4.2 Movement of a Particle in a Fluid: Stokes Law 173 Key Terms 175 Chapter Four Problems 176 References 181 Chapter Five Biology 182 5.1 Ecosystem Structure and Function 183 5.1.1 Major Organism Groups 185 5.2 Population Dynamics 188 5.2.1 Units of Expression for Population Size 188 5.2.2 Models of Population Growth 188 5.3 Energy Flow in Ecosystems 205 5.3.1 Energy Capture and Use: Photosynthesis and Respiration 205 5.3.2 Trophic Structure in Ecosystems 208 5.3.3 Thermodynamics and Energy Transfer 209 5.4 Oxygen Demand: Biochemical, Chemical, and Theoretical 213 5.4.1 Definition of BOD, CBOD, and NBOD 213 5.4.2 Sources of BOD 214 5.4.3 Theoretical Oxygen Demand 215 5.4.4 BOD Kinetics 216 5.4.5 CBOD Rate Coefficient 219 5.4.6 BOD: Measurement, Application, and Limitations 220 5.4.7 BOD Test: Limitations and Alternatives 223 5.5 Material Flow in Ecosystems 224 5.5.1 Oxygen and Carbon Cycles 225 5.5.2 Nitrogen Cycle 227 5.5.3 Phosphorus Cycle 230 5.5.4 Sulfur Cycle 230 5.6 Ecosystem Health and the Public Welfare 231 5.6.1 Toxic Substances and Ecosystem and Human Health 231 5.6.2 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Health 235 Key Terms 238 Chapter Five Problems 239 References 245 Chapter Six Environmental Risk 246 6.1 Risk and the Engineer 247 6.2 Risk Perception 251 6.3 Hazardous Waste and Toxic Chemicals 254 6.3.1 Hazardous Waste 256 6.3.2 Toxicity 257 6.3.3 Pollution Prevention 263 6.4 Engineering Ethics and Risk 264 6.5 Risk Assessment 267 6.5.1 Hazard Assessment 267 6.5.2 Dose Response Assessment 270 6.5.3 Exposure Assessment 273 6.5.4 Risk Characterization 277 6.6 More Complicated Problems with at Least Two Exposure Routes 283 6.6.1 Setting Water-Quality Standards Based on Exposure from Drinking Water and Eating Fish 283 6.6.2 How to Determine Allowable Soil Cleanup Standards That Protect Groundwater 284 Key Terms 289 Chapter Six Problems 290 References 295 Chapter Seven Water: Quantity and Quality 296 7.1 Introduction to Water Resources and Water Quality 298 7.2 Surface Water, Groundwater, Watersheds 299 7.2.1 Surface Water and Groundwater 299 7.2.2 Watersheds 301 7.2.3 Estimating Surface Runoff from Land Use 303 7.2.4 Estimating Pollutant Loadings in Runoff from Land Use 305 7.3 Water Availability 307 7.4 Water Usage 309 7.4.1 Primary Use of Water in the World 310 7.4.2 U.S. Water Usage 311 7.4.3 Public Water Supplies 312 7.4.4 Water Reclamation and Reuse 314 7.4.5 Water Scarcity and Water Conflict 316 7.5 Municipal Water Demand 317 7.5.1 Creating Models to Estimate Demand 319 7.5.2 Estimating Water (and Wastewater) Flows 320 7.5.3 Time-Varying Flows and Seasonal Cycles 323 7.5.4 Fire Flow Demand and Unaccounted-for Water 326 7.5.5 Demand Forecasting 328 7.6 Water Distribution (and Wastewater Collection) Systems 331 7.6.1 System Layout 331 7.6.2 Design Flow Velocities and Pipe Sizing 333 7.6.3 Pumping Stations and Storage 335 7.7 River Water Quality 337 7.7.1 Dissolved Oxygen and BOD 337 7.7.2 Oxygen Saturation 337 7.7.3 The Oxygen Deficit 341 7.7.4 Oxygen Mass Balance 341 7.7.5 Dissolved-Oxygen Sag Curve and Critical Distance 342 7.8 Lake and Reservoir Water Quality 344 7.8.1 Thermal Stratification of Lakes and Reservoirs 344 7.8.2 Organic Matter, Thermal Stratification, and Oxygen Depletion 346 7.8.3 Nutrient Limitation and Trophic State 346 7.8.4 Engineered Lake Management 349 7.9 Wetlands 349 7.10 Groundwater Quality and Flow 355 7.10.1 Sources of Groundwater Pollution 355 7.10.2 Groundwater Flow and Pollutant Transport 358 7.10.3 Subsurface Remediation 359 Key Terms 364 Chapter Seven Problems 366 References 373 Chapter Eight Water Treatment 375 8.1 Introduction 377 8.2 Characteristics of Untreated Water 378 8.2.1 Physical Characteristics 379 8.2.2 Major and Minor Inorganic Constituents 381 8.2.3 Major Organic Constituents 384 8.2.4 Microbial Constituents 385 8.3 Water Quality Standards 387 8.4 Overview of Water Treatment Processes 389 8.5 Coagulation and Flocculation 392 8.5.1 Particle Stability and Removal 392 8.5.2 Chemical Coagulants 393 8.5.3 Other Considerations 396 8.6 Hardness Removal 400 8.7 Sedimentation 404 8.7.1 Discrete Particle Settling 404 8.7.2 Particle Removal During Sedimentation 406 8.7.3 Other Types of Settling 409 8.8 Filtration 410 8.8.1 Types of Granular Filtration 410 8.8.2 Media Characteristics 412 8.9 Disinfection 414 8.9.1 Current Disinfection Methods 414 8.9.2 Disinfection Kinetics 414 8.10 Membrane Processes 422 8.10.1 Classification of Membrane Processes 423 8.10.2 Membrane Materials 424 8.10.3 Membrane Process Types and Configurations 425 8.10.4 Membrane Selection and Operation 426 8.10.5 Membrane Performance 428 8.11 Adsorption 431 8.11.1 Types of Adsorption Processes 431 8.11.2 Adsorbent Types 431 Key Terms 434 Chapter Eight Problems 435 References 439 Chapter Nine Wastewater and Stormwater: Collection, Treatment, Resource Recovery 440 9.1 Introduction 442 9.2 Characteristics of Domestic Wastewater 444 9.3 Overview of Treatment Processes 445 9.4 Preliminary Treatment 448 9.4.1 Screening 448 9.4.2 Grit Chambers 448 9.4.3 Flotation 450 9.4.4 Equalization 450 9.5 Primary Treatment 454 9.6 Secondary Treatment 456 9.6.1 Suspended-Growth Reactors: Activated Sludge 456 9.7 Modifications to the Activated-Sludge Process 468 9.7.1 Membrane Bioreactors 469 9.8 Attached-Growth Reactors 472 9.9 Removal and Recovery of Nutrients: Nitrogen and Phosphorus 474 9.9.1 Nitrogen 475 9.9.2 Phosphorus 478 9.10 Disinfection and Aeration 480 9.11 End of Life Sludge Management and Energy Recovery 482 9.11.1 Sludge Stabilization 483 9.11.2 Digesters 485 9.11.3 Dewatering 486 9.11.4 Disposal 487 9.12 Natural Treatment Systems 489 9.12.1 Stabilization Ponds 489 9.12.2 Wetlands 494 9.13 Energy Usage during Wastewater Treatment 497 9.14 Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse 498 9.15 Wet-Weather Flow Implications for Wastewater 500 9.16 Managing Wet-Weather Flows 503 9.17 Green Stormwater Management 505 9.17.1 Green Roofs 506 9.17.2 Permeable (or Porous) Pavements 507 9.17.3 Bioretention Cells 509 9.17.4 Bioswales and Other Land Use Techniques 514 Key Terms 515 Chapter Nine Problems 516 References 521 Chapter Ten Solid-Waste Management 523 10.1 Introduction 525 10.2 Solid-Waste Characterization 527 10.2.1 Sources of Solid Waste 527 10.2.2 Quantities of Municipal Solid Waste 528 10.2.3 Materials in Municipal Solid Waste 529 10.2.4 Collection of Solid-Waste Characterization Data 530 10.2.5 Physical/Chemical Characterization of Waste 532 10.2.6 Hazardous-Waste Characterization 536 10.3 Components of Solid-Waste Systems 539 10.3.1 Storage, Collection, and Transport 539 10.3.2 Recycling and Materials Recovery 542 10.3.3 Composting 544 10.3.4 Waste-to-Energy 548 10.3.5 Landfill 551 10.3.6 Solid-Waste Energy Technologies 566 10.4 Management Concepts 566 10.4.1 Consultation 567 10.4.2 Policy Options 568 10.4.3 Cost Estimation 568 Key Terms 570 Chapter Ten Problems 571 References 574 Chapter Eleven Air Quality Engineering 575 11.1 Introduction 577 11.2 Scale and Cycles of Air Pollution 579 11.2.1 Scale of Air Pollution Issues 579 11.2.2 The Air Pollution System 581 11.3 Atmospheric Structure 585 11.3.1 Atmospheric Temperature Structure 586 11.3.2 Atmospheric Pressure and Density Structure 586 11.3.3 Composition of the Atmosphere 587 11.4 Characteristics of Polluted Air 589 11.4.1 Criteria Air Pollutants 589 11.4.2 Human Health Impacts and Defenses to Particulate Matter 593 11.4.3 Major Sources of Air Pollutants 596 11.4.4 Recent Trends in Concentrations of Air Pollutants 598 11.4.5 Air Quality Index 598 11.4.6 Hazardous Air Pollutants 602 11.4.7 Ground-Level and Stratospheric Ozone 603 11.4.8 Odorous Air 607 11.4.9 Indoor Air Pollutants 608 11.5 Ambient Emissions and Emissions Control 610 11.5.1 Types of Emissions and Sources 610 11.5.2 Emissions Trends 611 11.5.3 Emissions Control 612 11.6 Assessment of Emissions 632 11.7 Meteorology and Transport 635 11.7.1 Flow Fundamentals 635 11.7.2 Winds: Direction, Speed, and Turbulence 636 11.7.3 Atmospheric Stability 636 11.7.4 Terrain Effects on Atmospheric Stability 642 11.8 Atmospheric Dispersion and the Gaussian Plume Dispersion Modeling 643 11.8.1 Fundamentals of Dispersion Modeling 643 11.8.2 Model Parameters 645 11.8.3 Forms of the Gaussian Dispersion Equation 647 Key Terms 650 Chapter Eleven Problems 651 References 656 Answers to Selected Problems 657 Index 669

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