Evolution (4th Edition)

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Download Evolution (4th Edition) written by Douglas J. Futuyma, Mark Kirkpatrick in PDF format. This book is under the category Biology and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 1605356050/9781605356051. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

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Specifications

book-author

Douglas J. Futuyma, Mark Kirkpatrick

publisher

Sinauer Associates is an imprint of Oxford University Press; 4th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

594 pages

language

English

isbn10

1605356050

isbn13

9781605356051


Book Description

Extensively reorganized and rewritten; the new Evolution 4th edition (PDF) — featuring a new coauthor: Mark Kirkpatrick (The University of Texas at Austin) — offers additional expertise in evolutionary genomics and genetics; the fastest-developing area of evolutionary biology. Directed toward an undergraduate audience; the PDF etextbook emphasizes the interplay between theory and empirical tests of hypotheses; thus acquainting college students with the process of science. It addresses major themes — including the history of evolution; adaptation; evolutionary processes; and evolution as an explanatory framework — at levels of biological organization ranging from ecological communities to genomes.

For University / College Students

Companion Website
The Evolution 4th Edition; Companion Website features review and study tools to help college students master the material presented in the etextbook. Access to the site is free of charge; and requires no access code. (Instructor registration is required in order for students to access the quizzes.) The site includes the following resources:

* The complete Glossary

* Chapter Outlines and Summaries: Concise overviews of the important topics covered in each chapter.

* Flashcards & Key Terms: Easy-to-use activities that help students learn all the key terminology introduced in each chapter.

* Online Quizzes: Quizzes that cover all the major concepts introduced in each chapter. These quizzes are assignable by the instructor.

* Simulation Exercises: Interactive modules that allow students to explore many of the dynamic processes of evolution; and answer questions based on the results they observe.

* Data Analysis Exercises: Expanded for the third edition; these inquiry-based exercises involve students in working with data and analyzing methods and conclusions from published papers.

For Instructors

Instructor’s Resource Library
The Evolution 4e; Instructor’s Resource Library includes a variety of resources to help you deliver your lectures and develop your course. The IRL includes the following resources:

* Quiz Questions from the Companion Website

* Answers to the textbook end-of-chapter Problems and Discussion Topics

* Data Analysis and Simulation Exercises from the Companion Website; with answers

* PowerPoint Presentations: For each chapter; all of the chapter’s figures and tables are provided in a ready-to-use PowerPoint presentation; making it easy to quickly insert figures into your own lecture presentations.

* Textbook Figures and Tables: All the figures (including photographs) and tables from the textbook are provided as JPEGs (both high- and low-resolution); reformatted and relabeled for optimal readability when projected.

Online Quizzing
A set of online quizzes is available via the Companion Website. These quizzes can be assigned or released for student self-study; at the instructor’s discretion. Professors can also add their own questions to the quizzing system; to create custom quizzes. Results can be viewed online or downloaded for use in gradebook programs. (Instructor registration is required for student access to the quizzes.)

 

Additional information

book-author

Douglas J. Futuyma, Mark Kirkpatrick

publisher

Sinauer Associates is an imprint of Oxford University Press; 4th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

594 pages

language

English

isbn10

1605356050

isbn13

9781605356051

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Front Cover……Page 1
Companion Website……Page 2
Title Page……Page 5
Key to the (missing) Back Cover……Page 6
Dedication Page……Page 7
Preface……Page 17
Acknowledgments……Page 18
Media and Supplements……Page 21
How to Learn Evolutionary Biology……Page 19
Brief Contents……Page 8
UNIT I – An Idea that Changed the World [01-03]……Page 9
UNIT II – How Evolution Works [04-09]……Page 10
UNIT III – Products of Evolution: What Natural Selection Has Wrought [10-15]……Page 12
UNIT IV – Macroevolution and the History of Life [16-20]……Page 14
UNIT V – Evolution and Homo sapiens [21-22]……Page 15
UNIT I – An Idea that Changed the World [01-03]……Page 23
1. Evolutionary Biology……Page 24
Nothing in Biology Makes Sense except in the Light of Evolution”……Page 28
What Is Evolution? Is It Fact or Theory?……Page 29
Before Darwin……Page 31
Charles Darwin……Page 32
Darwin’s evolutionary theory……Page 35
Evolutionary biology after Darwin……Page 37
Evolutionary biology since the synthesis……Page 38
How Evolution Is Studied……Page 40
Philosophical Issues……Page 42
Ethics, religion, and evolution……Page 43
Summary
……Page 44
2. The Tree of Life……Page 48
The Tree of Life, from Darwin to Today……Page 50
Phylogenetic Trees……Page 55
Inferring phylogenies: An introduction……Page 57
Branches of a phylogenetic tree sometimes rejoin……Page 60
Not only organisms have “phylogenies”……Page 61
Inferring the history of character evolution……Page 63
Estimating time of divergence……Page 64
Patterns of evolution……Page 65
Summary
……Page 74
3. Natural Selection and Adaptation……Page 76
Adaptive Evolution Observed……Page 79
The meaning of natural selection……Page 81
The effective environment depends on the organism……Page 83
Levels of Selection……Page 84
Selfish genes and unselfish behaviors……Page 85
Selection of organisms and groups……Page 86
Species selection……Page 87
The Nature of Adaptations……Page 88
Recognizing adaptations……Page 89
Imperfections and Constraints……Page 93
Natural Selection and the Evolution of Diversity……Page 94
What Not To Expect of Natural Selection……Page 96
Summary
……Page 97
UNIT II – How Evolution Works [04-09]……Page 99
4. Mutation and Variation……Page 100
The Machinery of Inheritance……Page 101
The Inheritance of Variation……Page 104
Gene mixing by segregation……Page 105
Gene mixing by recombination……Page 107
Mutation: The Ultimate Source of Variation……Page 110
Structural mutations……Page 111
Mutation rates……Page 113
Effects of mutations……Page 114
Is Mutation Random?……Page 116
Nongenetic Inheritance……Page 118
Summary
……Page 121
5. The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection……Page 124
Natural Selection and Evolution in Real Time……Page 126
Evolution by Selection and Inheritance……Page 128
Fitness: The Currency of Selection……Page 129
Positive Selection: The Spread of Beneficial Mutations……Page 130
The rate of adaptation……Page 132
Chance and adaptation: The probability that a beneficial mutation spreads……Page 137
Evolutionary Side Effects……Page 138
Hitchhiking: When one allele goes for a ride with another……Page 139
When Selection Preserves Variation……Page 141
Overdominance……Page 142
Other forms of balancing selection……Page 144
Underdominance: When heterozygotes suffer……Page 147
The Evolution of a Population’s Mean Fitness……Page 148
The fundamental theorem of natural selection and the adaptive landscape……Page 149
The mutation load……Page 152
Summary
……Page 154
6. Phenotypic Evolution……Page 156
Genotypes and Phenotypes……Page 158
Fitness Functions Describe Selection on Quantitative Traits……Page 161
Measuring the Strength of Directional Selection……Page 165
Evolution by Directional Selection……Page 166
Adaptation from standing genetic variation versus new mutations……Page 169
Can adaptation rescue species from extinction?……Page 170
Artificial Selection……Page 171
Correlated Traits……Page 173
Constraints and trade-offs……Page 174
The causes of genetic correlations……Page 175
Phenotypic Plasticity……Page 177
Quantitative trait loci……Page 178
The genetics of quantitative traits……Page 180
Summary
……Page 183
7. Genetic Drift: Evolution at Random……Page 186
What Is Random Genetic Drift?……Page 188
The Genealogy of Genes……Page 192
How Strong Is Genetic Drift?……Page 194
Populations that change in size……Page 195
Drift and Genetic Variation within Species……Page 196
Estimating population size……Page 198
Genetic Drift and Natural Selection……Page 199
The fate of beneficial mutations in large populations……Page 202
The Evolution of Differences among Species……Page 203
The neutral theory of molecular evolution……Page 204
Searching the Genes for Signatures of Adaptation……Page 205
Synonymous versus nonsynonymous differences……Page 206
Divergence among populations……Page 208
Summary
……Page 210
8. Evolution in Space……Page 212
Patterns in Space……Page 214
Gene Flow……Page 215
How is gene flow measured?……Page 216
Genetic Divergence between Populations……Page 218
Gene Flow and Selection……Page 220
Tension zones……Page 223
Gene Flow and Drift……Page 224
Gene flow, local adaptation, and drift……Page 225
The Evolution of Dispersal……Page 226
The Evolution of Species’ Ranges……Page 229
Summary
……Page 231
9. Species and Speciation……Page 234
What Are Species?……Page 237
Reproductive Isolation……Page 242
Prezygotic barriers……Page 244
Postzygotic barriers……Page 245
How fast does reproductive isolation evolve?……Page 247
The Causes of Speciation……Page 249
Allopatric speciation……Page 257
Sympatric speciation……Page 260
Parapatric speciation……Page 263
The Genomics of Speciation……Page 264
Summary
……Page 265
UNIT III – Products of Evolution: What Natural Selection Has Wrought [10-15]……Page 267
10. All About Sex……Page 268
What Are Females and Males?……Page 271
Sexual Selection……Page 273
Why are males sexually selected?……Page 275
Sexual selection by male-male competition……Page 276
Sexual selection by female choice……Page 279
Sex Ratios……Page 282
Why Sex?……Page 285
Advantages to sex in changing environments……Page 286
Selective interference favors sex and recombination……Page 287
Selfing and Outcrossing……Page 291
Summary
……Page 293
11. How to Be Fit……Page 296
Life History Traits as Components of Fitness……Page 298
Costs of reproduction……Page 300
Fitness in age-structured populations……Page 301
Senescence……Page 302
Evolution of the Population Growth Rate and Density……Page 303
Diverse life histories……Page 304
Life histories and mating strategies……Page 308
Specialists and Generalists……Page 310
Specialization without trade-offs……Page 311
Experiments on niche evolution……Page 313
Summary
……Page 314
12. Cooperation and Conflict……Page 316
Social Interactions and Cooperation……Page 318
Cooperation among Unrelated Individuals……Page 319
Reciprocity……Page 320
Shared Genes and the Evolution of Altruism……Page 322
Conflict between mates……Page 326
Murder in the family……Page 328
Eusocial animals: The ultimate families……Page 330
Selfish DNA……Page 332
Selfish mitochondria……Page 334
Group selection……Page 335
Cooperation and Major Evolutionary Transitions……Page 337
Summary
……Page 339
13. Interactions among Species……Page 342
Coevolution and Interactions among Species……Page 344
The Evolution of Enemies and Victims……Page 346
Aposematism and mimicry……Page 350
Plants and herbivores……Page 351
Parasite-host interactions and infectious disease……Page 353
Mutualisms……Page 356
The Evolution of Competitive Interactions……Page 359
Evolution and Community Structure……Page 361
Summary
……Page 364
14. The Evolution of Genes and Genomes……Page 366
The Birth of a Gene……Page 369
Gene families……Page 373
The Death of a Gene……Page 375
Evolution of coding regions by genetic drift……Page 376
Evolution of coding regions by positive selection……Page 377
Evolution of Gene Expression……Page 378
Gene Structure……Page 380
Fissions, fusions, and the evolution of chromosome number……Page 381
Inversions and the evolution of chromosome structure……Page 382
Evolution of Genome Size and Content……Page 383
Genetic parasites and transposable elements……Page 384
Routes to the evolution of the smallest and largest genomes……Page 386
Summary
……Page 388
15. Evolution and Development……Page 390
Comparative Development and Evolution……Page 393
Gene Regulation……Page 397
Hox genes and the genetic toolkit……Page 400
Evolution by……Page 404
Evolution by……Page 405
Evolvability and Developmental Pathways……Page 408
Constraints on Adaptive Evolution……Page 411
Phenotypic Plasticity and Canalization……Page 413
Does phenotypic plasticity contribute to evolution?……Page 416
Summary
……Page 418
UNIT IV – Macroevolution and the History of Life [16-20]……Page 421
16. Phylogeny: The Unity and Diversity of Life……Page 422
Inferring Phylogenies……Page 424
Why estimating phylogenies can be hard……Page 426
Methods for estimating phylogenies……Page 431
Dating evolutionary events……Page 438
Discovering the history of genes and cultures……Page 439
Reconstructing ancestors……Page 441
Studying adaptations: The comparative method……Page 443
Classification……Page 446
Summary
……Page 449
17. The History of Life……Page 452
Some Geological Fundamentals……Page 454
Before Life Began2……Page 457
The Emergence of Life……Page 458
Precambrian Life……Page 460
The Cambrian Explosion and the Origins of Animal Diversity……Page 462
Paleozoic Life……Page 465
The colonization of land……Page 469
Paleozoic life on land……Page 471
The end-Permian mass extinction……Page 472
Mesozoic Life……Page 474
The modern world takes shape……Page 481
The adaptive radiation of mammals……Page 482
Pleistocene events……Page 485
Summary
……Page 488
18. The Geography of Evolution……Page 490
Biogeographic Evidence for Evolution……Page 492
Major Patterns of Distribution……Page 493
Historical factors affecting geographic distributions……Page 496
Vicariance……Page 498
Dispersal……Page 499
Phylogeography……Page 502
Geographic Range Limits: Ecology and Evolution……Page 503
Geographic Patterns of Diversity……Page 506
Summary
……Page 509
19. The Evolution of Biological Diversity……Page 512
Estimating and Modeling Changes in Biological Diversity……Page 515
Studying diversity in the fossil record……Page 516
Diversity through the Phanerozoic……Page 517
Rates of origination and extinction……Page 518
Mass extinctions……Page 522
Phylogenetic Studies of Diversity……Page 524
The shapes of phylogenies……Page 528
Does Species Diversity Reach Equilibrium?……Page 529
Summary
……Page 533
20. Macroevolution: Evolution above the Species Level……Page 536
The Origin of Major New Forms of Life……Page 538
The origin of mammals……Page 539
Gradualism and Saltation……Page 542
Incipient and novel features: Permissive conditions and natural selection……Page 546
Complex characteristics……Page 548
Homology and the emergence of novel characters……Page 549
Rates of evolution……Page 551
Gradualism and punctuated equilibria……Page 555
Speciation and phenotypic evolution……Page 556
Trends: Kinds and causes……Page 558
Are there major trends in the history of life?……Page 560
Predictability and contingency in evolution……Page 562
The question of progress……Page 564
Summary
……Page 565
UNIT V – Evolution and Homo sapiens [21-22]……Page 567
21. The Evolutionary Story of Homo Sapiens……Page 568
Our closest living relatives……Page 570
How humans differ from other apes……Page 571
Our ancestry: Hominins through time……Page 573
The Arrival of……Page 577
The human history of hybridization……Page 578
The diversity of human populations……Page 579
Brain and Language……Page 580
Diet and Agriculture: A Revolution in Our World……Page 581
Natural Selection, Past and Present……Page 584
Our genetic loads……Page 585
Evolutionary mismatches……Page 587
The Evolution of Culture……Page 588
Summary
……Page 591
22. Evolution and Society……Page 594
Creationism……Page 599
The nature of science……Page 600
The fossil record……Page 601
Biogeography……Page 602
Failures of the argument from design……Page 603
Evolution, and its mechanisms, observed……Page 605
Practical applications of evolutionary science……Page 606
Agriculture and natural resources……Page 607
Conservation……Page 609
Health and medicine……Page 611
Evolution and Human Behavior……Page 615
Variation in cognitive and behavioral traits……Page 616
Human behavior: Evolution and culture……Page 618
Understanding nature and humanity……Page 620
Summary
……Page 622
APPENDIX: A Statistics Primer……Page 625
Descriptive Statistics……Page 626
Estimation……Page 631
Testing Hypotheses……Page 632
Likelihood……Page 634
Bayesian Inference……Page 635
Summary……Page 638
A……Page 639
B – C……Page 640
D……Page 642
E……Page 643
F……Page 644
G……Page 645
H……Page 646
I……Page 647
K – L – M……Page 648
N……Page 649
P……Page 650
Q – R……Page 652
S……Page 653
V……Page 655
W – Z……Page 656
02……Page 657
03……Page 658
04……Page 659
05……Page 660
06……Page 661
08……Page 662
09……Page 663
10……Page 666
11……Page 667
12……Page 668
13……Page 670
14……Page 671
15……Page 673
17……Page 675
18……Page 677
19……Page 678
20……Page 680
21……Page 682
22……Page 684
APP……Page 686
Illustration and Photo Credits……Page 687
A……Page 691
B……Page 693
C……Page 695
D……Page 697
E……Page 700
F……Page 701
G……Page 702
H……Page 704
I……Page 706
K……Page 707
L……Page 708
M……Page 709
N……Page 711
O – P……Page 712
Q……Page 715
R……Page 716
S……Page 717
T……Page 719
V – W……Page 721
X – Y – Z……Page 722
Graphical……Page 723
Descriptive……Page 724

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