Earth’s Evolving Systems: The History of Planet Earth (2nd Edition)

Download Earth’s Evolving Systems: The History of Planet Earth (2nd Edition) written by Ronald E. Martin in PDF format. This book is under the category Geology and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 1284108295/9781284108293. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.


SKU: cdcd798032e9 Category: Tag:



Ronald E. Martin


Jones – Bartlett Learning; 2nd edition




637 pages









Book Description

Earth’s Evolving Systems: The History of Planet Earth, 2nd Edition is an introductory textbook that was developed for popular courses in undergraduate Earth history. The book is available in PDF format. It is written from the “systems perspective” for college students and covers the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Additionally, it discusses how the various systems, life, and plate tectonics have interacted with each other and changed over geologic time. This method of studying the history of Earth incorporates the study of present Earth systems with the study of previous Earth systems, which piques the interest of students in the process. There is no other online textbook that successfully bridges the gap between the behavior of Earth’s systems and traditional historical geology, and does so with pictures and artwork of a higher quality. Earth’s Evolving Systems: The History of Planet Earth, 2nd Edition provides the foundation for comprehending this intriguing branch of science by capturing the energy and excitement of the fascinating history of our planet.

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Table of contents

Table of contents :
Brief Contents
Preface to the Second Edition: For the Instructor and Student
The Student Experience
Teaching Tools
About the Author
Part I Earth Systems: Their Nature and Their Study
Chapter 1 Introduction: Investigating Earth’s Systems
1.1 Why Study the History of Earth?
1.2 What Are the Major Earth Systems, and What Are Their Characteristics?
1.3 Geologic Time and Process
1.4 Directionality and the Evolution of Earth Systems
1.5 Geology as an Historical Science
1.6 Method and Study of Earth’s Evolving Systems
Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Structure of Earth
2.3 Plate Tectonics: From Hypothesis to Theory
2.3.1 Early studies of mountain building
2.3.2 Hypothesis of continental drift
2.3.3 Hypothesis of seafloor spreading
2.3.4 Corroboration of seafloor spreading
2.4 Continental Margins and Plate Boundaries: Features and Behavior
2.4.1 Types of margins
2.4.2 Tectonic features of Earth’s surface
2.4.3 Types of plate boundaries
2.5 Orogenesis
2.5.1 Types of orogenesis
2.5.2 Rocks and sediments associated with orogenesis
2.6 Isostasy
2.7 Tectonic Cycle
Tectonic Cycle and Scientific Method
Chapter 3 Earth Systems: Processes and Interactions
The Solid Earth System: Components and Processes
Rock Cycle
3.2.1 Igneous rocks
3.2.2 Sedimentary rocks
3.2.3 Metamorphic rocks
Atmosphere and Its Circulation
The Hydrosphere
3.4.1 Hydrologic cycle
3.4.2 Ocean circulation
3.5 The Biosphere
3.5.1 Biogeography: distribution of plants and animals over Earth’s surface
3.5.2 Energy relationships
3.5.3 Biogeochemical cycles
3.6 The Tectonic Cycle and Earth Systems
Chapter 4 Sedimentary Rocks, Sedimentary Environments, and Fossils
4.1 Introduction to Sedimentary Rocks
4.2 Processes of Weathering
4.3 Terrigenous Sedimentary Rocks
4.3.1 Formation of terrigenous sediments
4.3.2 What do terrigenous sedimentary rocks tell us about how they formed?
4.4 Biogenic Sedimentary Rocks
4.5 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
4.6 Marine Environments
4.6.1 Marginal marine environments
4.6.2 Coral reefs
4.6.3 Continental shelves, continental slopes, and the abyss
4.7 Sedimentary Structures
4.8 Fossils
4.8.1 Early processes of fossilization
4.8.2 Modes of preservation
Chapter 5 Evolution and Extinction
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Early Theories of Evolution
5.3 Charles Darwin and the Beginnings of the Modern Theory of Evolution
5.4 Basic Premises of Darwinian Evolution
Inheritance and Variation
5.6 Genetic Code and Mutation
5.7 Evidence for Natural Selection
5.8 Speciation
5.9 Evolution and the Fossil Record
5.9.1 Comparative anatomy
5.9.2 Cladistics
5.9.3 Microevolution
5.9.4 Macroevolution
5.10 Mass Extinction
5.11 Biodiversity Through the Phanerozoic
Chapter 6 Geologic Time and Stratigraphy
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Relative Ages
6.3 Absolute Ages
6.4 Evolution of the Geologic Time Scale
6.5 Correlation
6.5.1 Lithocorrelation
6.5.2 Formations and facies
6.5.3 Biostratigraphy
6.5.4 Integrating different stratigraphic datums
6.6 How Complete Is the Geologic Record?
6.6.1 Unconformities and diastems
6.6.2 Sequence stratigraphy
6.7 Why Is Sea Level So Important?
Part II The Precambrian: Origin and Early Evolution of Earth’s Systems
Chapter 7 An Extraordinary Beginning: Hadean and Archean
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Origin of the Universe
7.2.1 Early observations and theories
7.2.2 The Big Bang: from hypothesis to theory
7.2.3 The inflationary universe
7.3 Origin of Matter and Forces of Nature
7.4 Formation of the Solar System
7.5 The Hadean: Origin of Earth and Moon
7.5.1 Earth’s earliest evolution
7.5.2 Origin of the Moon
7.6 The Archean: Beginnings of a Permanent Crust
7.6.1 Shields and cratons: cores of continents
7.6.2 Gneiss terranes
7.6.3 Greenstone belts
7.6.4 Microplate tectonics and differentiation of the early crust
7.7 Climatic Evolution of the Inner Planets
7.7.1 Habitable zone
7.7.2 Faint young sun
7.7.3 Weathering and tectonism on the inner planets
Chapter 8 Origins of Life
8.1 Life as a Geologic Force
8.2 Early Theories of the Origin of Life: Spontaneous Generation and Panspermia
8.3 What Is Life?
8.3.1 Basic traits of life
8.3.2 Composition of life
8.4 Chemical Evolution
8.4.1 Early theories
8.4.2 Hydrothermal vents and the pyrite world
8.4.3 The RNA world
8.4.4 Autocatalysis
8.5 Origin of Eukaryotic Cells
8.6 Precambrian Fossil Record and Molecular Clocks
8.7 Is There Life on Other Planets?
Chapter 9 The Proterozoic: Life Becomes a Geologic Force
9.1 Significance of the Proterozoic
9.2 Appearance of Modern Plate Tectonics
9.3 Sedimentary Rocks and Continental Shelves
9.4 Oxygenation of Earth’s Atmosphere
9.4.1 Appearance of oxygen
9.4.2 Stages in the oxygenation of Earth’s atmosphere
9.4.3 Rise of ozone
9.5 Snowball Earth: Earth Out of Balance?
9.5.1 Previous hypotheses for Snowball Earths
9.5.2 Snowball Earth reexamined
9.5.3 How could a Snowball Earth have occurred in the first place?
9.5.4 Why were there no Snowball Venuses?
9.5.5 Why didn’t Snowball Earths recur after the Precambrian?
Chapter 10 Life’s “Big Bang”: The Origins and Early Diversification of Multicellular Animals
10.1 Enigma of Multicellular Organisms
10.2 Stages of Life’s Big Bang
10.2.1 Ediacara fauna
10.2.2 Trace fossils and early hard parts
10.2.3 Burgess Shale and the “Cambrian explosion”
10.3 What Do These Faunas Tell Us?
10.4 Why Did Metazoans Appear?
10.4.1 Snowball Earths
10.4.2 Oxygen
10.4.3 Predation
10.4.4 Food
10.4.5 Changes in biogeochemical cycles
10.4.6 Ecologic and genetic mechanisms
10.4.7 Extinction
10.5 Molecular Clocks and the Fossil Record of Early Metazoans
Part III The Phanerozoic: Toward the Modern World
Chapter 11 The Early-to-Middle Paleozoic World
11.1 Introduction: Beginnings of the Phanerozoic Eon
Tectonic Cycle: Impacts on the Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, and Rock Cycle
11.2.1 Sea level, CO2, and sedimentary facies
11.2.2 Ocean circulation and chemistry
11.3 Tectonic Cycle and Orogeny
11.3.1 Physiographic provinces of the Appalachian Mountains
11.3.2 Orogenic episodes
11.4 Impact of Orogeny on Earth Systems
11.5 Diversification of the Marine Biosphere
11.5.1 Plankton and microfossils
11.5.2 Benthic ecosystems
11.5.3 Reefs
11.6 Marine Realm Invades the Terrestrial Biosphere
11.6.1 Invertebrates
11.6.2 Fish
11.6.3 Amphibians and the invasion of land
Land plants and the “greening” of the continents
11.7 Extinction
Chapter 12 The Late Paleozoic World
12.1 Introduction to the Late Paleozoic Era
12.2 Tectonic Cycle: Impacts on the Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, and Rock Cycle
12.2.1 Sea level, CO2, and sedimentary facies
12.2.2 Ocean circulation and chemistry
12.3 Tectonic Cycle and Orogeny
12.3.1 Alleghenian and related orogenies
12.3.2 Ancestral Rockies
12.3.3 Sonoma orogeny
12.4 Impact of Orogeny on Earth Systems
12.5 Diversification of the Marine Biosphere
12.5.1 Plankton and other microfossils
12.5.2 Benthic ecosystems
12.6 Diversification of the Terrestrial Biosphere
12.6.1 Terrestrial floras
12.6.2 Terrestrial floras and oxygen
12.6.3 Invertebrate life on land
12.6.4 Vertebrates
12.7 Multiple Causes of Extinction?
Chapter 13 Mesozoic Era
13.1 Introduction to the Mesozoic Era
13.2 Tectonic Cycle: Impacts on the Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, and Rock Cycle
13.2.1 Rifting of Pangaea
13.2.2 Sea level, CO2, and sedimentary facies
13.2.3 Ocean circulation and chemistry
13.3 Tectonic Cycle and Orogeny
13.3.1 Eastern North America
13.3.2 Cordilleran Orogenic Belt
13.3.3 Orogenic episodes
13.4 Orogeny, Sea Level, and Sedimentation
13.5 Diversification of the Marine Biosphere
13.5.1 Plankton and microfossils
13.5.2 Benthic ecosystems
13.5.3 Marine vertebrates
13.6 Diversification of the Terrestrial Biosphere
13.6.1 Plants and insects
13.6.2 Vertebrates
13.6.3 Evolution of flight
13.6.4 Mammals
13.7 Extinction
13.7.1 Late Triassic extinctions
13.7.2 Late Cretaceous extinctions
Chapter 14 The Cenozoic Era: The Paleogene Period
14.1 Introduction to the Cenozoic Era
14.2 Tectonic Cycle and Orogeny
14.2.1 Europe and Asia
14.2.2 The Pacific Rim
14.2.3 Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains
14.3 Tectonic Cycle: Impacts on Climate, Ocean Circulation, and Chemistry
14.3.1 Climate and ocean circulation
14.3.2 Ocean chemistry
14.4 Diversification of the Marine Biosphere
14.4.1 Microfossils and other invertebrates
14.4.2 Vertebrates
14.5 Diversification of the Terrestrial Biosphere
14.5.1 Plants
14.5.2 Early evolution and diversification of mammals
14.5.3 Archaic mammals
14.5.4 Climate change and mammals
14.5.5 Diversification of modern mammals
14.5.6 Birds
14.6 Extinction: Glaciers, Volcanoes, and Impacts
Chapter 15 The Cenozoic Era: The Neogene Period
15.1 Introduction to the Neogene
15.2 Tectonics and Sedimentation
15.2.1 Europe, Asia, and Africa
15.2.2 Central and South America
15.2.3 Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of North America
15.2.4 Western North America
15.2.5 West Coast of North America
15.2.6 Evolution of the San Andreas Fault system
15.3 How Was the West Widened? Evolution of the Basin and Range
15.3.1 Background
15.3.2 Hypotheses for the formation of the Basin and Range
15.4 Climate, Ocean Circulation, and Chemistry
15.5 The “Ice Ages”: Evolution of a Theory
15.5.1 Background
15.5.2 The eccentricity of James Croll
15.5.3 Precession of the equinoxes
15.5.4 Milutin Milankovitch and obliquity
15.5.5 Planktonic foraminifera and the oxygen isotope curve
15.6 Neogene Life
15.6.1 Marine life
15.6.2 Land plants
15.6.3 Terrestrial vertebrates
15.6.4 Evolution of humans1
15.7 Extinction
Part IV Humans and the Environment
Chapter 16 Rapid Climate Change During the Holocene
16.1 Introduction to the Holocene
16.2 Beginning of the Holocene
16.2.1 Sea-level rise
16.2.2 Younger Dryas
16.3 Rapid Climate Change on Millennial Time Scales
16.3.1 Rapid climate change involving the oceans
16.3.2 Rapid climate change on land
16.4 Rapid Climate Change on Centennial Time Scales
16.5 Rapid Climate Change on Interdecadal to Multidecadal Time Scales
16.6 Climatic Modes and Climatic Irreversibility
Chapter 17 The Anthropocene: Humans as an Environmental Force
17.1 Introduction: From Geohistory to Geopolitics
17.1.1 Climate, history, and the modern world
17.2 Examples of Human–Climate Interactions During the Last Millennium
17.3 Brief History of the Growing Dependence on Fossil Fuels
17.4 Alternative Energy Sources and Technologies
17.4.1 Wind, geothermal, and solar energy
17.4.2 Hydroelectric power
17.4.3 Nuclear energy
17.4.4 Methane gas hydrates
17.4.5 Biofuels
17.4.6 Automobiles
17.5 Consequences of Fossil Fuel Combustion
17.5.1 Carbon dioxide: Temperature rise and ocean acidification
17.5.2 Sea-level rise
17.5.3 Storms
17.5.4 Fisheries
17.5.5 Precipitation patterns
17.5.6 Disease
17.6 Biodiversity and Extinction
17.7 Closer to Home
17.8 Why Should We Care, and What Can We Do?

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