Anthropology: What Does it Mean to Be Human (4th Edition)

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Download Anthropology: What Does it Mean to Be Human (4th Edition) written by Robert H. Lavenda, Emily A. Schultz in PDF format. This book is under the category Anthropology and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 0190840684; 0190933623/9780190840686/ 9780190933623. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

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Specifications

book-author

Robert H. Lavenda, Emily A. Schultz

publisher

Oxford University Press; 4th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

600 pages

language

English

isbn10

0190840684; 0190933623

isbn13

9780190840686/ 9780190933623


Book Description

An exclusive alternative to more traditional; encyclopedic introductory texts; Anthropology: What Does It Mean to Be Human 4th Edition (PDF) takes a question-oriented approach that includes cutting-edge theory and new ways of looking at important contemporary issues such as human rights; power; and inequality. With a total of sixteen chapters; this appealing; full-color textbook is an ideal one-semester overview that digs deep into anthropology without overwhelming any of the anthropology students.

Reviews

The question-based approach will involve students. It is a complete length–not too big–but not missing anything either.” — Christa Abdul-Karim; University of Idaho

This textbook Anthropology 4th edition is a remarkable product and value. I really like the ‘In Their Own Words’ sections within each chapter. They offer tangible; real-world connections that we can expand upon in a class discussion.” — Scott Legge; Macalester College

I love the question-oriented approach. The ‘Anthropology in Everyday Life’ feature is mainly good; showing the relevance of anthropology. I find the combination of brief chapter summaries and abundant; rich examples throughout the chapters to be a captivating combination.” — Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund; Alma College

The approach is inquisitive; as it makes the reader interested. Chapter headings are not statements; but are questions that allow for more critical thinking; they motivate students how to think; rather than telling them only what to think. I love the methodology of this ebook. It is much more applied compared to other textbooks.” — Jaclyn McWhorter; Agnes Scott College

The Socratic method is a fine way to get students to think about their own questions in the background of what they are learning. This lets them to imerge the four fields in a topical way. The authors do a very beneficial job of offering a variety of different examples from throughout the world; giving it a remarkable global perspective.” — Jason Gonzalez; University of Georgia

NOTE: The product only includes the ebook; Anthropology: What Does It Mean to Be Human? 4th Edition;  in PDF. No access codes are included.

Additional information

book-author

Robert H. Lavenda, Emily A. Schultz

publisher

Oxford University Press; 4th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

600 pages

language

English

isbn10

0190840684; 0190933623

isbn13

9780190840686/ 9780190933623

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Cover……Page 1
anthropology……Page 2
Dedication……Page 6
Brief Contents……Page 8
Contents……Page 9
Boxes……Page 23
Preface……Page 24
Chapter 1 What Is Anthropology?……Page 32
What Is Anthropology?……Page 34
What Is the Concept of Culture?……Page 35
What Makes Anthropology a Cross-Disciplinary Discipline?……Page 36
Biological Anthropology……Page 37
In Their Own Words: Anthropology as a Vocation: Listening to Voices……Page 38
Cultural Anthropology……Page 40
Archaeology……Page 43
Applied Anthropology……Page 44
Medical Anthropology……Page 45
The Uses of Anthropology……Page 46
In Their Own Words: What Can You Learn from an Anthropology Major?……Page 47
For Review……Page 48
Suggested Readings……Page 49
Scientific and Nonscientific Explanations……Page 50
Some Key Scientific Concepts……Page 52
Key Terms……Page 58
Chapter 2 Why Is Evolution Important to Anthropologists?……Page 60
What Is Evolutionary Theory?……Page 61
Essentialism……Page 62
The Great Chain of Being……Page 63
Transformational Evolution……Page 65
What Is Natural Selection?……Page 67
Population Thinking……Page 68
Natural Selection in Action……Page 69
How Did Biologists Learn about Genes?……Page 70
Mendel’s Experiments……Page 71
What Are the Basics of Contemporary Genetics?……Page 72
Genes and Traits……Page 73
Anthropology in Everyday Life: Investigating Human-Rights Violations and Identifying Remains……Page 75
Mutation……Page 77
DNA and the Genome……Page 78
Genotype, Phenotype, and the Norm of Reaction……Page 79
In Their Own Words: How Living Organisms Construct Their Environments……Page 83
What Does Evolution Mean?……Page 84
Chapter Summary……Page 85
For Review……Page 86
Suggested Readings……Page 87
Chapter 3 What Can the Study of Primates Tell Us about Human Beings?……Page 90
How Do Biologists Classify Primates?……Page 91
Strepsirrhines……Page 93
Haplorhines……Page 94
In Their Own Words: The Future of Primate Biodiversity……Page 99
What Is Ethnoprimatology?……Page 101
Are There Patterns in Primate Evolution?……Page 103
Primates of the Paleocene……Page 105
Primates of the Oligocene……Page 106
Primates of the Miocene……Page 107
Chapter Summary……Page 108
Suggested Readings……Page 109
Relative Dating Methods……Page 111
Numerical (or Absolute) Dating Methods……Page 114
Module Summary……Page 120
Key Terms……Page 122
Chapter 4 What Can the Fossil Record Tell Us about Human Origins?……Page 124
What Is Macroevolution?……Page 125
What Is Hominin Evolution?……Page 127
The Origin of Bipedalism……Page 128
In Their Own Words: Finding Fossils……Page 132
Changes in Hominin Dentition……Page 133
Who Were the Later Australopiths (3–1.5 mya)?……Page 134
How Many Species of Australopith Were There?……Page 135
Expansion of the Australopith Brain……Page 137
How Many Species of Early Homo Were There?……Page 138
Earliest Evidence of Culture: Stone Tools……Page 139
Who Was Homo erectus (1.8–1.7 mya to 0.5–0.4 mya)?……Page 141
Morphological Traits of H. erectus……Page 142
The Culture of H. erectus……Page 143
H. erectus the Hunter?……Page 144
What Happened to H. erectus?……Page 145
What Is the Fossil Evidence for the Transition to Modern H. sapiens?……Page 146
Where Did Modern H. sapiens Come from?……Page 147
Who Were the Neandertals (130,000–35,000 Years Ago)?……Page 148
What Do We Know about Middle Paleolithic/Middle Stone Age Culture?……Page 150
In Their Own Words: Bad Hair Days in the Paleolithic: Modern (Re)Constructions of the Cave Man……Page 151
What Do We Know about Anatomically Modern Humans (200,000 Years Ago to Present)?……Page 153
What Can Genetics Tell Us about Modern Human Origins?……Page 154
What Do We Know about the Upper Paleolithic/Late Stone Age (40,000?–12,000 Years Ago)?……Page 156
What Happened to the Neandertals?……Page 158
How Many Kinds of Upper Paleolithic/Late Stone Age Cultures Were There?……Page 159
Where Did Modern H. sapiens Migrate in Late Pleistocene Times?……Page 160
In Their Own Words: Women’s Art in the Upper Paleolithic?……Page 161
Eastern Asia and Siberia……Page 163
The Americas……Page 164
Two Million Years of Human Evolution……Page 165
Chapter Summary……Page 166
For Review……Page 168
Suggested Readings……Page 169
Chapter 5 What Can Evolutionary Theory Tell Us about Human Variation?……Page 172
The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis and Its Legacy……Page 173
In Their Own Words: Have We Ever Been Individuals?……Page 174
The Molecularization of Race?……Page 177
The Four Evolutionary Processes……Page 181
In Their Own Words: DNA Tests Find Branches but Few Roots……Page 182
Microevolution and Patterns of Human Variation……Page 185
Adaptation and Human Variation……Page 187
Phenotype, Environment, and Culture……Page 191
Can We Predict the Future of Human Evolution?……Page 194
For Review……Page 195
Suggested Readings……Page 196
Chapter 6 How Do We Know about the Human Past?……Page 198
What Is Archaeology?……Page 199
Surveys……Page 201
Archaeological Excavation……Page 204
Archaeology and Digital Heritage……Page 206
Subsistence Strategies……Page 207
Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, and States……Page 209
Whose Past Is It?……Page 212
How Is the Past Being Plundered?……Page 215
In Their Own Words: Rescue Archaeology in Europe……Page 217
Archaeology and Gender……Page 219
Collaborative Approaches to Studying the Past……Page 221
Anthropology in Everyday Life: Archaeology as a Tool of Civic Engagement……Page 222
Cosmopolitan Archaeologies……Page 224
Chapter Summary……Page 226
Suggested Readings……Page 227
Chapter 7 Why Did Humans Settle Down, Build Cities, and Establish States?……Page 230
How Is the Human Imagination Entangled with the Material World?……Page 231
Is Plant Cultivation a Form of Niche Construction?……Page 233
How Do Anthropologists Explain the Origins of Animal Domestication?……Page 236
Was There Only One Motor of Domestication?……Page 240
How Did Domestication, Cultivation, and Sedentism Begin in Southwest Asia?……Page 241
Natufian Social Organization……Page 242
Anthropology in Everyday Life: Çatalhöyük in the Twenty-First Century……Page 243
Natufian Subsistence……Page 244
Domestication Elsewhere in the World……Page 246
What Were the Consequences of Domestication and Sedentism?……Page 247
In Their Own Words: The Food Revolution……Page 249
Why Is It Incorrect to Describe Foraging Societies as “Simple”?……Page 251
What Is the Archaeological Evidence for Social Complexity?……Page 252
Why Did Stratification Begin?……Page 254
How Can Anthropologists Explain the Rise of Complex Societies?……Page 255
In Their Own Words: The Ecological Consequences of Social Complexity……Page 257
Andean Civilization……Page 258
Chapter Summary……Page 262
Suggested Readings……Page 264
Chapter 8 Why Is the Concept of Culture Important?……Page 266
How Do Anthropologists Define Culture?……Page 267
In Their Own Words: The Paradox of Ethnocentrism……Page 268
In Their Own Words: Culture and Freedom……Page 270
Culture, History, and Human Agency……Page 271
In Their Own Words: Human-Rights Law and the Demonization of Culture……Page 272
Why Do Cultural Differences Matter?……Page 274
What Is Cultural Relativism?……Page 275
Genital Cutting, Gender, and Human Rights……Page 276
Genital Cutting as a Valued Ritual……Page 277
Did Their Culture Make Them Do It?……Page 278
Does Culture Explain Everything?……Page 279
Cultural Imperialism or Cultural Hybridity?……Page 280
Cultural Hybridity……Page 281
Can We Be at Home in a Global World?……Page 283
Chapter Summary……Page 284
Suggested Readings……Page 285
Single-Sited Fieldwork……Page 286
How Do Anthropologists Think about the Ethics of Their Work?……Page 287
What Is Participant Observation?……Page 289
Multisited Fieldwork……Page 290
Collecting and Interpreting Data……Page 291
The Dialectic of Fieldwork: Interpretation and Translation……Page 292
Interpreting Actions and Ideas……Page 293
The Dialectic of Fieldwork: An Example……Page 295
The Effects of Fieldwork……Page 296
The Production of Anthropological Knowledge……Page 297
Module Summary……Page 298
Suggested Readings……Page 299
Chapter 9 Why Is Understanding Human Language Important?……Page 302
What Makes Language Distinctively Human?……Page 303
How Are Language and Culture Related?……Page 305
How Do People Talk about Experience?……Page 307
What Does It Mean to “Learn” a Language?……Page 310
Pragmatics: How Do We Study Language in Contexts of Use?……Page 313
What Is the Difference between a Pidgin and a Creole?……Page 315
What Is Language Ideology?……Page 316
In Their Own Words: Varieties of African American English……Page 318
What Is Raciolinguistics?……Page 319
What Is Lost If a Language Dies?……Page 320
Anthropology in Everyday Life: Language Revitalization……Page 321
How Are Language and Truth Connected?……Page 324
Chapter Summary……Page 325
Suggested Readings……Page 326
Morphology: Word Structure……Page 327
Syntax: Sentence Structure……Page 328
Key Terms……Page 330
Chapter 10 How Do We Make Meaning?……Page 332
What Are Some Effects of Play?……Page 333
Is There a Definition of Art?……Page 334
“But Is It Art?”……Page 338
In Their Own Words: Tango……Page 340
“She’s Fake”: Art and Authenticity……Page 341
How Does Hip-Hop Become Japanese?……Page 342
What Is Myth?……Page 343
Do Myths Help Us Think?……Page 345
How Is Ritual Expressed in Action?……Page 346
What Are Rites of Passage?……Page 347
How Are Play and Ritual Complementary?……Page 348
What Are Symbols?……Page 350
What Is Religion?……Page 351
How Are Religion and Social Organization Related?……Page 353
Coping with Misfortune: Witchcraft, Oracles, and Magic among the Azande……Page 355
Coping with Misfortune: Listening for God among Contemporary Evangelicals in the United States……Page 357
In Their Own Words: For All Those Who Were Indian in a Former Life……Page 358
How Do People Cope with Change?……Page 359
In Their Own Words: Custom and Confrontation……Page 360
How Are Worldviews Used as Instruments of Power?……Page 361
Chapter Summary……Page 362
Suggested Readings……Page 363
Chapter 11 Why Do Anthropologists Study Economic Relations?……Page 366
Self-Interest, Institutions, and Morals……Page 367
How Do Anthropologists Study Production, Distribution, and Consumption?……Page 368
What Are Modes of Exchange?……Page 372
In Their Own Words: “So Much Work, So Much Tragedy . . . and for What?”……Page 373
The Maisin and Reciprocity……Page 374
Modes of Production……Page 376
Anthropology in Everyday Life: Producing Sorghum and Millet in Honduras and the Sudan……Page 377
What Is the Role of Conflict in Material Life?……Page 379
The Internal Explanation: Malinowski and Basic Human Needs……Page 380
In Their Own Words: Questioning Collapse……Page 381
How Is Consumption Culturally Patterned?……Page 383
How Is Consumption Being Studied Today?……Page 385
In Their Own Words: Fake Masks and Faux Modernity……Page 386
The Anthropology of Food and Nutrition……Page 388
Chapter Summary……Page 389
Suggested Readings……Page 390
Chapter 12 How Do Anthropologists Study Political Relations?……Page 392
How Are Culture and Politics Related?……Page 393
Is Political Power Nothing More Than Coercion?……Page 395
In Their Own Words: Protesters Gird for Long Fight over Opening Peru’s Amazon……Page 397
What Are Domination and Hegemony?……Page 400
What Are Biopower and Governmentality?……Page 401
In Their Own Words: Reforming the Crow Constitution……Page 403
How Do Anthropologists Study Politics of the Nation-State?……Page 405
Nation Building in a Postcolonial World: The Example of Fiji……Page 406
How Does Globalization Affect the Nation-State?……Page 407
Migration, Trans-Border Identities, and Long-Distance Nationalism……Page 408
Anthropology and Multicultural Politics in the New Europe……Page 409
How Can Citizenship Be Flexible?……Page 414
What Is Territorial Citizenship?……Page 416
What Is Vernacular Statecraft?……Page 417
Global Politics in the Twenty-First Century……Page 418
For Review……Page 419
Suggested Readings……Page 420
Chapter 13 What Can Anthropology Teach Us about Sex, Gender, and Sexuality?……Page 422
How Did Twentieth-Century Feminism Shape the Anthropological Study of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality?……Page 423
How Do Anthropologists Organize the Study of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality?……Page 427
In Their Own Words: The Consequences of Being a Woman……Page 430
How Are Sex and Gender Affected by Other Forms of Identity?……Page 431
How Do Ethnographers Study Gender Performativity?……Page 433
How Do Anthropologists Study Relations between Sex, Gender, and Sexuality?……Page 438
How Does Ethnography Document Variable Culture Understandings Concerning Sex, Gender, and Sexuality?……Page 440
Female Sexual Practices in Mombasa……Page 441
Transsexuality and Same-Sex Desire in Iran……Page 444
Chapter Summary……Page 446
Suggested Readings……Page 448
Chapter 14 Where Do Our Relatives Come from and Why Do They Matter?……Page 450
How Do Human Beings Organize Interdependence?……Page 451
What Is Friendship?……Page 452
What Is Kinship?……Page 455
What Is the Role of Descent in Kinship?……Page 456
Bilateral Kindreds……Page 457
What Role Do Lineages Play in Descent?……Page 458
The Logic of Lineage Relationships……Page 459
What Are Patrilineages?……Page 460
What Are Matrilineages?……Page 461
What Criteria Are Used for Making Kinship Distinctions?……Page 462
Adoption in Highland Ecuador……Page 463
What Is the Relation between Adoption and Child Circulation in the Andes?……Page 464
Negotiation of Kin Ties among the Ju/’hoansi……Page 465
European American Kinship and New Reproductive Technologies……Page 466
Assisted Reproduction in Israel……Page 468
Organ Transplantation and the Creation of New Relatives……Page 469
Woman Marriage and Ghost Marriage among the Nuer……Page 470
Why Is Marriage a Social Process?……Page 471
Single and Plural Spouses……Page 472
What Is the Connection between Marriage and Economic Exchange?……Page 474
In Their Own Words: Outside Work, Women, and Bridewealth……Page 475
What Is the Nuclear Family?……Page 476
In Their Own Words: Dowry Too High. Lose Bride and Go to Jail……Page 477
What Is the Polygynous Family?……Page 478
Extended and Joint Families……Page 479
Divorce and Remarriage……Page 480
In Their Own Words: Law, Custom, and Crimes against Women……Page 481
How Does International Migration Affect the Family?……Page 482
In Their Own Words: Survival and a Surrogate Family……Page 483
Anthropology in Everyday Life: Caring for Infibulated Women Giving Birth in Norway……Page 485
The Flexibility of Marriage……Page 487
In Their Own Words: Why Migrant Women Feed Their Husbands Tamales……Page 488
In Their Own Words: Two Cheers for Gay Marriage……Page 489
Love, Marriage, and HIV/AIDS in Nigeria……Page 491
Chapter Summary……Page 492
For Review……Page 494
Suggested Readings……Page 495
Chapter 15 What Can Anthropology Tell Us about Social Inequality?……Page 498
Class……Page 500
Class and Caste in the United States?……Page 501
Caste in India……Page 502
How Do Caste and Class Intersect in Contemporary India?……Page 504
In Their Own Words: As Economic Turmoil Mounts, So Do Attacks on Hungary’s Gypsies……Page 505
Race……Page 508
Ethnicity……Page 511
In Their Own Words: The Politics of Ethnicity……Page 512
Are Human Rights Universal?……Page 516
Anthropology in Everyday Life: Anthropology and Indigenous Rights……Page 520
In Their Own Words: How Sushi Went Global……Page 525
Chapter Summary……Page 527
Suggested Readings……Page 529
Chapter 16 How Is Anthropology Applied in the Field of Medicine?……Page 532
What Makes Medical Anthropology “Biocultural”?……Page 533
In Their Own Words: American Premenstrual Syndrome……Page 534
In Their Own Words: The Madness of Hunger……Page 536
Kinds of Selves……Page 537
Decentered Selves on the Internet……Page 538
Anthropology in Everyday Life: Lead Poisoning among Mexican American Children……Page 539
Self and Subjectivity……Page 540
Subjectivity, Trauma, and Structural Violence……Page 542
How Are Human Sickness and Health Shaped by the Global Capitalist Economy?……Page 545
In Their Own Words: Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions……Page 546
Health, Human Reproduction, and Global Capitalism……Page 548
Medical Anthropology and HIV/AIDS……Page 551
The Future of Medical Anthropology……Page 554
CHAPTER SUMMARY……Page 555
KEY TERMS……Page 557
SUGGESTED READINGS……Page 558
Glossary……Page 559
References……Page 570
Credits……Page 583
Index……Page 588

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