Biology: Concepts and Applications (8th Edition)

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Download Biology: Concepts and Applications (8th Edition) written by Cecie Starr, Christine Evers, Lisa Starr in PDF format. This book is under the category Biology and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 1439046735/9781439046739. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

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Specifications

book-author

Cecie Starr, Christine Evers, Lisa Starr

publisher

Cengage Learning; 8th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

864 pages

language

English

asin

B00B7K703M

isbn10

1439046735

isbn13

9781439046739


Book Description

Engaging; clear and visual; Biology: Concepts And Applications 8th edition (PDF) equips non-biology majors with the science they will need in life! Renowned for its writing style and trendsetting art; the latest new 8th edition includes learning features; enhanced visual pedagogy; and media options. Helping visual learners; “Figure It Out” questions in many illustrations ensure biology students understand the concepts. The new Data Analysis Activities at the end of every chapter help students strengthen their analytical skills. New “Take Home Messages” ensure college students grasp key concepts while special features like the chapter opening case studies and “How Would You Vote?” questions enliven the subject matter and make relevant connections between real-life concerns and biology. Helpful media options include the interactive Aplia program that connects with today’s college students. Throughout this issues-oriented textbook; the authors emphasize that biology is an ongoing endeavor carried out by a diverse community of people and prepare biology and non-biology students to make decisions that require an understanding of the process of science and basic biological principles.

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NOTE: This sale only includes the PDF eBook.

Additional information

book-author

Cecie Starr, Christine Evers, Lisa Starr

publisher

Cengage Learning; 8th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

864 pages

language

English

asin

B00B7K703M

isbn10

1439046735

isbn13

9781439046739

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Cover Page……Page 1
Title Page……Page 3
Copyright Page
……Page 5
PREFACE……Page 23
CONTENTS IN BRIEF……Page 6
DETAILED CONTENTS……Page 7
1.1 The Secret Life of Earth……Page 29
A Pattern in Life’s Organization……Page 30
Organisms Require Energy and Nutrients……Page 32
Organisms Use DNA……Page 33
1.4 How Living Things Differ……Page 34
A Rose by Any Other Name . . …….Page 36
How Science Works……Page 38
Butterflies and Birds……Page 40
Problems With Probability……Page 42
Bothering With Bias……Page 43
The Limits of Science……Page 44
The Secret Life of Earth (revisited)……Page 45
2.1 Mercury Rising……Page 49
2.2 Start With Atoms……Page 50
Isotopes and Radioisotopes……Page 51
Energy Levels……Page 52
Sharing Electrons……Page 53
Covalent Bonds……Page 54
Hydrogen Bonds……Page 55
Water Is an Excellent Solvent……Page 56
Water Stabilizes Temperature……Page 57
2.6 Acids and Bases……Page 58
Mercury Rising (revisited)……Page 59
3.1 Fear of Frying……Page 63
Functional Groups……Page 64
What Cells Do to Organic Compounds……Page 65
Complex Carbohydrates……Page 66
Fats……Page 68
Steroids……Page 69
Protein Structure……Page 70
3.6 The Importance of Protein Structure……Page 72
Fear of Frying (revisited)……Page 73
4.1 Food for Thought……Page 77
Constraints on Cell Size……Page 78
Cell Theory……Page 79
4.3 Spying on Cells……Page 80
Membrane Proteins……Page 82
Variations on the Model……Page 83
4.5 Introducing Bacteria and Archaeans……Page 84
Biofilms……Page 85
4.6 Introducing Eukaryotic Cells……Page 86
4.7 The Nucleus……Page 87
A Variety of Vesicles……Page 88
Golgi Bodies……Page 89
Mitochondria……Page 90
Chloroplasts and Other Plastids……Page 91
4.10 The Dynamic Cytoskeleton……Page 92
Matrixes Between and Around Cells……Page 94
Cell Junctions……Page 95
4.12 A Visual Summary of Eukaryotic Cell Components……Page 96
Food for Thought (revisited)……Page 97
5.1 A Toast to Alcohol Dehydrogenase……Page 101
Energy’s One-Way Flow……Page 102
Why Earth Does Not Go Up in Flames……Page 104
ATP—The Cell’s Energy Currency……Page 105
5.4 How Enzymes Work……Page 106
Help From Cofactors……Page 107
Controls Over Metabolism……Page 108
Redox Reactions……Page 109
Diffusion Across Membranes……Page 110
Turgor……Page 111
Active Transport……Page 112
5.8 Membrane Trafficking……Page 114
A Toast to Alcohol Dehydrogenase (revisited)……Page 115
6.1 Green Energy……Page 119
Pigments: The Rainbow Catchers……Page 120
6.3 Exploring the Rainbow……Page 122
6.4 Overview of Photosynthesis……Page 123
Harvesting Electron Energy……Page 124
The Cyclic Pathway……Page 125
6.6 Energy Flow in Photosynthesis……Page 126
6.7 Light-Independent Reactions: The Sugar Factory……Page 127
6.8 Adaptations: Carbon-Fixing Pathways……Page 128
Green Energy (revisited)……Page 129
7.1 When Mitochondria Spin Their Wheels……Page 133
Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathways……Page 134
7.3 Glycolysis—Glucose Breakdown Starts……Page 136
The Krebs Cycle……Page 138
Electron Transfer Phosphorylation……Page 140
Summing Up: The Energy Harvest……Page 141
Lactate Fermentation……Page 142
7.7 Alternative Energy Sources in the Body……Page 144
When Mitochondria Spin Their Wheels (revisited)……Page 145
8.1 A Hero Dog’s Golden Clones……Page 149
Chromosome Number……Page 150
Types of Chromosomes……Page 151
Early and Puzzling Clues……Page 152
Confirmation of DNA’s Function……Page 153
DNA’s Building Blocks……Page 154
DNA’s Base Pair Sequence……Page 155
8.6 DNA Replication and Repair……Page 156
Proofreading……Page 157
8.7 Using DNA To Duplicate Existing Mammals……Page 158
A Hero Dog’s Golden Clones (revisited)……Page 159
9.1 Ricin and Your Ribosomes……Page 163
Converting mRNA to Protein……Page 164
9.3 Transcription……Page 166
Post-Transcriptional Modifications……Page 167
9.4 RNA and the Genetic Code……Page 168
rRNA and tRNA—The Translators……Page 169
9.5 Translating the Code: RNA to Protein……Page 170
9.6 Mutated Genes and Their Protein Products……Page 172
What Causes Mutations?……Page 173
Ricin and Your Ribosomes (revisited)……Page 174
10.1 Between You and Eternity……Page 177
10.2 Gene Expression in Eukaryotic Cells……Page 178
Homeotic Genes……Page 180
Filling in Details of Body Plans……Page 181
Male Sex Determination in Humans……Page 182
Flower Formation……Page 183
The Lactose Operon……Page 184
Between You and Eternity (revisited)……Page 185
11.1 Henrietta’s Immortal Cells……Page 189
The Life of a Cell……Page 190
A Bigger Picture of Cell Division……Page 191
11.3 Mitosis……Page 192
11.4 Cytokinesis: Division of Cytoplasm……Page 194
11.5 Controls Over Cell Division……Page 195
11.6 Cancer: When Control Is Lost……Page 196
Henrietta’s Immortal Cells (revisited)……Page 197
12.1 Why Sex?……Page 201
What Meiosis Does……Page 202
12.3 The Process of Meiosis……Page 204
Segregation of Chromosomes Into Gametes……Page 206
12.5 From Gametes to Offspring……Page 208
12.6 Mitosis and Meiosis—An Ancestral Connection?……Page 210
Why Sex? (revisited)……Page 211
13.1 Menacing Mucus……Page 215
Mendel’s Experimental Approach……Page 216
Inheritance in Modern Terms……Page 217
13.3 Mendel’s Law of Segregation……Page 218
13.4 Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment……Page 220
The Contribution of Crossovers……Page 221
13.5 Beyond Simple Dominance……Page 222
13.6 Complex Variation in Traits……Page 224
Menacing Mucus (revisited)……Page 225
14.1 Shades of Skin……Page 229
Types of Genetic Variation……Page 230
The Autosomal Dominant Pattern……Page 232
The Autosomal Recessive Pattern……Page 233
Red–Green Color Blindness……Page 234
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy……Page 235
14.5 Heritable Changes in Chromosome Structure……Page 236
Chromosome Changes in Evolution……Page 237
Change in the Sex Chromosome Number……Page 238
Prenatal Diagnosis……Page 240
Shades of Skin (revisited)……Page 241
15.1 Personal DNA Testing……Page 245
15.2 Cloning DNA……Page 246
cDNA Cloning……Page 247
PCR……Page 248
15.4 DNA Sequencing……Page 250
The Human Genome Project……Page 251
DNA Profiling……Page 252
15.7 Designer Plants……Page 254
Knockouts and Organ Factories……Page 256
15.9 Safety Issues……Page 257
15.10 Genetically Modified Humans……Page 258
Personal DNA Testing (revisited)……Page 259
16.1 Reflections of a Distant Past……Page 263
16.2 Early Beliefs, Confounding Discoveries……Page 264
Darwin and the HMS Beagle……Page 266
A Key Insight—Variation in Traits……Page 268
Great Minds Think Alike……Page 269
The Fossil Record……Page 270
Radiometric Dating……Page 271
16.6 Putting Time Into Perspective……Page 272
16.7 Drifting Continents, Changing Seas……Page 274
Morphological Divergence……Page 276
Morphological Convergence……Page 277
Developmental Comparisons in Animals……Page 278
Reflections of a Distant Past (revisited)……Page 279
17.1 Rise of the Super Rats……Page 283
An Evolutionary View of Mutations……Page 284
Allele Frequencies……Page 285
17.3 A Closer Look at Genetic Equilibrium……Page 286
17.4 Patterns of Natural Selection……Page 287
17.5 Directional Selection……Page 288
Stabilizing Selection……Page 290
Disruptive Selection……Page 291
17.7 Fostering Diversity……Page 292
17.8 Genetic Drift……Page 294
17.9 Gene Flow……Page 295
Mechanisms of Reproductive Isolation……Page 296
Speciation in Archipelagos……Page 298
Sympatric Speciation……Page 300
Parapatric Speciation……Page 301
Patterns of Macroevolution……Page 302
Evolutionary Theory……Page 303
How We Use Evolutionary Biology……Page 304
Rise of the Super Rats (revisited)……Page 305
18.1 Looking for Life……Page 309
Conditions on the Early Earth……Page 310
Delivery From Space……Page 311
Origin of the Cell Membrane……Page 312
Origin of the Genome……Page 313
Effects of Increasing Oxygen……Page 314
The Rise of Eukaryotes……Page 315
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts……Page 316
Additional Evidence of Endosymbiosis……Page 317
18.7 Time Line for Life’s Origin and Evolution……Page 318
Looking for Life (revisited)……Page 320
19.1 Evolution of a Disease……Page 323
Viral Replication……Page 324
Emerging Viral Diseases……Page 326
19.4 Viroids: Tiny Plant Pathogens……Page 327
Abundance and Metabolic Diversity……Page 328
Horizontal Gene Transfers……Page 329
The Thick-Walled Gram Positives……Page 330
Parasitic Chlamydias……Page 331
Archaean Diversity……Page 332
Evolution of a Disease (revisited)……Page 333
20.1 Harmful Algal Blooms……Page 337
20.2 A Collection of Lineages……Page 338
20.3 Flagellated Protozoans……Page 339
Dinoflagellates……Page 340
Apicomplexans……Page 341
20.6 Malaria and the Night-Feeding Mosquitoes……Page 342
20.7 Stramenopiles……Page 343
Green Algae……Page 344
Evolutionary Connections to Land Plants……Page 345
Slime Molds……Page 346
Harmful Algal Blooms (revisited)……Page 347
21.1 Speaking for the Trees……Page 351
The Plant Life Cycle……Page 352
Pollen and Seeds……Page 353
Bryophyte Characteristics……Page 354
Liverworts and Hornworts……Page 355
Ferns—The Most Diverse Seedless Plants……Page 356
Rise of the Seed Plants……Page 358
A Representative Life Cycle……Page 360
A Representative Life Cycle……Page 362
21.8 Ecological and Economic Importance of Angiosperms……Page 364
Speaking for the Trees (revisited)……Page 365
22.1 High-Flying Fungi……Page 369
Fungal Diversity……Page 370
Glomeromycetes……Page 371
A Sampling of Diversity……Page 372
22.5 Club Fungi……Page 373
Mycorrhizae: Fungus + Roots……Page 374
High-Flying Fungi (revisited)……Page 375
23.1 Old Genes, New Drugs……Page 379
Evolution of Animal Body Plans……Page 380
Fossil Evidence……Page 382
Sponge Reproduction……Page 383
Cnidarian Life Cycles and Diversity……Page 384
Decline of the Corals, Rise of the Jellies……Page 385
Structure of a Free-Living Flatworm……Page 386
Flukes and Tapeworms—The Parasites……Page 387
Earthworms—Oligochaetes That Burrow……Page 388
Bivalves……Page 390
Cephalopods……Page 391
23.9 Roundworms……Page 392
Key Arthropod Adaptations……Page 393
23.11 Spiders and Their Relatives……Page 394
23.12 Crustaceans……Page 395
Diversity and Abundance……Page 396
Vectors for Disease……Page 398
Old Genes, New Drugs (revisited)……Page 399
24.1 Windows on the Past……Page 403
Overview of Chordate Evolution……Page 404
Fishes With Jaws……Page 406
Modern Amphibians……Page 408
Declining Amphibian Diversity……Page 409
24.5 Evolution of the Amniotes……Page 410
Major Groups……Page 411
24.7 Birds—Reptiles With Feathers……Page 412
Three Mammalian Lineages……Page 413
Key Trends in Primate Evolution……Page 414
Early Humans……Page 416
Where Did Modern Humans Originate?……Page 418
Windows on the Past (revisited)……Page 419
25.1 Sequestering Carbon in Forests……Page 423
Overview of Plant Tissue Systems……Page 424
Introducing Meristems……Page 425
Complex Tissues……Page 426
Internal Structure of Stems……Page 428
Primary Growth of a Stem……Page 429
Fine Structure……Page 430
Root Systems……Page 432
Internal Structure of Roots……Page 433
25.7 Secondary Growth……Page 434
25.8 Variations on a Stem……Page 436
Sequestering Carbon in Forests (revisited)……Page 437
26.1 Mean Green Cleaning Machines……Page 441
Properties of Soil……Page 442
Control Over Uptake……Page 444
The Cohesion–Tension Theory……Page 446
Stomata……Page 448
Pressure Flow Theory……Page 450
Mean Green Cleaning Machines (revisited)……Page 451
27.1 Plight of the Honeybee……Page 455
Anatomy of a Flower……Page 456
Pollinators……Page 457
27.3 A New Generation Begins……Page 458
Fruits……Page 460
27.5 Asexual Reproduction in Plants……Page 461
27.6 Patterns of Development in Plants……Page 462
Plant Development……Page 463
Plant Hormones……Page 464
Other Signaling Molecules……Page 465
27.8 Adjusting the Direction and Rate of Growth……Page 466
When to Flower?……Page 468
Senescence……Page 470
Plight of the Honeybee (revisited)……Page 471
28.1 Stem Cells……Page 475
The Internal Environment……Page 476
Evolution of Animal Structure……Page 477
Types of Epithelium……Page 478
Carcinomas—Epithelial Cell Cancers……Page 479
Specialized Connective Tissues……Page 480
Smooth Muscle……Page 482
28.6 Nervous Tissue……Page 483
Vertebrate Organ Systems……Page 484
Structure of the Skin……Page 486
Farming Skin……Page 487
Negative Feedback Control of Body Temperature……Page 488
Stem Cells (revisited)……Page 489
29.1 In Pursuit of Ecstasy……Page 493
Bilateral, Cephalized Invertebrates……Page 494
The Vertebrate Nervous System……Page 495
29.3 Neurons—The Communicators……Page 496
Action Potential……Page 497
An All-or-Nothing Spike……Page 498
Propagation Along the Axon……Page 499
Cleaning the Cleft……Page 500
Neurotransmitter and Receptor Diversity……Page 501
Effects of Psychoactive Drugs……Page 502
Somatic and Autonomic Divisions……Page 504
Spinal Cord Injury and Multiple Sclerosis……Page 506
The Human Brain……Page 508
Connections With the Limbic System……Page 510
In Pursuit of Ecstasy (revisited)……Page 511
30.1 A Whale of a Dilemma……Page 515
Sensation and Perception……Page 516
Pain……Page 517
The Human Eye……Page 518
Focusing Mechanisms……Page 519
30.5 The Human Retina……Page 520
30.6 Visual Disorders……Page 521
Sense of Taste……Page 522
30.8 Keeping the Body Balanced……Page 523
Vertebrate Hearing……Page 524
A Whale of a Dilemma (revisited)……Page 525
31.1 Hormones in the Balance……Page 529
Neuroendocrine Interactions……Page 530
Receptor Function and Diversity……Page 532
Anterior Pituitary Function……Page 534
31.5 Sources and Effects of Other Vertebrate Hormones……Page 536
Parathyroid Glands and Calcium Levels……Page 537
Stress, Elevated Cortisol, and Health……Page 538
Adrenal Insufficiency……Page 539
31.8 Pancreatic Hormones……Page 540
31.9 Diabetes……Page 541
The Thymus……Page 542
Hormones in the Balance (revisited)……Page 543
32.1 Muscles and Myostatin……Page 547
Features of the Vertebrate Endoskeleton……Page 548
The Human Skeleton……Page 549
Bone Formation and Turnover……Page 550
Where Bones Meet—Skeletal Joints……Page 551
Tender or Torn Tendons……Page 552
The Sliding-Filament Model……Page 554
Motor Units and Muscle Tension……Page 556
Types of Muscle Fibers……Page 557
Muscular Dystrophy……Page 558
Muscles and Myostatin (revisited)……Page 559
33.1 And Then My Heart Stood Still……Page 563
Evolution of Vertebrate Circulation……Page 564
33.3 The Human Cardiovascular System……Page 566
The Cardiac Cycle……Page 568
Setting the Pace for Contraction……Page 569
Human Blood Volume and Composition……Page 570
Return to the Heart—Venules and Veins……Page 572
33.7 Blood Pressure……Page 573
How Substances Cross Capillary Walls……Page 574
When Venous Flow Slows……Page 575
Atherosclerosis and Heart Disease……Page 576
Risk Factors……Page 577
Lymph Vascular System……Page 578
And Then My Heart Stood Still (revisited)……Page 579
34.1 Frankie’s Last Wish……Page 583
The Defenders……Page 584
34.3 Surface Barriers……Page 586
Barriers to Infection……Page 587
Inflammation……Page 588
Fever……Page 589
Antibodies and Other Antigen Receptors……Page 590
Antigen Processing……Page 591
Two Arms of Adaptive Immunity……Page 592
Intercepting and Clearing Out Antigen……Page 593
34.7 The Antibody-Mediated Immune Response……Page 594
34.8 Blood Typing……Page 595
34.9 The Cell-Mediated Response……Page 596
34.10 Allergies……Page 597
34.11 Vaccines……Page 598
Immunodeficiency……Page 599
34.13 AIDS……Page 600
Frankie’s Last Wish (revisited)……Page 601
35.1 Up in Smoke……Page 605
Factors That Affect Gas Exchange……Page 606
35.3 Invertebrate Respiration……Page 607
Evolution of Paired Lungs……Page 608
From Airways to Alveoli……Page 610
Respiratory Volumes……Page 612
Control of Breathing……Page 613
Carbon Dioxide Transport……Page 614
Effects of Altitude……Page 615
35.8 Common Respiratory Diseases and Disorders……Page 616
Up in Smoke (revisited)……Page 617
36.1 The Battle Against Bulge……Page 621
Diet-Related Structural Adaptations……Page 622
36.3 The Human Digestive System……Page 624
36.4 Digestion in the Mouth……Page 625
Stomach Disorders……Page 626
36.6 Structure of the Small Intestine……Page 627
Fat Digestion and Absorption……Page 628
Disorders That Affect Digestion in the Small Intestine……Page 629
Health and the Colon……Page 630
36.9 The Fate of Absorbed Compounds……Page 631
Good Fat, Bad Fat……Page 632
Body-Building Proteins……Page 633
36.11 Vitamins and Minerals……Page 634
Why Is Obesity Unhealthy?……Page 636
The Battle Against Bulge (revisited)……Page 637
37.1 Truth in a Test Tube……Page 641
Water-Solute Balance in Invertebrates……Page 642
Water-Solute Balance in Vertebrates……Page 643
Introducing the Nephrons……Page 644
Concentrating the Urine……Page 646
Hormonal Effects on Urine Formation……Page 647
Treating Kidney Failure……Page 648
Endotherm? Ectotherm? Heterotherm?……Page 649
Responses to Cold Stress……Page 650
Truth in a Test Tube (revisited)……Page 651
38.1 Mind-Boggling Births……Page 655
Gamete Formation and Fertilization……Page 656
Nourishing the Developing Young……Page 657
Male Reproductive Anatomy……Page 658
Sperm Formation……Page 659
Female Reproductive Anatomy……Page 660
Oocyte Maturation and Release……Page 661
The Ovarian and Menstrual Cycles……Page 662
From Puberty to Menopause……Page 663
Fertilization……Page 664
38.7 Preventing Pregnancy……Page 666
38.8 Sexually Transmitted Diseases……Page 667
38.9 Overview of Animal Development……Page 668
Cleavage—The Start of Multicellularity……Page 670
From Blastula to Gastrula……Page 671
Cell Movements and Apoptosis……Page 672
Evolution and Development……Page 673
Extraembryonic Membranes……Page 674
Gastrulation and Organ Formation……Page 675
38.13 Emergence of Distinctly Human Features……Page 676
38.14 Function of the Placenta……Page 678
Mind-Boggling Births (revisited)……Page 679
39.1 An Aggressive Defense……Page 683
Genetic Variation Within a Species……Page 684
Human Behavior Genetics……Page 685
Time-Sensitive Learning……Page 686
Other Types of Learned Behavior……Page 687
39.5 Communication Signals……Page 688
Mating Behavior……Page 690
Parental Care……Page 691
Improved Feeding Opportunities……Page 692
Regarding the Costs……Page 693
Evolution of Altruism……Page 694
An Aggressive Defense (revisited)……Page 695
40.1 A Honking Mess……Page 699
Population Density and Distribution……Page 700
Effects of Scale and Timing……Page 701
From Zero to Exponential Growth……Page 702
What Is the Biotic Potential?……Page 703
Two Categories of Limiting Factors……Page 704
Patterns of Survival and Reproduction……Page 706
Allocating Reproductive Investment……Page 707
Effect of Predation on Guppies……Page 708
Effect of Overfishing on Atlantic Cod……Page 709
A History of Human Population Growth……Page 710
Fertility Rates and Future Growth……Page 711
Development and Demographics……Page 712
A Honking Mess (revisited)……Page 713
41.1 Fighting Foreign Fire Ants……Page 717
41.2 Community Structure……Page 718
41.3 Mutualism……Page 719
Effects of Competition……Page 720
Resource Partitioning……Page 721
Coevolution of Predators and Prey……Page 722
Coevolution of Herbivores and Plants……Page 723
Strangers in the Nest……Page 724
Biological Controls……Page 725
Factors That Influence Succession……Page 726
Adapting to Disturbance……Page 728
Species Introductions……Page 729
Island Patterns……Page 730
Fighting Foreign Fire Ants (revisited)……Page 731
42.1 Too Much of a Good Thing……Page 735
Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycling……Page 736
42.3 Food Chains……Page 737
42.4 Food Webs……Page 738
42.5 Ecological Pyramids……Page 739
Limited Fresh Water……Page 740
Carbon Reservoirs and Movements……Page 742
Carbon, the Greenhouse Effect, and Global Warming……Page 743
Human Effects on the Nitrogen Cycle……Page 744
Too Much of a Good Thing (revisited)……Page 745
43.1 Effects of El Niño……Page 749
Air Circulation and Rainfall……Page 750
Surface Wind Patterns……Page 751
Regional Effects……Page 752
Similarities Within a Biome……Page 754
Adaptations to Desert Conditions……Page 756
The Crust Community……Page 757
Savannas……Page 758
43.7 Dry Shrublands and Woodlands……Page 759
Tropical Rain Forests……Page 760
43.9 Coniferous Forests……Page 762
Alpine Tundra……Page 763
Lakes……Page 764
The Importance of Dissolved Oxygen……Page 765
Rocky and Sandy Shores……Page 766
43.13 Coral Reefs……Page 767
The Benthic Province……Page 768
Effects of El Niño (revisited)……Page 769
44.1 A Long Reach……Page 773
Causes of Species Declines……Page 774
The Unknown Losses……Page 775
Deforestation……Page 776
44.4 Acid Rain……Page 777
Point and Nonpoint Sources……Page 778
44.6 The Trouble With Trash……Page 779
Near-Ground Ozone Pollution……Page 780
44.8 Global Climate Change……Page 781
Setting Priorities……Page 782
Preservation and Restoration……Page 783
44.10 Reducing Negative Impacts……Page 784
A Long Reach (revisited)……Page 785
Appendix I Classification System……Page 788
Appendix II Annotations to A Journal Article……Page 792
Appendix III Answers to Self-Quizzes and Genetics Problems……Page 800
Appendix IV Periodic Table of the Elements……Page 804
Appendix V Molecular Models……Page 805
Appendix VI Closer Look at Some Major Metabolic Pathways……Page 807
Appendix VII A Plain English Map of the Human Chromosomes……Page 811
Appendix VIII Restless Earth—Life’s Changing Geologic Stage……Page 812
Appendix IX Units of Measure……Page 814
Appendix X A Comparative View of Mitosis in Plant and Animal Cells……Page 815
Glossary……Page 816
Index……Page 843

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