Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach (8th Edition)

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Download Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach (8th Edition) written by Dee Silverthorn in PDF format. This book is under the category Medicine and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 0134605195; 0134715071; 0134704223/9780134605197/ 9780134715070/ 9780134704227. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

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book-author

Dee Silverthorn

publisher

Pearson; 8th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

Pages

language

English

isbn10

0134605195; 0134715071; 0134704223

isbn13

9780134605197/ 9780134715070/ 9780134704227


Book Description

Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach; 8th Edition; (PDF) is the #1 finest-promoting 1-semester human physiology ebook world-broad. The eighth Edition entails college students in growing a deeper understanding of human physiology by coaching them to suppose critically and getting ready them to resolve actual-world issues. Updates; like new; Try It actions; and complete educating recommendations within the new Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules; help college students to study and apply graphing expertise; mapping expertise; and knowledge interpretation expertise.

The textbook exhibits Dr. Silverthorn’s energetic studying fashion of instruction and constructs upon the thorough integration of “big picture” themes with up-to-date molecular and mobile physiology subjects which have at all times been the idea of her strategy.

Additional ISBNs: 0134701526; 9780134701523; 0134701410; 9780134701417; 9780134605197; 013521291X; 9780135212912; 0135212901; 978-0135212905; 978-0134605197; 978-0134704203;  0134704207; 978-0134715070

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Additional information

book-author

Dee Silverthorn

publisher

Pearson; 8th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

Pages

language

English

isbn10

0134605195; 0134715071; 0134704223

isbn13

9780134605197/ 9780134715070/ 9780134704227

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Cover
Brief Contents
Title Page
Copyright Page
About The Author
Dedication Page
Acknowledgments
Contents
UNIT 1: Basic Cell Processes: Integration and Coordination
CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Physiology
Physiology Is an Integrative Science
RUNNING PROBLEM What to Believe?
Emerging Concepts The Changing World of Omics
Function and Mechanism
Themes in Physiology
Focus on . . . Mapping
Theme 1: Structure and Function Are Closely Related
Theme 2: Living Organisms Need Energy
Theme 3: Information Flow Coordinates Body Functions
Theme 4: Homeostasis Maintains Internal Stability
Homeostasis
What Is the Body’s Internal Environment?
Homeostasis Depends on Mass Balance
Excretion Clears Substances from the Body
Homeostasis Does Not Mean Equilibrium
Control Systems and Homeostasis
Local Control Is Restricted to a Tissue
Reflex Control Uses Long‐Distance Signaling
Response Loops Begin with a Stimulus
Feedback Loops Modulate the Response Loop
Negative Feedback Loops Are Homeostatic
Positive Feedback Loops Are Not Homeostatic
Feedforward Control Allows the Body to Anticipate Change
Biological Rhythms Result from Changes in a Setpoint
The Science of Physiology
Good Scientific Experiments Must Be Carefully Designed
Focus on . . . Graphing
The Results of Human Experiments Can Be Difficult to Interpret
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 2: Molecular Interactions
RUNNING PROBLEM Chromium Supplements
Molecules and Bonds
Most Biomolecules Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Electrons Have Four Important Biological Roles
Covalent Bonds between Atoms Create Molecules
Noncovalent Bonds Facilitate Reversible Interactions
Noncovalent Interactions
Hydrophilic Interactions Create Biological Solutions
Molecular Shape Is Related to Molecular Function
Hydrogen Ions in Solution Can Alter Molecular Shape
Protein Interactions
Proteins Are Selective about the Molecules They Bind
Protein‐Binding Reactions Are Reversible
Binding Reactions Obey the Law of Mass Action
The Dissociation Constant Indicates Affinity
Multiple Factors Alter Protein Binding
The Body Regulates the Amount of Protein in Cells
Reaction Rate Can Reach a Maximum
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 3: Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues
Functional Compartments of the Body
RUNNING PROBLEM Pap Tests Save Lives
The Lumens of Some Organs Are Outside the Body
Functionally, the Body Has Three Fluid Compartments
Biological Membranes
The Cell Membrane Separates Cell from Environment
Membranes Are Mostly Lipid and Protein
Membrane Lipids Create a Hydrophobic Barrier
Membrane Proteins May Be Loosely or Tightly Bound to the Membrane
Membrane Carbohydrates Attach to Both Lipids and Proteins
Intracellular Compartments
Cells Are Divided into Compartments
The Cytoplasm Includes Cytosol, Inclusions, Fibers, and Organelles
Inclusions Are in Direct Contact with the Cytosol
Cytoplasmic Protein Fibers Come in Three Sizes
Microtubules Form Centrioles, Cilia, and Flagella
Emerging Concepts Single Cilia Are Sensors
The Cytoskeleton Is a Changeable Scaffold
Motor Proteins Create Movement
Organelles Create Compartments for Specialized Functions
The Nucleus Is the Cell’s Control Center
Tissues of the Body
Extracellular Matrix Has Many Functions
Cell Junctions Hold Cells Together to Form Tissues
Epithelia Provide Protection and Regulate Exchange
Connective Tissues Provide Support and Barriers
Muscle and Neural Tissues Are Excitable
Tissue Remodeling
Apoptosis Is a Tidy Form of Cell Death
Stem Cells Can Create New Specialized Cells
Emerging Concepts Induced Pluripotent Stems Cells
Focus on . . . The Skin
Organs
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 4: Energy and Cellular Metabolism
RUNNING PROBLEM Tay‐Sachs Disease: A Deadly Inheritance
Energy in Biological Systems
Energy Is Used to Perform Work
Energy Comes in Two Forms: Kinetic and Potential
Energy Can Be Converted from One Form to Another
Thermodynamics Is the Study of Energy Use
Chemical Reactions
Energy Is Transferred between Molecules during Reactions
Activation Energy Gets Reactions Started
Energy Is Trapped or Released during Reactions
Net Free Energy Change Determines Reaction Reversibility
Enzymes
Enzymes Are Proteins
Reaction Rates Are Variable
Enzymes May Be Activated, Inactivated, or Modulated
Enzymes Lower Activation Energy of Reactions
Enzymatic Reactions Can Be Categorized
Metabolism
Cells Regulate Their Metabolic Pathways
Catabolic Pathways Produce ATP
One Glucose Molecule Can Yield 30–32 ATP
Anaerobic Metabolism Makes Two ATP
Proteins Are the Key to Cell Function
DNA Guides the Synthesis of RNA
Alternative Splicing Creates Multiple Proteins from One DNA Sequence
mRNA Translation Links Amino Acids
Emerging Concepts Purple Petunias and RNAi
Protein Sorting Directs Proteins to Their Destination
Proteins Undergo Posttranslational Modification
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 5: Membrane Dynamics
RUNNING PROBLEM Cystic Fibrosis
Homeostasis Does Not Mean Equilibrium
Osmosis and Tonicity
The Body Is Mostly Water
The Body Is in Osmotic Equilibrium
Osmolarity Describes the Number of Particles in Solution
Tonicity Describes the Volume Change of a Cell
Transport Processes
Cell Membranes Are Selectively Permeable
Diffusion
Lipophilic Molecules Cross Membranes by Simple Diffusion
Protein‐Mediated Transport
Membrane Proteins Have Four Major Functions
Channel Proteins Form Open, Water‐Filled Passageways
Carrier Proteins Change Conformation to Move Molecules
Facilitated Diffusion Uses Carrier Proteins
Active Transport Moves Substances against Their ‐Concentration Gradients
Carrier‐Mediated Transport Exhibits Specificity, Competition, and Saturation
Vesicular Transport
Phagocytosis Creates Vesicles Using the Cytoskeleton
Endocytosis Creates Smaller Vesicles
CLINICAL FOCUS LDL: The Lethal Lipoprotein
Exocytosis Releases Molecules Too Large for Transport Proteins
Epithelial Transport
Epithelial Transport May Be Paracellular or Transcellular
Transcellular Transport of Glucose Uses Membrane Proteins
Transcytosis Uses Vesicles to Cross an Epithelium
The Resting Membrane Potential
Electricity Review
The Cell Membrane Enables Separation of Electrical Charge in the Body
All Living Cells Have a Membrane Potential
The Resting Membrane Potential Is Due Mostly to Potassium
Changes in Ion Permeability Change the Membrane Potential
Integrated Membrane Processes: Insulin Secretion
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 6: Communication, Integration, and Homeostasis
Cell‐to‐Cell Communication
RUNNING PROBLEM Diabetes Mellitus: A Growing Epidemic
Gap Junctions Create Cytoplasmic Bridges
Contact‐Dependent Signals Require Cell‐to‐Cell Contact
Local Communication Uses Paracrine and Autocrine Signals
Long‐Distance Communication May Be Electrical or Chemical
Cytokines May Act as Both Local and Long‐Distance Signals
Signal Pathways
Receptor Proteins Are Located Inside the Cell or on the Cell Membrane
Membrane Proteins Facilitate Signal Transduction
The Most Rapid Signal Pathways Change Ion Flow through Channels
Most Signal Transduction Uses G Proteins
Many Lipophobic Hormones Use GPCR‐cAMP Pathways
G Protein‐Coupled Receptors Also Use Lipid‐Derived Second Messengers
Catalytic Receptors Have Enzyme Activity
Integrin Receptors Transfer Information from the Extracellular Matrix
Novel Signal Molecules
Calcium Is an Important Intracellular Signal
Gases Are Ephemeral Signal Molecules
BIOTECHNOLOGY Calcium Signals Glow in the Dark
CLINICAL FOCUS From Dynamite to Medicine
Some Lipids Are Important Paracrine Signals
Modulation of Signal Pathways
Receptors Exhibit Saturation, Specificity, and Competition
One Ligand May Have Multiple Receptors
Up and Down‐Regulation Enable Cells to Modulate Responses
Cells Must Be Able to Terminate Signal Pathways
Many Diseases and Drugs Target the Proteins of Signal Transduction
Homeostatic Reflex Pathways
Cannon’s Postulates Describe Regulated Variables and ‐Control Systems
Long‐Distance Pathways Maintain Homeostasis
Control Systems Vary in Their Speed and Specificity
Complex Reflex Control Pathways Have Several Integrating Centers
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
UNIT 2: Homeostasis and Control
CHAPTER 7: Introduction to the Endocrine System
Hormones
RUNNING PROBLEM Graves’ Disease
Hormones Have Been Known Since Ancient Times
CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: The Discovery of Insulin
What Makes a Chemical a Hormone?
Hormones Act by Binding to Receptors
Hormone Action Must Be Terminated
The Classification of Hormones
Most Hormones Are Peptides or Proteins
Steroid Hormones Are Derived from Cholesterol
Some Hormones Are Derived from Single Amino Acids
Control of Hormone Release
The Endocrine Cell Is the Sensor in Simple Endocrine Reflexes
Many Endocrine Reflexes Involve the Nervous System
Neurohormones Are Secreted into the Blood by Neurons
The Pituitary Gland Is Actually Two Fused Glands
The Posterior Pituitary Stores and Releases Two Neurohormones
The Anterior Pituitary Secretes Six Hormones
A Portal System Connects the Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary
Anterior Pituitary Hormones Control Growth, Metabolism, and Reproduction
Feedback Loops Are Different in the Hypothalamic‐Pituitary Pathway
Hormone Interactions
In Synergism, the Effect of Interacting Hormones Is More than Additive
A Permissive Hormone Allows Another Hormone to Exert Its Full Effect
Antagonistic Hormones Have Opposing Effects
Endocrine Pathologies
Hypersecretion Exaggerates a Hormone’s Effects
Hyposecretion Diminishes or Eliminates a Hormone’s Effects
Receptor or Second Messenger Problems Cause Abnormal Tissue Responsiveness
Diagnosis of Endocrine Pathologies Depends on the Complexity of the Reflex
Hormone Evolution
Focus on . . . The Pineal Gland
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 8: Neurons: Cellular and Network Properties
RUNNING PROBLEM Mysterious Paralysis
Organization of the Nervous System
Cells of the Nervous System
Neurons Carry Electrical Signals
Establishing Synapses Depends on Chemical Signals
Glial Cells Provide Support for Neurons
Can Stem Cells Repair Damaged Neurons?
Electrical Signals in Neurons
The Nernst Equation Predicts Membrane Potential for a Single Ion
The GHK Equation Predicts Membrane Potential Using Multiple Ions
Ion Movement Creates Electrical Signals
Gated Channels Control the Ion Permeability of the Neuron
CLINICAL FOCUS Mutant Channels
Current Flow Obeys Ohm’s Law
Graded Potentials Reflect Stimulus Strength
Action Potentials Travel Long Distances
Na+ and K+ Move across the Membrane during Action Potentials
One Action Potential Does Not Alter Ion Concentration Gradients
Axonal Na+ Channels Have Two Gates
Action Potentials Will Not Fire during the Absolute Refractory Period
Action Potentials Are Conducted
Larger Neurons Conduct Action Potentials Faster
Conduction Is Faster in Myelinated Axons
Chemical Factors Alter Electrical Activity
BIOTECHNOLOGY The Body’s Wiring
Cell‐To‐Cell Communication in the Nervous System
Neurons Communicate at Synapses
Neurons Secrete Chemical Signals
Neurotransmitters Are Highly Varied
CLINICAL FOCUS Myasthenia Gravis
BIOTECHNOLOGY Of Snakes, Snails, Spiders, and Sushi
Neurotransmitters Are Released from Vesicles
Stronger Stimuli Release More Neurotransmitter
Integration of Neural Information Transfer
Postsynaptic Responses May Be Slow or Fast
Pathways Integrate Information from Multiple Neurons
Synaptic Activity Can Be Modified
Long‐Term Potentiation Alters Synapses
Disorders of Synaptic Transmission Are Responsible for Many Diseases
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 9: The Central Nervous System
Emergent Properties of Neural Networks
RUNNING PROBLEM Infantile Spasms
Evolution of Nervous Systems
Anatomy of the Central Nervous System
The CNS Develops from a Hollow Tube
The CNS Is Divided into Gray Matter and White Matter
Bone and Connective Tissue Support the CNS
The Brain Floats in Cerebrospinal Fluid
The Blood‐Brain Barrier Protects the Brain
Neural Tissue Has Special Metabolic Requirements
CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: Hypoglycemia and the Brain
The Spinal Cord
The Brain
The Brain Stem Is the Oldest Part of the Brain
The Cerebellum Coordinates Movement
The Diencephalon Contains the Centers for Homeostasis
The Cerebrum Is the Site of Higher Brain Functions
Brain Function
The Cerebral Cortex Is Organized into Functional Areas
The Spinal Cord and Brain Integrate Sensory Information
Sensory Information Is Processed into Perception
The Motor System Governs Output from the CNS
The Behavioral State System Modulates Motor Output
Why Do We Sleep?
Emerging Concepts Brain Glymphatics
Physiological Functions Exhibit Circadian Rhythms
Emotion and Motivation Involve Complex Neural Pathways
Moods Are Long‐Lasting Emotional States
Learning and Memory Change Synaptic Connections in the Brain
Learning Is the Acquisition of Knowledge
Memory Is the Ability to Retain and Recall Information
Language Is the Most Elaborate Cognitive Behavior
Personality Is a Combination of Experience and Inheritance
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 10: Sensory Physiology
RUNNING PROBLEM MÉniÈre’s Disease
General Properties of Sensory Systems
Receptors Are Sensitive to Particular Forms of Energy
Sensory Transduction Converts Stimuli into Graded Potentials
A Sensory Neuron Has a Receptive Field
The CNS Integrates Sensory Information
Coding and Processing Distinguish Stimulus Properties
Somatic Senses
Pathways for Somatic Perception Project to the Cortex and Cerebellum
Touch Receptors Respond to Many Different Stimuli
Skin Temperature Receptors Are Free Nerve Endings
Nociceptors Initiate Protective Responses
CLINICAL FOCUS Natural Painkillers
Chemoreception: Smell and Taste
Olfaction Is One of the Oldest Senses
Taste Is a Combination of Five Basic Sensations
Taste Transduction Uses Receptors and Channels
The Ear: Hearing
Hearing Is Our Perception of Sound
Sound Transduction Is a Multistep Process
The Cochlea Is Filled with Fluid
Sounds Are Processed First in the Cochlea
Auditory Pathways Project to the Auditory Cortex
Hearing Loss May Result from Mechanical or Neural Damage
The Ear: Equilibrium
The Vestibular Apparatus Provides Information about Movement and Position
The Semicircular Canals Sense Rotational Acceleration
The Otolith Organs Sense Linear Acceleration and Head Position
Equilibrium Pathways Project Primarily to the Cerebellum
The Eye and Vision
The Skull Protects the Eye
Light Enters the Eye through the Cornea
The Lens Focuses Light on the Retina
Phototransduction Occurs at the Retina
Emerging Concepts Melanopsin
Photoreceptors Transduce Light into Electrical Signals
Signal Processing Begins in the Retina
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 11: Efferent Division: Autonomic and Somatic Motor Control
RUNNING PROBLEM A Powerful Addiction
The Autonomic Division
Autonomic Reflexes Are Important for Homeostasis
Antagonistic Control Is a Hallmark of the Autonomic Division
Autonomic Pathways Have Two Efferent Neurons in Series
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Branches Originate in Different Regions
The Autonomic Nervous System Uses a Variety of Chemical Signals
Autonomic Pathways Control Smooth and Cardiac Muscle and Glands
Autonomic Neurotransmitters Are Synthesized in the Axon
Autonomic Receptors Have Multiple Subtypes
The Adrenal Medulla Secretes Catecholamines
Autonomic Agonists and Antagonists Are Important Tools in Research and Medicine
Primary Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System Are Relatively Uncommon
CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: Autonomic Neuropathy
Summary of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Branches
The Somatic Motor Division
A Somatic Motor Pathway Consists of One Neuron
The Neuromuscular Junction Contains Nicotinic Receptors
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 12: Muscles
RUNNING PROBLEM Periodic Paralysis
Skeletal Muscle
Skeletal Muscles Are Composed of Muscle Fibers
Myofibrils Are Muscle Fiber Contractile Structures
Muscle Contraction Creates Force
Actin and Myosin Slide Past Each Other during Contraction
Myosin Crossbridges Move Actin Filaments
Calcium Signals Initiate Contraction
Myosin Heads Step along Actin Filaments
Acetylcholine Initiates Excitation‐Contraction Coupling
BIOTECHNOLOGY Watching Myosin Work
Skeletal Muscle Contraction Requires a Steady Supply of ATP
Fatigue Has Multiple Causes
Skeletal Muscle Is Classified by Speed and Fatigue Resistance
Resting Fiber Length Affects Tension
Force of Contraction Increases with Summation
A Motor Unit Is One Motor Neuron and Its Muscle Fibers
Contraction Force Depends on the Types and Numbers of Motor Units
Mechanics Of Body Movement
Isotonic Contractions Move Loads; Isometric Contractions Create Force without Movement
Bones and Muscles around Joints Form Levers and Fulcrums
Muscle Disorders Have Multiple Causes
Smooth Muscle
Smooth Muscle Is More Variable Than Skeletal Muscle
Smooth Muscle Lacks Sarcomeres
Myosin Phosphorylation Controls Contraction
MLCP Controls Ca2+ Sensitivity
Calcium Initiates Smooth Muscle Contraction
Some Smooth Muscles Have Unstable Membrane Potentials
Chemical Signals Influence Smooth Muscle Activity
Cardiac Muscle
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 13: Integrative Physiology I: Control of Body Movement
Neural Reflexes
Neural Reflex Pathways Can Be Classified in Different Ways
RUNNING PROBLEM Tetanus
Autonomic Reflexes
Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Golgi Tendon Organs Respond to Muscle Tension
Muscle Spindles Respond to Muscle Stretch
Stretch Reflexes and Reciprocal Inhibition Control Movement around a Joint
Flexion Reflexes Pull Limbs Away from Painful Stimuli
The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Movement Can Be Classified as Reflex, Voluntary, or Rhythmic
The CNS Integrates Movement
Control of Movement in Visceral Muscles
Emerging Concepts Visualization Techniques in Sports
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
UNIT 3: Integration of Function
CHAPTER 14: Cardiovascular Physiology
RUNNING PROBLEM Myocardial Infarction
Overview of the Cardiovascular System
The Cardiovascular System Transports Materials throughout the Body
The Cardiovascular System Consists of the Heart, Blood Vessels, and Blood
Pressure, Volume, Flow, And Resistance
The Pressure of Fluid in Motion Decreases over Distance
Pressure Changes in Liquids without a Change in Volume
Blood Flows from Higher Pressure to Lower Pressure
Resistance Opposes Flow
Velocity Depends on the Flow Rate and the Cross‐Sectional Area
Cardiac Muscle And The Heart
The Heart Has Four Chambers
Heart Valves Ensure One‐Way Flow in the Heart
The Coronary Circulation Supplies Blood to the Heart
Cardiac Muscle Cells Contract without Innervation
Calcium Entry Is a Feature of Cardiac EC Coupling
Cardiac Muscle Contraction Can Be Graded
Myocardial Action Potentials Vary
The Heart as a Pump
Electrical Signals Coordinate Contraction
Pacemakers Set the Heart Rate
CLINICAL FOCUS Fibrillation
The Electrocardiogram Reflects Electrical Activity
The Heart Contracts and Relaxes during a Cardiac Cycle
CLINICAL FOCUS Gallops, Clicks, and Murmurs
Pressure‐Volume Curves Represent One Cardiac Cycle
Stroke Volume Is the Volume of Blood Pumped per Contraction
Cardiac Output Is a Measure of Cardiac Performance
The Autonomic Division Modulates Heart Rate
Multiple Factors Influence Stroke Volume
Contractility Is Controlled by the Nervous and Endocrine Systems
Emerging Concepts Stem Cells for Heart Disease
EDV and Arterial Blood Pressure Determine Afterload
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 15: Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure
RUNNING PROBLEM Essential Hypertension
The Blood Vessels
Blood Vessels Contain Vascular Smooth Muscle
Arteries and Arterioles Carry Blood Away from the Heart
Exchange Takes Place in the Capillaries
Blood Flow Converges in the Venules and Veins
Angiogenesis Creates New Blood Vessels
Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure Is Highest in Arteries and Lowest in Veins
Arterial Blood Pressure Reflects the Driving Pressure for Blood Flow
Blood Pressure Is Estimated by Sphygmomanometry
Cardiac Output and Peripheral Resistance Determine Mean Arterial Pressure
Changes in Blood Volume Affect Blood Pressure
CLINICAL FOCUS SHOCK
Resistance in the Arterioles
Myogenic Autoregulation Adjusts Blood Flow
Paracrine Signals Influence Vascular Smooth Muscle
The Sympathetic Branch Controls Most Vascular Smooth Muscle
Distribution of Blood to the Tissues
Cerebral Blood Flow Stays Nearly Constant
Coronary Blood Flow Parallels the Work of the Heart
Regulation of Cardiovascular Function
The Baroreceptor Reflex Controls Blood Pressure
Orthostatic Hypotension Triggers the Baroreceptor Reflex
Other Systems Influence Cardiovascular Function
Exchange at the Capillaries
Velocity of Blood Flow Is Lowest in the Capillaries
Most Capillary Exchange Takes Place by Diffusion and Transcytosis
Capillary Filtration and Absorption Take Place by Bulk Flow
The Lymphatic System
Edema Results from Alterations in Capillary Exchange
Cardiovascular Disease
Risk Factors for CVD Include Smoking and Obesity
CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease
Atherosclerosis Is an Inflammatory Process
Hypertension Represents a Failure of Homeostasis
Emerging Concepts Inflammatory Markers for Cardiovascular Disease
CHAPTER
SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 16: Blood
RUNNING PROBLEM Blood Doping in Athletes
Plasma and the Cellular Elements of Blood
Plasma Is Extracellular Matrix
Cellular Elements Include RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets
Blood Cell Production
Blood Cells Are Produced in the Bone Marrow
Hematopoiesis Is Controlled by Cytokines
Colony‐Stimulating Factors Regulate Leukopoiesis
Thrombopoietin Regulates Platelet Production
Erythropoietin Regulates RBC Production
Red Blood Cells
Mature RBCs Lack a Nucleus
Hemoglobin Synthesis Requires Iron
RBCs Live about Four Months
Focus on . . . Bone Marrow
RBC Disorders Decrease Oxygen Transport
CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: Hemoglobin and Hyperglycemia
Platelets
Hemostasis and Coagulation
Hemostasis Prevents Blood Loss from Damaged Vessels
Platelet Activation Begins the Clotting Process
Coagulation Converts a Platelet Plug into a Clot
Anticoagulants Prevent Coagulation
CHAPTER
SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 17: Mechanics of Breathing
RUNNING PROBLEM Emphysema
The Respiratory System
Bones and Muscles of the Thorax Surround the Lungs
Pleural Sacs Enclose the Lungs
Airways Connect Lungs to the External Environment
The Airways Warm, Humidify, and Filter Inspired Air
CLINICAL FOCUS Congestive Heart Failure
Alveoli Are the Site of Gas Exchange
Pulmonary Circulation Is High‐Flow, Low‐Pressure
Gas Laws
Air Is a Mixture of Gases
Gases Move Down Pressure Gradients
Boyle’s Law Describes Pressure‐Volume Relationships
Ventilation
Lung Volumes Change during Ventilation
During Ventilation, Air Flows because of Pressure Gradients
Inspiration Occurs When Alveolar Pressure Decreases
Expiration Occurs When Alveolar Pressure Increases
Intrapleural Pressure Changes during Ventilation
Lung Compliance and Elastance May Change in Disease States
Surfactant Decreases the Work of Breathing
Airway Diameter Determines Airway Resistance
Rate and Depth of Breathing Determine the Efficiency of Breathing
Alveolar Gas Composition Varies Little during Normal Breathing
Ventilation and Alveolar Blood Flow Are Matched
Auscultation and Spirometry Assess Pulmonary Function
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW
QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 18: Gas Exchange and Transport
RUNNING PROBLEM High Altitude
Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues
Lower Alveolar Po2 Decreases Oxygen Uptake
Diffusion Problems Cause Hypoxia
BIOTECHNOLOGY The Pulse Oximeter
Gas Solubility Affects Diffusion
Gas Transport in the Blood
Hemoglobin Binds to Oxygen
Oxygen Binding Obeys the Law of Mass Action
Hemoglobin Transports Most Oxygen to the Tissues
Po2 Determines Oxygen‐Hb Binding
Emerging Concepts Blood Substitutes
Oxygen Binding Is Expressed as a Percentage
Several Factors Affect Binding
Carbon Dioxide Is Transported in Three Ways
Regulation of Ventilation
Neurons in the Medulla Control Breathing
CO2 Oxygen, and pH Influence Ventilation
Protective Reflexes Guard the Lungs
Higher Brain Centers Affect Patterns of Ventilation
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 19: The Kidneys
Functions of the Kidneys
RUNNING PROBLEM Gout
Anatomy of the Urinary System
The Urinary System Consists of Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, and Urethra
The Nephron Is the Functional Unit of the Kidney
Overview of Kidney Function
Kidneys Filter, Reabsorb, and Secrete
The Nephron Modifies Fluid Volume and Osmolarity
Filtration
The Renal Corpuscle Contains Filtration Barriers
Emerging Concepts Diabetes: Diabetic Nephropathy
Capillary Pressure Causes Filtration
GFR Is Relatively Constant
GFR Is Subject to Autoregulation
Hormones and Autonomic Neurons Also Influence GFR
Reabsorption
Reabsorption May Be Active or Passive
Renal Transport Can Reach Saturation
BIOTECHNOLOGY Artificial Kidneys
Peritubular Capillary Pressures Favor Reabsorption
Secretion
Competition Decreases Penicillin Secretion
Excretion
Clearance Is a Noninvasive Way to Measure GFR
Clearance Helps Us Determine Renal Handling
Micturition
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 20: Integrative Physiology II: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis
ECF Osmolarity Affects Cell Volume
Multiple Systems Integrate Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
RUNNING PROBLEM Hyponatremia
Water Balance
Daily Water Intake and Excretion Are Balanced
The Kidneys Conserve Water
The Renal Medulla Creates Concentrated Urine
CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: Osmotic Diuresis
Vasopressin Controls Water Reabsorption
Blood Volume and Osmolarity Activate Osmoreceptors
The Loop of Henle Is a Countercurrent Multiplier
Sodium Balance and ECF Volume
Aldosterone Controls Sodium Balance
Low Blood Pressure Stimulates Aldosterone Secretion
ANG II Has Many Effects
Natriuretic Peptides Promote Na+ and Water Excretion
Potassium Balance
Behavioral Mechanisms in Salt and Water Balance
Drinking Replaces Fluid Loss
Low Na+ Stimulates Salt Appetite
Avoidance Behaviors Help Prevent Dehydration
Integrated Control of Volume, Osmolarity, and Blood Pressure
Osmolarity and Volume Can Change Independently
Dehydration Triggers Homeostatic Responses
Kidneys Assist in Blood Pressure Homeostasis
Endocrine Problems Disrupt Fluid Balance
Acid‐Base Balance
pH Changes Can Denature Proteins
Acids and Bases in the Body Come from Many Sources
pH Homeostasis Depends on Buffers, Lungs, and Kidneys
Buffer Systems Include Proteins, Phosphate Ions, and HCO3
Ventilation Can Compensate for pH Disturbances
Kidneys Use Ammonia and Phosphate Buffers
The Proximal Tubule Secretes H+ and Reabsorbs HCO3
The Distal Nephron Controls Acid Excretion
Acid‐Base Disturbances May Be Respiratory or Metabolic
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
UNIT 4: Metabolism, Growth, and Aging
CHAPTER 21: The Digestive System
RUNNING PROBLEM Cholera in India
Anatomy of the Digestive System
The Digestive System Is a Tube
The GI Tract Wall Has Four Layers
Digestive Function and Processes
We Secrete More Fluid than We Ingest
Digestion and Absorption Make Food Usable
Motility: GI Smooth Muscle Contracts Spontaneously
GI Smooth Muscle Exhibits Different Patterns of Contraction
CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: Delayed Gastric Emptying
Regulation of GI Function
The Enteric Nervous System Can Act Independently
GI Peptides Include Hormones, Neuropeptides, and Cytokines
Integrated Function: The Cephalic Phase
Chemical and Mechanical Digestion Begins in the Mouth
Saliva Is an Exocrine Secretion
Swallowing Moves Food from Mouth to Stomach
Integrated Function: The Gastric Phase
The Stomach Stores Food
Gastric Secretions Protect and Digest
The Stomach Balances Digestion and Defense
Integrated Function: The Intestinal Phase
Intestinal Secretions Promote Digestion
The Pancreas Secretes Enzymes and Bicarbonate
The Liver Secretes Bile
Most Digestion Occurs in the Small Intestine
FOCUS ON… The Liver
Bile Salts Facilitate Fat Digestion
Carbohydrates Are Absorbed as Monosaccharides
Proteins Are Digested into Small Peptides and Amino Acids
Some Larger Peptides Can Be Absorbed Intact
Nucleic Acids Are Digested into Bases and Monosaccharides
The Intestine Absorbs Vitamins and Minerals
The Intestine Absorbs Ions and Water
Regulation of the Intestinal Phase
The Large Intestine Concentrates Waste
Diarrhea Can Cause Dehydration
EMERGING CONCEPTS The Human Microbiome Project
Immune Functions of the GI Tract
M Cells Sample Gut Contents
Vomiting Is a Protective Reflex
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 22: Metabolism and Energy Balance
Appetite and Satiety
RUNNING PROBLEM Eating Disorders
BIOTECHNOLOGY Discovering Peptides: Research in Reverse
Energy Balance
Energy Input Equals Energy Output
Oxygen Consumption Reflects Energy Use
CLINICAL FOCUS Estimating Fat–The Body Mass Index
Many Factors Influence Metabolic Rate
Energy Is Stored in Fat and Glycogen
Metabolism
Ingested Energy May Be Used or Stored
Enzymes Control the Direction of Metabolism
Fed‐State Metabolism
Carbohydrates Make ATP
Amino Acids Make Proteins
Fats Store Energy
CLINICAL FOCUS Antioxidants Protect the Body
Plasma Cholesterol Predicts Heart Disease
Fasted‐State Metabolism
Glycogen Converts to Glucose
Proteins Can Be Used to Make ATP
Lipids Store More Energy than Glucose or Protein
Homeostatic Control of Metabolism
The Pancreas Secretes Insulin and Glucagon
The Insulin‐to‐Glucagon Ratio Regulates Metabolism
Insulin Is the Dominant Hormone of the Fed State
Insulin Promotes Anabolism
Glucagon Is Dominant in the Fasted State
Diabetes Mellitus Is a Family of Diseases
Type 1 Diabetics Are Prone to Ketoacidosis
Type 2 Diabetics Often Have Elevated Insulin Levels
Metabolic Syndrome Links Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease
Multiple Hormones Influence Metabolism
Regulation of Body Temperature
Body Temperature Balances Heat Production, Gain, and Loss
Body Temperature Is Homeostatically Regulated
Movement and Metabolism Produce Heat
The Body’s Thermostat Can Be Reset
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 23: Endocrine Control of Growth and Metabolism
Review Of Endocrine Principles
RUNNING PROBLEM Hyperparathyroidism
Adrenal Glucocorticoids
The Adrenal Cortex Secretes Steroid Hormones
Cortisol Secretion Is Controlled by ACTH
Cortisol Is Essential for Life
Cortisol Is a Useful Therapeutic Drug
Cortisol Pathologies Result from Too Much or Too Little Hormone
CRH and ACTH Have Additional Physiological Functions
Thyroid Hormones
Thyroid Hormones Contain Iodine
TSH Controls the Thyroid Gland
Thyroid Pathologies Affect Quality of Life
Growth Hormone
Growth Hormone Is Anabolic
Growth Hormone Is Essential for Normal Growth
Genetically Engineered hGH Raises Ethical Questions
Tissue and Bone Growth
Tissue Growth Requires Hormones and Paracrine Factors
Bone Growth Requires Adequate Dietary Calcium
CLINICAL FOCUS New Growth Charts
Calcium Balance
Plasma Calcium Is Closely Regulated
Three Hormones Control Calcium Balance
Multiple Factors Control Bone Remodeling
Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis Are Linked
Osteoporosis Is a Disease of Bone Loss
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 24: The Immune System
Overview
RUNNING PROBLEM HPV: To Vaccinate or Not?
Anatomy of the Immune System
Lymphoid Tissues Are Everywhere
Leukocytes Are the Immune Cells
Development of Immune Cells
FOCUS ON . . . The Thymus Gland
Lymphocytes Mediate the Adaptive Immune Response
The Immune System Must Recognize “Self”
Early Pathogen Exposure Strengthens Immunity
Molecules of the Innate Immune Response
Many Molecules of the Innate Immune Response Are Always Present
Antigen Presentation and Recognition Molecules
Antigen‐Recognition Molecules
B Lymphocytes Produce Antibodies
Pathogens of the Human Body
Bacteria and Viruses Require Different Defense Mechanisms
Viruses Can Only Replicate inside Host Cells
The Immune Response
Barriers Are the Body’s First Line of Defense
Innate Immunity Provides Nonspecific Responses
Antigen‐Presenting Cells Bridge Innate and Adaptive Responses
Adaptive Immunity Creates Antigen‐Specific Responses
Antibody Functions
Integrated Immune Responses
Bacterial Invasion Causes Inflammation
Viral Infections Require Intracellular Defense
Specific Antigens Trigger Allergic Responses
MHC Proteins Allow Recognition of Foreign Tissue
Immune System Pathologies
Autoimmune Disease Results from Antibodies against Self‐Antigen
Immune Surveillance Removes Abnormal Cells
Neuro‐Endocrine‐Immune Interactions
Stress Alters Immune System Function
Modern Medicine Includes Mind‐Body Therapeutics
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 25: Integrative Physiology III: Exercise
RUNNING PROBLEM Malignant Hyperthermia
Metabolism and Exercise
Hormones Regulate Metabolism during Exercise
Oxygen Consumption Is Related to Exercise Intensity
Several Factors Limit Exercise
Ventilatory Responses to Exercise
Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise
Cardiac Output Increases during Exercise
Muscle Blood Flow Increases during Exercise
Blood Pressure Rises Slightly during Exercise
The Baroreceptor Reflex Adjusts to Exercise
Feedforward Responses to Exercise
Temperature Regulation During Exercise
Exercise and Health
Exercise Lowers the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus May Improve with Exercise
Stress and the Immune System May Be Influenced by Exercise
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 26: Reproduction and Development
RUNNING PROBLEM Infertility
Sex Determination
Sex Chromosomes Determine Genetic Sex
Sexual Differentiation Occurs Early in Development
CLINICAL FOCUS X‐Linked Inherited Disorders
Basic Patterns of Reproduction
CLINICAL FOCUS Determining Sex
Gametogenesis Begins in Utero
The Brain Directs Reproduction
Environmental Factors Influence Reproduction
Male Reproduction
Testes Produce Sperm and Hormones
Spermatogenesis Requires Gonadotropins and Testosterone
Male Accessory Glands Contribute Secretions to Semen
Androgens Influence Secondary Sex Characteristics
Female Reproduction
The Ovary Produces Eggs and Hormones
A Menstrual Cycle Lasts about One Month
Hormonal Control of the Menstrual Cycle Is Complex
Hormones Influence Female Secondary Sex Characteristics
Procreation
The Human Sexual Response Has Four Phases
The Male Sex Act Includes Erection and Ejaculation
Sexual Dysfunction Affects Males and Females
Contraceptives Are Designed to Prevent Pregnancy
Infertility Is the Inability to Conceive
Pregnancy and Parturition
Fertilization Requires Capacitation
The Developing Embryo Implants in the Endometrium
The Placenta Secretes Hormones During Pregnancy
Pregnancy Ends with Labor and Delivery
The Mammary Glands Secrete Milk During Lactation
Growth and Aging
Puberty Marks the Beginning of the Reproductive Years
Menopause and Andropause Are a Consequence of Aging
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
Appendices
Appendix A Answers
Appendix B Physics and Math
Appendix C Genetics
Photo Credits
Glossary/Index
End Paper

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