Behavioral Neuroscience (8th Edition)

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Download Behavioral Neuroscience (8th Edition) written by S. Marc Breedlove, Neil V. Watson in PDF format. This book is under the category Medicine and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 160535418X; 160535743X; 1605351709/9781605354187/ 9781605357430/ 9781605351704. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

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book-author

S. Marc Breedlove, Neil V. Watson

publisher

Sinauer Associates is an imprint of Oxford University Press

file-type

PDF

pages

643 pages

language

English

isbn10

160535418X; 160535743X; 1605351709

isbn13

9781605354187/ 9781605357430/ 9781605351704


Book Description

Behavioral Neuroscience; 8th Edition; (PDF) provides undergraduates with a lively survey of the field. It provides a broad perspective; lucid descriptions of behavior; encompassing cutting edge neuroscience; evolutionary and developmental perspectives; and clinical applications of research. Irrespective of this comprehensive range of material; the authors have striven in the latest revision to lay bare the neuroscience concepts underlying behavior with clarity and concision.

Special Features of the 8th edition:

– The textbook is supported by a rich array of internet-based resources.

– Over 500 new citations keep the textbook current and an excellent resource.

– Every chapter includes a special feature called “The Cutting Edge” that emphasizes an up-to-the-moment discovery or technical innovation while illustrating the logic and methodology of experimentation and hypothesis testing

– Each chapter ends with a special feature; the “Visual Summary;” a poster-like layout that provides a graphical review of the major topics of the chapter and guides students to the figures and online animations that reinforce each point.

– Learning is supported by a best-in-class full-color art program; including many original illustrations that make it easy to understand structures; mechanisms; and processes in the brain. Many additional graphical elements have been reproduced from primary research sources; bringing the learner closer to the science behind the subject matter.

Thorough and reader-friendly; Breedlove & Watson’s Behavioral Neuroscience; 8th Edition; discloses the intriguing relationships between the brain and behavior.

Biological Psychology Newslink
This continuously updated site gives links to thousands of news stories in the field; all organized by both keyword and textbook chapters. The site is designed to help tutors keep up with the latest news in the field and find interesting topics for lectures or discussions and to give college students an appreciation of the wide-ranging applications of the material they are studying in the course.

NOTE: The product includes the ebook; Behavioral Neuroscience; 8th Edition in PDF. No access codes are included.

Additional information

book-author

S. Marc Breedlove, Neil V. Watson

publisher

Sinauer Associates is an imprint of Oxford University Press

file-type

PDF

pages

643 pages

language

English

isbn10

160535418X; 160535743X; 1605351709

isbn13

9781605354187/ 9781605357430/ 9781605351704

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Cover
Endpapers
Companion Website Access Instructions
Companion Website Resources
Front Matter
Copyright Page
Dedication
Brief Contents
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
Media and Supplements
Chapter 1 Behavioral Neuroscience: Scope and Outlook
The Brain Is Full of Surprises
What Is Behavioral Neuroscience?
Five Viewpoints Explore the Biology of Behavior
Behavior can be described according to different criteria
We compare species to learn how the brain and behavior have evolved
The body and behavior develop over the life span
Biological mechanisms underlie all behavior
Research can be applied to human problems
Three Approaches Relate Brain and Behavior
Neuroplasticity: Behavior Can Change the Brain
Behavioral neuroscience and social psychology are related
Behavioral Neuroscientists Use Several Levels of Analysis
The Brain and Behavior Are Reciprocally Related
Behavioral Neuroscience Contributes to Our Understanding of Human Disorders
Animal Research Makes Vital Contributions
The History of Research on the Brain and Behavior Begins in Antiquity
Renaissance scientists began to understand brain anatomy
The concept of localization of function arose in the nineteenth century
Modern behavioral neuroscience arose in the twentieth century
Consciousness is a thorny problem
Visual Summary
PART I Biological Foundations of Behavior
Chapter 2 Functional Neuroanatomy: The Nervous System and Behavior
Specialized Cells Make Up the Nervous System
The neuron has four structural divisions specialized for information processing
Neurons can be classified by shape, size, or function
Information is received through synapses
The axon integrates and then transmits information
Glial cells support and enhance neural activity
The Nervous System Consists of Central and Peripheral Divisions
The peripheral nervous system has two divisions
The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord
The Brain Shows Regional Specialization of Functions
The cerebral cortex performs complex cognitive processing
Subcortical structures are involved in movement and the regulation of emotions
The diencephalon directs sensory information and controls basic physiological functions
The midbrain has sensory and motor components
The cerebellum is attached to the pons and is crucial for motor coordination
The medulla maintains vital basic body functions
Behaviors and cognitive abilities are determined by functional connections between brain regions
Specialized Support Systems Protect and Nourish the Brain
The cerebral ventricles are chambers filled with fluid
The brain has an elaborate vascular system
Brain-Imaging Techniques Reveal the Structure and Function of the Living Human Brain
Measurements of density can be used to map the structure of the brain
Functional-imaging techniques map regional brain activity during behaviors
Sophisticated imaging techniques are powerful tools requiring cautious interpretation
Visual Summary
Chapter 3 Neurophysiology: The Generation, Transmission,
and Integration of Neural Signals
Electrical Signals Are the Vocabulary of the Nervous System
A balance of electrochemical forces produces the resting membrane potential of neurons
A threshold amount of depolarization triggers an action potential
Ionic mechanisms underlie the action potential
Action potentials are actively propagated along the axon
Synapses Cause Graded, Local Changes in the Postsynaptic Membrane Potential
Synapses can be excitatory or inhibitory
Spatial summation and temporal summation integrate synaptic inputs
Synaptic Transmission Requires a Sequence of Events
Action potentials cause the release of transmitter molecules into the synaptic cleft
Receptor molecules recognize transmitters
Transmitters bind to receptors, gating ion channels
The action of synaptic transmitters is stopped rapidly
Several factors regulate neurotransmitter release
Neurons and Synapses Combine to Make Circuits
Gross Electrical Activity of the Brain Is Readily Detected
Seizure disorders result from electrical storms in the brain
Event-related potentials measure changes resulting from discrete stimuli
Visual Summary
Chapter 4 The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and
Neuropharmacology
Synaptic Transmission Is a Complex Electrochemical Process
Many Chemical Neurotransmitters Have Been Identified
Neurotransmitter Systems Form a Complex Array in the Brain
The most abundant excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain are amino acids
Acetylcholine was the first neurotransmitter to be identified
Five monoamines act as neurotransmitters
Many peptides function as neurotransmitters
Some neurotransmitters are gases
The Effects of a Drug Depend on Its Site of Action and Dose
Drugs fit like keys into molecular locks
Drug-receptor interactions vary in specificity and activity
Dose-response relationships reflect the potency and safety of drugs
Repeated treatments may reduce the effectiveness of drugs
Drugs are administered and eliminated in many different ways
Drugs Affect Each Stage of Neural Conduction and Synaptic Transmission
Some drugs alter presynaptic events
Drugs may act postsynaptically
Some Neuroactive Drugs Ease the Symptoms of Injury or Psychiatric Illness
Antipsychotics relieve schizophrenia
Antidepressants reduce chronic mood problems
Anxiolytics combat anxiety
Opiates potently relieve pain
Some Neuroactive Drugs Are Used to Alter Conscious Experiences
Cannabinoids have a wide array of effects
Stimulants increase the activity of the nervous system
Alcohol acts as both a stimulant and a depressant
Hallucinogenic and dissociative drugs alter sensory perception
Drug Abuse and Addiction Are Widespread Problems
Several perspectives help us understand drug abuse
People differ in their vulnerability to drug abuse
Drug abuse and dependence can be prevented or treated in multiple ways
Visual Summary
Chapter 5 Hormones and the Brain
Hormones Have Many Actions in the Body
The scientific method established the importance of testicular hormones
Organisms use several types of chemical communication
Hormonal actions can be organized according to general principles
Neuroendocrine cells blend neuronal and endocrine functions
Hormones can be classified by chemical structure
Hormones Have a Variety of Cellular Actions
Hormones affect cells by influencing their growth and activity
Hormones initiate actions by binding to receptor molecules
Feedback control mechanisms regulate the secretion of hormones
Each Endocrine Gland Secretes Specific Hormones
The pituitary gland releases many important hormones
Hypothalamic releasing hormones govern the anterior pituitary
Two divisions of the adrenal gland produce hormones
Thyroid hormones regulate growth and metabolism
The gonads produce steroid hormones, regulating reproduction
The pineal gland secretes melatonin
Hormones Affect Behavior in Many Different Ways
Hormones can affect social behavior
Hormonal and Neural Systems Interact to Produce Integrated Responses
Visual Summary
PART II Evolution and Development of the Nervous System
Chapter 6 Evolution of the Brain and Behavior
How Did the Enormous Variety of Species Arise on Earth?
Natural selection drives evolution
Evolution may converge upon similar solutions
Modern evolutionary theory combines natural selection and genetics
How closely related are two species?
Newer methods aid in classifying animals and inferring evolution
Why Should We Study Other Species?
Complicated lives require complicated brains
Simpler invertebrate nervous systems provide models of neural function
All Vertebrate Brains Share the Same Basic Structures
The main brain structures are the same in all mammals
All vertebrate nervous systems share certain main features but differ in others
The Evolution of Vertebrate Brains Reflects Changes in Behavior
Present-day animals and fossils reveal evolution of the brain
Through evolution, vertebrate brains have changed in both size and organization
Brain size evolved independently in multiple lineages
Many Factors Led to the Rapid Evolution of a Large Cortex in Primates
Hominin brains enlarged rapidly in our recent evolution
Negative and positive selection pressures affected hominin brain size
Brain size predicts success in adapting to a novel environment
Sexual selection may have contributed to hominin brain expansion
Primate species differ in gene expression
Evolution Continues Today
Visual Summary
Chapter 7 Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Growth and Development of the Brain Are Orderly Processes
Development of the Nervous System Can Be Divided into Six Distinct Stages
Cell proliferation produces cells that become neurons or glial cells
New nerve cells migrate
Cells in newly formed brain regions differentiate into neurons
The axons and dendrites of young neurons grow extensively and form synapses
The death of many neurons is a normal part of development
Neurotrophic factors allow neurons to survive and grow
Synaptic connections are refined by synapse rearrangement
Glial cells provide myelin, which is vital for brain function
Developmental Disorders of the Brain Impair Behavior
Environmental factors may limit brain development
Genes are important intrinsic factors influencing brain development
Genes Interact with Experience to Guide Brain Development
Experience regulates gene expression in the developing and mature brain
Experience Is an Important Influence on Brain Development
Visual deprivation can lead to blindness
Early exposure to visual patterns helps fine-tune connections in the visual system
The Brain Continues to Change as We Grow Older
Memory impairment correlates with hippocampal shrinkage during aging
Alzheimer’s disease is associated with a decline in cerebral metabolism
Visual Summary
PART III
Perception and Action
Chapter 8
General Principles of Sensory Processing, Touch, and Pain
Sensory Receptor Organs Detect Energy or Substances
Sensory systems of particular animals have restricted ranges of responsiveness
What Type of Stimulus Was That?
Sensory Processing Begins in Receptor Cells
The initial stage of sensory processing is a change in electrical potential in receptor cells
Sensory Information Processing Is Selective and Analytical
Coding: Sensory events are represented by action potentials
Adaptation: Receptor response can decline even if the stimulus is maintained
Suppression: Sometimes we need receptors to be quiet
Pathways: Successive levels of the nervous system process sensory information
Receptive fields: What turns on this particular receptor cell?
Attention: How do we notice some stimuli but not others?
Sensory systems influence one another
Skin Is a Complex Organ That Contains a Variety of Sensory Receptors
The Dorsal Column System Carries Somatosensory Information from the Skin to the Brain
Plasticity in cortical maps: Receptive fields can be changed by experience
Human Pain Can Be Measured
Peripheral receptors get the initial message
Spinal pathways transmit pain information
The reign of pain is mainly in the brain
Social Rejection Hurts Too
Pain Can Be Difficult to Control
Different strategies can alleviate pain
Visual Summary
Chapter 9 Hearing, Vestibular Perception, Taste, and Smell
Pressure Waves in the Air Are Perceived as Sound
The external ear captures, focuses, and filters sound
The middle ear concentrates sound energies
The cochlea converts vibrational energy into waves of fluid
Active mechanical processes in the cochlea enhance frequency discrimination
Auditory Signals Run from Cochlea to Cortex
Pitch Information Is Encoded in Two Complementary Ways
Brainstem Auditory Systems Are Specialized for Localizing Sounds
The Auditory Cortex Processes Complex Sounds
Experience affects auditory perception and the auditory pathways
Hearing Loss Is a Major Disorder of the Nervous System
There are three main causes of hearing loss and deafness
Treatments for deafness focus on replacing missing stimulation
An Inner Ear System Senses Gravity and Acceleration
Nerve Fibers from the Vestibular Portion of the Vestibulocochlear Nerve (VIII) Synapse in the Brainstem
Some Forms of Vestibular Excitation Produce Motion Sickness
Chemicals in Foods Are Perceived as Five Basic Tastes
Tastes excite specialized receptor cells on the tongue
Different cellular processes transduce the basic tastes
Taste information is transmitted to several parts of the brain
Chemicals in the Air Elicit Odor Sensations
The sense of smell starts with receptor neurons in the nose
Odorants excite specialized receptor molecules on olfactory receptor neurons
Olfactory axons connect with the olfactory bulb, which sends its output to several brain regions
Many vertebrates possess a vomeronasal system
Visual Summary
Chapter 10 Vision: From Eye to Brain
The Visual System Extends from the Eye to the Brain
The vertebrate eye acts in some ways like a camera
Visual processing begins in the retina
Photoreceptors transduce light into chemical reactions
Different mechanisms enable the eyes to work over a wide range of light intensities
Acuity is best in foveal vision
Brightness is created by the visual system
Neural Signals Travel from the Retina to Several Brain Regions
The retina projects to the brain in a topographic fashion
Neurons at Different Levels of the Visual System Have Very Different Receptive Fields
Photoreceptors excite some retinal neurons and inhibit others
Neurons in the retina and the LGN have concentric receptive fields
Neurons in the visual cortex have varied and complicated receptive fields
Most cells in the primary visual cortex are tuned to particular spatial frequencies
Area V1 is involved in the formation of mental images
Neurons in the visual cortex beyond area V1 have complex receptive fields and contribute to the identification of forms
Area V1 Is Organized in Columns
Color Vision Depends on Special Channels from the Retinal Cones through Cortical Area V4
Color is created by the visual system
Color perception requires receptor cells that differ in their sensitivities to different wavelengths
Some retinal ganglion cells and parvocellular LGN cells show spectral opponency
Some visual cortical cells and regions appear to be specialized for color perception
Perception of Visual Motion Is Analyzed by a Special System That Includes Cortical Area V5
The Many Cortical Visual Areas Are Organized into Two Major Streams
The anterior part of the dorsal stream includes mirror neurons
Visual Neuroscience Can Be Applied to Alleviate Some Visual Deficiencies
Impairment of vision often can be prevented or reduced
Increased exercise can restore function to a previously deprived or neglected eye
Visual Summary
Chapter 11 Motor Control and Plasticity
The Behavioral View Considers Reflexes versus Plans
Motor behavior can be analyzed and measured in a variety of ways
The Control Systems View Considers Accuracy versus Speed
The Neuroscience View Reveals Hierarchical Systems
The skeletal system enables particular movements and precludes others
Muscles control the actions of the skeletal system
Neural messages reach muscle fibers at the neuromuscular junction
Sensory feedback from muscles, tendons, and joints monitors movements
The Spinal Cord Is a Crucial Link in Controlling Body Movement
Spinal reflexes mediate “automatic” responses
Spinal cord injuries cause severe motor impairments
Motor neuron pathology leads to motor impairments and death
Pathways from the Brain Control Different Aspects of Movements
Primary motor cortex is an executive motor control mechanism—and more
Nonprimary motor cortex aids complex behaviors
Mirror neurons in premotor cortex track movements in others
Extrapyramidal Systems Also Modulate Motor Commands
The basal ganglia modulate movements
The cerebellum affects programs, coordination, and learning of acts
The cerebellum and the basal ganglia contribute differently to the modulation of motor functions
Brain Disorders Can Disrupt Movement
Cerebral cortex pathology causes some motor impairments
In Parkinson’s disease the death of dopaminergic neurons alters activity of the basal ganglia
Huntington’s disease is characterized by excessive movement caused by deterioration of the basal ganglia
Cerebellar damage causes many types of impairment
Visual Summary
PART IV Regulation and Behavior
Chapter 12 Sex: Evolutionary, Hormonal, and Neural Bases
Reproductive Behavior Can Be Divided into Four Stages
Copulation brings gametes together
Gonadal steroids activate sexual behavior
The Neural Circuitry of the Brain Regulates Reproductive Behavior
Estrogens and progesterone regulate a lordosis circuit that spans from brain to muscle
Androgens act on a neural system for male reproductive behavior
Pheromones Guide Reproductive Behavior in Many Species
The Hallmark of Human Sexual Behavior Is Diversity
Hormones play only a permissive role in human sexual behavior
For Many Vertebrates, Parental Care Determines Offspring Survival
Sex Determination and Sexual Differentiation Occur Early in Development
Gonadal hormones direct sexual differentiation of the body
Changes in the sequence of sexual differentiation result in predictable changes in development
Dysfunctional androgen receptors can block male masculinization
Some people seem to change sex at puberty
How Should We Define Gender— by Genes, Gonads, Genitals, or the Brain?
Gonadal Hormones Direct Sexual Differentiation of the Brain and Behavior
Early testicular secretions result in masculine behavior in adulthood
The estrogenic metabolites of testosterone masculinize the nervous system and behavior of rodents
Several regions of the nervous system differ between males and females
Environmental influences also affect sexual differentiation of the nervous system
Do Fetal Hormones Masculinize Human Behaviors in Adulthood?
What determines a person’s sexual orientation?
Visual Summary
Chapter 13 Homeostasis: Active Regulation of the Internal Environment
Homeostasis Maintains a Consistent Internal Environment: The Example of Thermoregulation
Homeostatic systems share several key features
Two Internal Cues Trigger Thirst
Osmotic thirst is triggered by increased saltiness of the extracellular fluid
Homeostatic regulation of salt is required for effective regulation of water
Hypovolemic thirst is triggered by a loss of water volume
We don’t stop drinking just because the throat and mouth are wet
Nutrient Regulation Helps Prepare for Future Needs
Most of our food is used to provide us with energy
We can store energy for future needs
Insulin Is Crucial for the Regulation of Body Metabolism
Despite their importance, neither insulin nor glucose is the sole signal for hunger or satiety
The Hypothalamus Coordinates Multiple Systems That Control Hunger
Multiple peripheral signals are integrated by a hypothalamic appetite network
Second-order hypothalamic neurons integrate appetite signals
Other systems also play a role in hunger and satiety
Obesity Is Difficult to Treat
Eating Disorders Are Life-Threatening
Visual Summary
Chapter 14 Biological Rhythms, Sleep, and Dreaming
Many Animals Show Daily Rhythms in Activity
Circadian rhythms are generated by an endogenous clock
Circadian rhythms allow animals to anticipate changes in the environment
The Hypothalamus Houses a Circadian Clock
Transplants prove that the SCN produces a circadian rhythm
In mammals, light information from the eyes reaches the SCN directly
Circadian rhythms have been genetically dissected in flies and mice
Some Biological Rhythms Are Longer or Shorter than a Day
Human Sleep Exhibits Different Stages
How much do we sleep, and when?
We do our most vivid dreaming during REM sleep
Different Species Provide Clues about the Evolution of Sleep
REM sleep evolved in some vertebrates
Species differ in their patterns and types of sleep
Our Sleep Patterns Change across the Life Span
Mammals sleep more during infancy than in adulthood
Most people sleep appreciably less as they age
Manipulating Sleep Reveals an Underlying Structure
Sleep deprivation predictably alters sleep patterns
What Are the Biological Functions of Sleep?
Sleep conserves energy
Sleep enforces niche adaptation
Sleep restores the body and brain
Sleep aids memory consolidation
Some humans sleep remarkably little, yet function normally
At Least Four Interacting Neural Systems Underlie Sleep
The forebrain generates slow-wave sleep
The reticular formation wakes up the forebrain
The pons triggers REM sleep
A hypothalamic sleep center was revealed by the study of narcolepsy
Sleep Disorders Can Be Serious, Even Life-Threatening
Some minor dysfunctions are associated with sleep
Insomniacs have trouble falling asleep or staying asleep
Although many drugs affect sleep, there is no perfect sleeping pill
Visual Summary
PART V Emotions and Mental Disorders
Chapter 15 Emotions, Aggression, and Stress
What Are Emotions?
Broad Theories of Emotion Emphasize Bodily Responses
Do emotions cause bodily changes, or vice versa?
Stanley Schachter proposed a cognitive interpretation of stimuli and visceral states
Emotions from the Evolutionary Viewpoint
How may emotion and emotional displays have evolved?
Individuals differ in their emotional responsiveness
How Many Emotions Do We Experience?
Facial expressions have complex functions in communication
Facial expressions are mediated by muscles, cranial nerves, and CNS pathways
Do Distinct Brain Circuits Mediate Different Emotions?
Electrical stimulation of the brain can produce emotional effects
Brain lesions affect emotions
Fear is mediated by circuitry that includes the amygdala
Different emotions activate different regions of the human brain
Neural Circuitry, Hormones, and Synaptic Transmitters Mediate Violence and Aggression
What is aggression?
Androgens seem to increase aggression
Aggression has several neurochemical correlates
The biopsychology of human violence is a topic of controversy
Stress Activates Many Bodily Responses
The stress response has multiple stages
Individual differences in the stress response
Stress and Emotions Affect the Immune System
Emotions and stress influence cardiac function
Emotions and stress influence the immune system
Why does stress suppress the immune system?
Visual Summary
Chapter 16 Psychopathology: Biological Basis of Behavioral Disorders
The Toll of Psychiatric Disorders Is Huge
Schizophrenia Is the Major Neurobiological Challenge in Psychiatry
Schizophrenia is characterized by an unusual array of symptoms
Schizophrenia has a heritable component
The brains of some patients with schizophrenia show structural and functional changes
Antipsychotic medications revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia
An integrative psychobiological model of schizophrenia emphasizes the interaction of multiple factors
Bipolar disorder has a lot in common with schizophrenia
Mood Disorders Are a Major Psychiatric Category
Depression is the most prevalent mood disorder
Inheritance is an important determinant of depression
The brain changes with depression
A wide variety of treatments are available for depression
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is involved in depression
Why do more females than males suffer from depression?
Sleep characteristics change in affective disorders
Scientists are still searching for animal models of depression
There Are Several Types of Anxiety Disorders
Drug treatment of anxiety provides clues to the mechanisms of this disorder
In posttraumatic stress disorder, horrible memories won’t go away
In obsessive-compulsive disorder, thoughts and acts keep repeating
Visual Summary
PART VI
Cognitive Neuroscience
Chapter 17
Learning and Memory
There Are Several Kinds of Learning and Memory
For patient H.M., the present vanished into oblivion
Medial temporal lobe structures are crucial for declarative memory
Damage to the medial diencephalon can also cause amnesia
The cortex is essential for long-term storage of memories
Different Forms of Nondeclarative Memory Involve Different Brain Regions
Specific functions depend on different forms of nondeclarative memory
Medial temporal mechanisms keep track of positions in spatial, temporal, and social networks
Successive Processes Capture, Store, and Retrieve Information in the Brain
A variety of brain regions are involved in different attributes of working memory
Brain regions involved in learning and memory: A summary
STM and LTM involve several different processes
Memory Storage Requires Physical Changes in the Brain
Plastic changes at synapses can be physiological or structural
Varied experiences and learning cause the brain to change and grow
Invertebrate Nervous Systems Show Plasticity
Some Simple Learning in Mammals Relies on Circuits in the Cerebellum
Synaptic Plasticity Can Be Measured in Simple Hippocampal Circuits
LTP occurs at several sites in the hippocampal formation
NMDA receptors and AMPA receptors collaborate in LTP
Is LTP a mechanism of memory formation?
In the Adult Brain, Newly Born Neurons May Aid Learning
Learning and Memory Change as We Age
Age-related impairments of memory have several causes
Can the effects of aging on memory be prevented or alleviated?
Visual Summary
Chapter 18
Attention and Higher Cognition
Attention Selects Stimuli for Processing
There are limits on attention
Attention Is Deployed in Several Different Ways
We can decide where to direct our attention
Some stimuli grab our attention
Attention helps us to search a cluttered world for specific patterns
Attention Affects the Functioning of the Brain
Distinctive patterns of brain electrical activity mark shifts of attention
Neuroimaging confirms that the anatomical foci of attention show augmented processing
Attention alters the functioning of individual neurons
A Network of Brain Sites Creates and Directs Attention
The superior colliculus guides attentional eye movements
The pulvinar drives shifts of attention
Several cortical areas are crucial for generating and directing attention
Multiple brain regions collaborate in networks that govern attention
Disorders Provide Clues about the Organization of Attention
Neglect of one side of the body and space can result from parietal lobe injury
In Bálint’s syndrome, narrowed attention combines with spatial disorientation
Difficulty with sustained attention can sometimes be relieved with stimulants
Consciousness Is a Mysterious Product of the Brain
Which brain regions are active when we are conscious?
Some aspects of consciousness are easier to study than others
The frontal lobes are a crucial part of the executive system that guides our thoughts, feelings, and choices
Frontal lobe injury in humans leads to emotional, motor, and cognitive changes
Frontal mechanisms sift alternatives, evaluate risk and reward, and guide decisions accordingly
Visual Summary
Chapter 19
Language and Lateralization
The Left Brain Is Different from the Right Brain
Disconnection of the cerebral hemispheres reveals their individual specializations
The two hemispheres process information differently in most humans
The left and right hemispheres differ in their auditory specializations
Handedness is associated with cerebral lateralization
How did hemispheric asymmetry and specialization evolve?
Right-Hemisphere Damage Impairs Spatial Cognition
In prosopagnosia, faces are unrecognizable
Language Disorders Result from Region-Specific Brain Damage
Lesions of a left anterior speech zone cause nonfluent (or Broca’s) aphasia
Lesions of a left posterior speech zone cause fluent (or Wernicke’s) aphasia
Widespread left-hemisphere damage can obliterate language capabilities
Competing Models Describe the Left-Hemisphere Language System
Brain Mapping Provides Information about the Organization of Language in the Brain
Cortical stimulation mapping provides precise identification of language areas
Functional neuroimaging tracks activity in the brain’s language zones
Language Has Both Learned and Unlearned Components
Nonhuman primates engage in elaborate vocal behavior
Reading Skills Are Difficult to Acquire and Frequently Impaired
Brain damage may cause specific impairments in reading
Some people struggle to read throughout their lives
Stabilization and Reorganization Are Crucial for Recovery of Function
The brain regrows and reorganizes anatomically after being injured
Rehabilitation and retraining can help recovery from brain and spinal cord injury
Visual Summary
Appendix:
Molecular Biology: Basic Concepts and Important Techniques
Genes Carry Information That Encodes the Synthesis of Proteins
Genetic information is stored in molecules of DNA
DNA is transcribed to produce messenger RNA
RNA molecules direct the formation of protein molecules
Molecular Biologists Have Craftily Enslaved Microorganisms and Enzymes
Southern blots identify particular genes
Northern blots identify particular mRNA transcripts
In situ hybridization localizes mRNA transcripts within specific cells
Western blots identify particular proteins
Antibodies can also tell us which cells possess a particular protein
Gene Editing Enables the Creation of Model Organisms
Glossary
Illustration Credits
References
Author Index
Subject Index
About the Book

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