Spencer’s Pathology of the Lung (6th Edition) – 2 Part Set

$19.99

Download Spencer’s Pathology of the Lung (6th Edition) – 2 Part Set written by Philip Hasleton, Douglas B. Flieder in PDF format. This book is under the category Medicine and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 521509955/9780521509954. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

SKU: cff02a74da64 Category: Tag:

Specifications

book-author

Philip Hasleton, Douglas B. Flieder

publisher

Cambridge University Press; 6th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

1640 pages

language

English

asin

B00ADP795Q

isbn10

521509955

isbn13

9780521509954


Book Description

Fully updated and rewritten for the cutting-edge; Spencer’s Pathology of the Lung; 6th edition (PDF) follows in its predecessors’ footsteps as the gold-standard textbook of pulmonary diseases. All recognized diseases of the lungs are discussed and illustrated with extensive; high-quality color images. Every chapter includes clear; practical and concise diagnostic features; including immunohistochemistry; molecular tests; and differential diagnoses; while rare entities are illustrated and discussed in detail.

This thoroughly reworked 6th edition includes new classification schemes and the latest understanding of the pathophysiology and molecular aspects of a wide range of diseases. Non-neoplastic diseases are presented according to genetics; epidemiology; radiographic findings; pathology; clinical manifestations; laboratory findings; cytology; pathogenesis; prognosis; differential diagnosis; and natural history. Neoplasms are discussed according to cell or origin with sections devoted to genetics; molecular findings; and clinicopathologic correlations. Edited and written by leading experts in the field; this is an essential resource for practicing and trainee pathologists.

Additional information

book-author

Philip Hasleton, Douglas B. Flieder

publisher

Cambridge University Press; 6th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

1640 pages

language

English

asin

B00ADP795Q

isbn10

521509955

isbn13

9780521509954

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Cover
Contents
Chapter 1: The normal lung: histology, embryology, development, aging and function
Introduction
Development
Airway and airspace development
Vascular development
Factors regulating lung development
Effect of sex on lung growth
Post-natal lung development
Tracheal growth
Lung
Stem/progenitor cells in the lung
Normal organization
Airways
The trachea
The primary bronchi
The lungs
Blood supply
Lymphatics and lymph nodes
Nerve supply
Pleura
Histology, ultrastructure and function
Trachea, bronchi and bronchioles
Respiratory epithelium
Ciliated cells
Basal cells
Non-ciliated secretory cells
Club cells (Clara cells)
Goblet cells and serous cells
Neuroendocrine cells
Other cells
Brush cells
Intermediate cells
Basement membrane
Smooth muscle
Submucosal glands
Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT)
Acini and alveoli
Type I pneumocytes
Type II pneumocytes
Pulmonary interstitium
Pulmonary vasculature
Pleura
Aging
Structural changes
Functional changes
References
Chapter 2: Lung specimen handling and practical considerations
Introduction
Cytology specimen processing
Small specimen histological processing
Large surgical pathology specimen processing
Lung wedge biopsies
Segmentectomy, simple lobectomy, bronchoplastic resection, pneumonectomy, and autopsy lungs
Evaluation of the large specimen in known or suspected cases of primary lung carcinoma
Large pleural biopsy
Ancillary studies
Artifacts in biopsy
Atelectasis/overinflation
Intra-alveolar hemorrhage
Crush artifact
Sponge artifact
Bubble artifact
Incidental lesions
Large airways
Ossification of tracheobronchial cartilage
Oncocytic metaplasia of bronchial submucosal glands
Bronchial submucosal elastosis and adipose tissue
Parenchymal
Scar
Apical cap
Metaplastic bone and dystrophic ossification
Smooth muscle hyperplasia
Schaumann bodies
Asteroid bodies
Calcium oxalate crystals
Mallorys hyaline-like material in type II pneumocytes
Corpora amylacea
Blue bodies
Senile amyloid
Vascular
Megakaryocytes
Pigmentation of elastic fibers
Microthrombi
Bone marrow emboli
Others
Hamazaki-Wesenberg bodies
Entrapped pleura
Applications and misapplications of the lung biopsy
Efficacy of the transbronchial biopsy
High utility
Probably diagnostic
Possibly diagnostic
Unreliable
Problems with the biopsy
Issues of tissue
Problems in interpretation
References
Chapter 3 Congenital abnormalities and pediatric lung diseases, including neoplasms
Introduction
Congenital malformations
Trachea
Abnormality of tracheal length
Tracheal agenesis
Tracheal stenosis
Intrinsic tracheal stenosis
Diffuse stenosis
Funnel-shaped tracheal stenosis
Segmental stenosis
Extrinsic stenosis
Tracheomalacia
Tracheoesophageal fistula
Tracheobronchiomegaly (Mounier-Kuhn syndrome)
Other causes of tracheal obstruction
Bronchus
Bronchial atresia
Bronchial stenosis
Bronchomalacia
Abnormal bronchial origin and branching
Bronchial isomerism syndromes
Broncho-biliary fistula
Lung
Pulmonary agenesis
Lobar agenesis and other lesser congenital pulmonary anomalies
Pulmonary malformations including cysts
Bronchogenic cysts
Congenital adenomatoid malformation
Subtypes (Table 6)
Large cyst type (Stocker type 1)
Small cyst type (Stocker type 2)
Solid adenomatoid malformation (Stocker type 3)
Peripheral lung cyst (Stocker type 4)
Acinar dysplasia
Pulmonary sequestration and related lesions
Extra-lobar sequestration
Intra-lobar sequestration
Isolated systemic arterial supply
Bronchopulmonary foregut malformation
Polyalveolar lobe
Congenital lobar emphysema
Pulmonary hyperplasia
Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis
Enteric (enterogenous) cysts
Alveolar capillary dysplasia
Abnormal and ectopic tissues in the lungs
Pulmonary hypoplasia
Inadequate thoracic volume
Impairment of fetal breathing
Oligohydramnios
Primary or idiopathic
Diaphragmatic eventration and hernia
Diaphragmatic hernia
Primary ciliary dyskinesia
Cystic fibrosis
Introduction
Clinical features
Genetics and the basic defect
Pathophysiology of the airways and the basic defect
Infection and inflammation
Histopathology and histopathogenesis of lung disease
a1-Antitrypsin deficiency
Perinatal pathology
Hyaline membrane disease
Pulmonary surfactant metabolic dysfunction disorders
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Pathology
Old BPD
Exudative and early reparative phase
Subacute fibroproliferative stage
Chronic fibroproliferative stage
New BPD
Pathogenesis and outcomes
Wilson-Mikity syndrome
Air leaks: pulmonary interstitial emphysema and pneumothorax
Complications of other ventilatory techniques
High-frequency jet ventilation
Extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation
Pulmonary hemorrhage
Thrombosis and embolism
Meconium aspiration syndrome
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn
Diffuse interstitial lung disease in children
Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis
Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy
Infection
Ascending infection
Neonatal bacterial pneumonia
Viral infection
Cytomegalovirus
Herpes simplex virus
Respiratory syncytial virus
Metapneumovirus
Other viruses
Pediatric lung tumors
Introduction
Pleuropulmonary blastoma
Clinical and radiographic features
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Pathogenesis
Treatment and prognosis
Genetics
Differential diagnosis
Rhabdomyosarcoma
Ewing sarcoma
Synovial sarcoma
Congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor
Myofibromatosis
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor
Disseminated juvenile xanthogranuloma
Other tumors
References
Chapter 4 Pulmonary bacterial infections
Background
Epidemiology
Clinical manifestations
Routes of injury
Radiological manifestations
Pathogenesis and normal host defense
Management
Prognosis and natural history
Microbiological work-up
Histological features of bacteria that cause pneumonia
Common bacterial causes of pneumonia
Anaerobic bacteria
Clostridium spp.
Clostridium perfringens
Clostridium septicum
Peptostreptococcus
Chlamydiaceae
Chlamydia trachomatis
Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Chlamydophila psittaci (ornithosis or psittacosis)
Enterobacteriaceae
Escherichia coli
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Proteus mirabilis
Serratia marcescens
Other Gram-negative bacteria
Haemophilus influenzae
Legionella spp
Legionella micdadei (Pittsburgh pneumonia agent)
Legionella pneumophila (Legionnaires disease)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Mycoplasmas
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma spp
Gram-positive bacteria
Staphylococcus spp.
Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus spp. (coagulase-negative)
Botryomycosis
Streptococcaceae
Enterococcus spp.
Streptococcus agalactiae
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal pneumonia)
Streptococcus pyogenes
Streptococcus viridans group
Uncommon bacterial causes
Acinetobacter spp.
Actinomyces and Nocardia spp.
Actinomyces israelii
Nocardia asteroides
Bacillus spp.
Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)
Bacillus cereus
Bacillus sphaericus
Bartonella spp. (bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis)
Brucella spp.
Burkholderia spp.
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Melioidosis)
Burkholderia cepacia
Chromobacterium violaceum
Francisella tularensis (tularemia)
Leptospira spp.
Micrococcus spp
Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis
Neisseria spp
Pasteurella spp.
Rhodococcus equi (malakoplakia)
Salmonella spp.
Treponema pallidum (syphilis)
Tropheryma whipplei (Whipple disease)
Yersinia pestis (plague)
Rickettsiales
Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis)
Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)
Ehrlichia chaffeensis (monocytotropic ehrlichiosis)
Rickettsia conorii
Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever)
Orientia tsutsugamushi (scrub typhus)
References
Chapter 5 Pulmonary viral infections
Introduction
Patterns of respiratory viral disease
Epidemiology
Seasonality
Radiographic appearances
Pathophysiology
Pulmonary defenses
Patterns of lung injury due to viral infection
Tracheobronchitis/bronchiolitis
Diffuse alveolar damage
Individual viruses
Influenzavirus
Severe acute respiratory syndrome
Respiratory syncytial virus
Parainfluenza viruses
Measles
Adenovirus
Cytomegalovirus
Herpesvirus
Varicella zoster virus
Epstein-Barr virus
Human herpesvirus-6
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
Human immunodeficiency virus-1
Chapter 6 Pulmonary mycobacterial infections
Introduction
Epidemiology
Microbiological diagnosis
Clinical and laboratory manifestations
Radiological manifestations
Pathogenesis
Pathology
Macroscopy
Histopathology
Clinicopathologic classification
Primary pulmonary tuberculosis
Secondary pulmonary tuberculosis
Environmental mycobacteriosis
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Sarcoidosis
Fungal infection
Other infections/infestations
Wegener granulomatosis
Churg-Strauss syndrome
Bronchocentric granulomatosis
Rheumatoid nodule
Foreign-body-type cells from aspiration
Granulomatous inflammation in lymph nodes draining cancer
Clinical diagnosis
Clinical management
Prognosis and natural history
References
Chapter 7: Pulmonary mycotic infections
Introduction
General epidemiology
Pulmonary aspergillosis
Introduction
Organisms
Epidemiology
Genetics
Pathogenesis
Different forms of aspergillosis
Allergic forms of pulmonary aspergillosis
Aspergilloma
Introduction
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis
Introduction
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Angioinvasive-disseminated aspergillosis
Introduction
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Granulomatous (tuberculoid) pulmonary aspergillosis
Tracheobronchial aspergillosis
Other forms of pulmonary aspergillosis
Clinical laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus
Culture
Antibody tests
Biomarker detection
Galactomannan
beta-d-Glucan detection
Molecular diagnostics
Differential diagnosis
Treatment and prognosis
Pulmonary mucormycosis
Introduction
Organisms
Epidemiology
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Differential diagnosis
Treatment and prognosis
Pulmonary scedosporiosis
Introduction
Organism
Epidemiology
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Treatment and prognosis
Pulmonary fusariosis
Introduction
Organism
Epidemiology
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Treatment and prognosis
Pulmonary histoplasmosis
Introduction
Organism
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Culture
Serological tests
Antigen detection tests
Differential diagnosis
Treatment
Pulmonary cryptococcosis
Introduction
Organism
Epidemiology
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Culture
Serological tests
Antigen detection tests
Differential diagnosis
Treatment and prognosis
Pulmonary blastomycosis (North American blastomycosis)
Introduction
Organism
Epidemiology
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Culture
Serological tests
Antigen detection tests
Differential diagnosis
Treatment and prognosis
Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis
Introduction
Organism
Epidemiology
Clinical and pathological features
Primary pulmonary infection
Chronic pulmonary infection
Coccidioidoma
Progressive pulmonary disease
Disseminated coccidioidomycosis
Diagnosis
Culture
Skin tests
Serological tests
Antigen detection tests
Differential diagnosis
Treatment and prognosis
Pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis)
Introduction
Organism
Epidemiology
Clinical and pathological features
Acute and subacute pulmonary disease
Progressive pulmonary disease
Diagnosis
Culture
Serological tests
Antigen detection tests
Differential diagnosis
Treatment
Pulmonary candidiasis
Introduction
Organism
Epidemiology and pathogenesis
Clinical features
Endobronchial spread
Hematogenous spread
Pathology
Diagnosis
Non-culture-based methods
Antibody detection
Antigen detection
(1,3)-beta-d-Glucan detection
Molecular methods
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and treatment
Pneumocystis jirovecii infections
Introduction
Organism
Epidemiology
Clinical features
Pathology
Classic (typical) Pneumocystis pneumonia
Atypical features of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
Extrapulmonary Pneumocystis jirovecii infection
Diagnosis
Serological tests
beta-d-Glucan detection
Molecular diagnostics
Differential diagnosis
Treatment and prognosis
Pulmonary sporotrichosis
Introduction
Organism
Epidemiology
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Culture
Serological tests
Differential diagnosis
Treatment and prognosis
Rare pulmonary fungal infections
Adiaspiromycosis
Malassezia spp.
Phaeohyphomycoses
References
Chapter 8: Pulmonary parasitic infections
Introduction
Principles of parasitic infection
Diagnosis of parasitic lung disease
Protozoal infections
Leishmaniasis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Differential diagnosis
Treatment
Amebiasis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Differential diagnosis
Treatment
Free-living amebic infections
Trypanosomiasis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Differential diagnosis
African trypanosomiasis
Malaria
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Pathogenesis
Diagnosis
Differential diagnosis
Treatment and drug toxicity
Babesiosis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis and differential diagnosis
Toxoplasmosis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical findings
Pathology
Diagnosis
Differential diagnosis
Treatment
Microsporidiosis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Differential diagnosis
Treatment
Cryptosporidiosis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Differential diagnosis
Treatment
Very rare protozoal lung infections
Trichomonas
Lophomonas
Cyclospora
Balantidium
Helminths
Pulmonary eosinophilia syndromes
Filarial infections
Lymphatic filariases and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia syndrome
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Differential diagnosis
Pathogenesis
Dirofilariasis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Differential diagnosis
Treatment
Soil-transmitted helminth infections
Ascariasis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Treatment
Hookworm infection
Strongyloidiasis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Differential diagnosis
Diagnosis
Treatment
Visceral larva migrans
Introduction
Toxocariasis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Differential diagnosis
Uncommon nematode lung infections
Enterobiasis
Anisakiasis
Capillariasis
Angiostrongyliasis
Gnathostomiasis
Mammomonogamiasis
Loiasis
Onchocerciasis
Subcutaneous dirofilarasis
Trematode infections
Schistosomiasis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Acute schistosomiasis (Katayama syndrome)
Chronic schistosomiasis
Pathology
Diagnosis
Treatment
Paragonimiasis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Differential diagnosis
Treatment
Other uncommon food-borne trematode infections of lung and pleura
Fascioliasis
Alaria
Cestode lung infections
Hydatid cyst – echinococcosis
Introduction
Echinococcus granulosus hydatid lung disease
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Differential diagnosis
Echinococcus multilocularis hydatid lung disease
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Treatment of hydatid disease
Cysticercosis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Organism
Clinical features
Pathology
Diagnosis
Sparganosis
Pentastome infections
Armillifer pentastomiasis
Linguatulosis
References
Chapter 9 Acute lung injury
Introduction
Etiology of ALI/ARDS
Epidemiology
Radiological findings in ALI/ARDS
Pathological features of acute lung injury
Exudative phase
Proliferative phase
Acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia
Samples submitted to pathology departments from patients with suspected ALI/ARDS
Pathogenesis of ALI
Exudative phase
Inflammatory cells
Neutrophils
Macrophages
Platelets
Endothelial cells
Alveolar epithelial cells
Coagulation system
Fibroproliferative phase
Organization and fibrosis versus resolution
Management of ALI/ARDS
Summary
References
Chapter 10 Interstitial lung diseases
Introduction
History of classification
Epidemiology
Genetics
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and usual interstitial pneumonia
Etiology
Clinical presentation
Radiological findings
Pathology
Differential diagnosis
Pathogenesis
Prognosis and natural history
Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia
Clinical presentation
Radiological findings
Pathology
Differential diagnosis
Pathogenesis
Prognosis and natural history
Diffuse alveolar damage and acute interstitial pneumonia
Clinical presentation
Radiological findings
Pathology
Variants
Acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia (AFOP)
Regional alveolar damage
Differential diagnosis
Pathogenesis
Treatment and prognosis
Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Clinical presentation
Radiological findings
Pathology
Differential diagnosis
Pathogenesis
Prognosis and natural history
Smoking-related interstitial lung disease
Respiratory bronchiolitis/respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease
Clinical presentation
Radiological findings
Pathology
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis
Desquamative interstitial pneumonia
Clinical presentation
Radiological findings
Pathology
Differential diagnosis
Pathogenesis
Prognosis and natural history
Provisional and recently described entities
Pulmonary hypertension and interstitial lung disease
Pulmonary calcification and ossification
Pulmonary calcification
Pulmonary ossification
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
Etiology
Clinical features
Radiological findings
Pathology
Differential diagnosis
References
Chapter 11 Metabolic and inherited connective tissue disorders involving the lung
Introduction
Lysosomal storage diseases
Gaucher disease
Introduction
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Pulmonary radiology
Pathology
Cytology
Electron microscopy
Laboratory findings
Pathophysiology
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Niemann-Pick disease, types A and B
Introduction
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Pulmonary radiology
Pathology
Cytology
Electron microscopy
Laboratory findings
Pathophysiology
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Niemann-Pick disease, type C
Introduction
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Pulmonary radiology
Pathology
Electron microscopy
Laboratory findings
Pathophysiology
Treatment and prognosis
Fabry disease
Introduction
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Pulmonary radiology
Pathology
Cytology
Electron microscopy
Laboratory findings
Pathophysiology
Prognosis and natural history
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome
Introduction
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Pulmonary radiology
Pathology
Cytology
Electron microscopy
Pathophysiology
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Mucopolysaccharidoses
Introduction
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Pulmonary radiology
Pathology
Electron microscopy
Laboratory findings
Pathophysiology
Prognosis and outcome
GM1 gangliosidosis
Introduction
Clinical manifestations
Pathology
Electron microscopy
Prognosis and natural history
Krabbe disease (globoid leukodystrophy)
Introduction
Clinical manifestations
Pulmonary radiology
Pathology
Electron microscopy
Prognosis and treatment
Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II)
Introduction
Genetics
Clinical features
Pulmonary radiology
Pathology
Electron microscopy
Prognosis and treatment
Farber disease
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical features
Pathology
Electron microscopy
Laboratory findings
Pathophysiology
Treatment and prognosis
Aminoaciduria
Lysinuric protein intolerance
Introduction
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Pulmonary radiology
Pathology
Electron microscopy
Laboratory findings
Pathophysiology
Treatment and prognosis
Inherited connective tissue disorders
Marfan syndrome
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical features
Pulmonary radiology
Pathology
Electron microscopy
Pathophysiology
Prognosis and treatment
Ehlers-Danlos syndromes
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical features
Pulmonary radiology
Pathology
Laboratory findings
Pathophysiology
Prognosis and treatment
References
Chapter 12 Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
Introduction
Clinical features
Classification
Incidence and prevalence
Acute exacerbations of chronic HP
Clinical testing
Pulmonary function testing and pathophysiology
Immunological testing
Bronchoalveolar lavage
Inhalational challenge
Skin testing
Radiological findings
Introduction
Acute HP
Subacute HP
Chronic HP
Etiology and pathogenesis
Inciting agents
Immunological background
Effect of smoking on HP
Pathological findings
Role of the surgical lung biopsy in HP
Acute HP
Subacute HP
Bronchiolitis
Interstitial pneumonitis
Granulomas
Airspace organization (intraluminal fibrosis)
Chronic HP
Granulomas
Bronchiolitis, interstitial pneumonitis
Fibrosis
Vasculopathy
Chronic HP with acute exacerbation
Special forms of HP
Hot tub lung
Japanese summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis (SHP)
Isocyanate-related HP
HP-like syndrome in occupational exposure to metal-working fluids
Differential diagnosis of HP
Usual interstitial pneumonia/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia
Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia
Organizing pneumonia and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia
Centrilobular/bronchiolocentric interstitial pneumonias
Granulomatous disorders to be distinguished from HP
Sarcoidosis
Drug-related interstitial lung disease
Cholesterol granuloma
Pneumocystis pneumonia
Aspiration bronchiolitis/pneumonia
Treatment, prognosis and survivial
References
Chapter 13 Sarcoidosis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Genetic associations and etiological considerations
Clinical manifestations
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Inclusions
Cytology
Electron microscopy
Diagnosis of sarcoidosis
Laboratory findings
Immunopathogenesis and clinical associations
Differential diagnosis
Natural history, pathophysiology, prognosis and treatment
Sarcoidosis variants
Nodular sarcoidosis
Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis
References
Chapter 14 Occupational lung disease
Introduction
Asbestos
Introduction and occupational risk
Background levels
Non-occupational risk and reference population levels
Regulatory activity and exposure standards
Deposition and clearance of asbestos fibers
Asbestos bodies and non-asbestos ferruginous bodies
Asbestosis
Epidemiology
Mechanisms and pathogenesis of asbestos-related fibrosis
Clinical features
Radiology
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Differential diagnosis
Grading of asbestosis
Prognosis
Asbestos and lung cancer
Methods of tissue analysis
Silicotic lung disease
Introduction
Mineralogy
Occupations causing exposure to silica and pathogenesis
Clinical features
Radiological features
Pathological features
Associated immune dysfunction
Future trends
Mixed-dust pneumoconiosis and mixed pneumoconiosis
Respiratory diseases resulting from coal and coalmine dust
Pathogenesis
Coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP)
Clinical features
Radiology
Pathology
Complicated CWP and PMF
Pathology
Differential diagnosis
Diffuse interstitial fibrosis
Emphysema and chronic bronchitis, and carcinoma of the lung
Pneumoconioses associated with non-asbestos silicates (silicatoses)
Talcosis (talc pneumoconiosis)
Kaolin pneumoconiosis
Mica pneumoconiosis
Zeolites
Vermiculite
Diseases from metals
Beryllium
Hard-metal (cobalt) lung disease (tungsten carbide pneumoconiosis)
Siderotic lung disease: iron, hematite miners lung
Silicon carbide pneumoconiosis
Rare earth pneumoconiosis
Dental technicians pneumoconiosis
Benign pneumoconioses/nuisance dusts
Titanium pneumoconiosis
Stannosis
Barium pneumoconiosis (baritosis)
Lung diseases caused by metal fumes
Welders pneumoconiosis (WP)
Aluminum lung disease
Cadmium pneumonitis
Mercury pneumonitis
Lung disease caused by non-asbestos mineral fibers
Man-made fibers, mineral and synthetic
Nylon flock workers lung
Miscellaneous fibers and agents: carbon, non-asbestos ferruginous bodies and diacetyl carbon
Popcorn workers/food flavorers lung disease
References
Chapter 15 Eosinophilic lung disease
Introduction
Asthma
Introduction
Epidemiology and genetics
Clinical manifestations
Radiological findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Airway lumen
Airway epithelium
Basement membrane
Inflammatory infiltrate
Vessels
Mucous glands
Wall thickness
Cytology of asthma
Laboratory findings
Prognosis and natural history
Non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis
Introduction
Clinical manifestations
Histopathology
Prognosis and natural history
Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia
Introduction
Clinical manifestations
Radiographic findings
Histopathology
Differential diagnosis
Natural history and prognosis
Allergic bronchopulmonary fungal disease
Introduction
Clinical manifestations
Radiographic findings
Histopathology
Bronchiectasis and mucoid impaction of bronchi
Bronchocentric granulomatosis (BCG)
Natural history and prognosis
Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP)
Introduction
Clinical manifestations
Radiographic manifestations
Histopathology
Laboratory findings
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
References
Chapter 16 Drug- and therapy-induced lung injury
Introduction
Pathogenesis of drug-induced pulmonary disease
Histological patterns associated with drug toxicity
Diffuse alveolar damage
Chronic interstitial pneumonitis/nonspecific interstitial pneumonia
Organizing pneumonia
Eosinophilic pneumonia
Pulmonary edema
Pulmonary hemorrhage/vasculitis
Pulmonary hypertension/veno-occlusive disease
Granulomatous inflammation
Pleural disease
Pulmonary drug toxicity associated with selected agents
Amiodarone
Methotrexate
Busulfan
Bleomycin
Nitrofurantoin
Rapamycin and rapamycin analogs
Monoclonal antibodies and targeted inhibitors
Monoclonal antibodies
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors
Radiation
Radiation pneumonitis
Chemotherapeutic and radiation effects on pulmonary carcinomas
Radiofrequency ablation
Transfusion-related acute lung injury
Pulmonary pathology associated with illicit drug use
Cocaine
Marijuana and related substances
Heroin
Manifestations of intravenous drug abuse
Other miscellaneous drugs
References
Chapter 17 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diseases of the airways
Introduction
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in general
Introduction
Epidemiology of COPD
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Radiographic findings
Pathophysiology
Pathology of COPD
Large airways
Small airways
Pathogenesis of bronch(iol)itis
Course and prognosis
Treatment
Chronic bronchitis in COPD
Definition
Epidemiology
Pathophysiology
Pathology
Emphysema in COPD
Definition
Classification
Estimation of severity
Emphysema related to alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency
Pathogenesis of emphysema
Emphysema as a consequence of proteolytic/antiproteolytic imbalance and oxidant damage
Emphysema as a result of disruption of the lungs homeostatic maintenance and repair system
Emphysema as an immunological process
Pulmonary vascular disease in COPD
Systemic effects of COPD
Right ventricular changes
Panniculitis
Small vessel vasculitis
Liver abnormalities
Osteoporosis
Body mass wasting and skeletal muscle dysfunction
Diaphragmatic dysfunction
Systemic inflammation
Other forms of emphysema (Table 4)
Non-destructive emphysema (hyperinflation)
Development-related airspace enlargement
The “senile´´ lung
Starvation
Localized giant bullous emphysema: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome
Placental transmogrification
Bronchiectasis
Definition
Classification
Clinical
Gross anatomic
Microscopic anatomic
Quasi-etiological (Table 5)
Epidemiology
Clinical
Radiology
Pathology
Pathophysiology
Course and prognosis
Therapy
Special entities
Aspiration
Middle lobe syndrome
Broncholithiasis
Plastic bronchitis
Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica
Small airway diseases/bronchiolitis
Definition and history
Clinical features
Classification
Acute bronchiolitis
Obliterative bronchiolitis
Proliferative bronchiolitis
Constrictive bronchiolitis
Constrictive bronchiolitis related to neuroendocrine hyperplasia
Constrictive bronchiolitis related to ingestion of toxic agents
Diseases of the bronchioles with or without adjacent parenchymal disease
Smokers bronchiolitis with or without adjacent interstitial lung disease
Diffuse panbronchiolitis
Follicular bronchiolitis
Eosinophilic bronchiolitis
Granulomatous bronchiolitis
Mineral dust disease
Peribronchiolar metaplasia (Lambertosis)
Pathophysiology
Treatment and prognosis
References
Chapter 18 Pulmonary vascular pathology
Introduction
Classification of pulmonary hypertension
Handling of tissue specimens
Pulmonary vascular anatomy and histology
Dual blood supply
Pulmonary arteries
Supernumerary arteries
Capillaries
Pulmonary veins
Bronchial circulation
Lymphatics
Vascular remodeling during development and aging
Radiological findings in pulmonary hypertension
Genetics of pulmonary hypertension
Pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension
Introduction
Bone morphogenic protein receptor-2 (BMPR2)
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) and appetite suppressants
Inflammation
Endothelium and thrombosis
Hypoxia
Hypoxia and pulmonary vascular tone
Hypoxia and vascular remodeling
Histopathological patterns of hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease
Introduction
Plexogenic arteriopathy
Epidemiology and risk factors
Histopathology of plexogenic arteriopathy (Table 5)
Plexogenic arteriopathy: differential diagnosis
Effects of therapy
Thrombotic arteriopathy and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH)
Epidemiology, risk factors
Histopathology of thrombotic arteriopathy (Table 7)
Pulmonary infarcts
Differential diagnosis
Non-thrombotic causes of pulmonary artery embolism
Hypoxic arteriopathy
Epidemiology and causal factors
Histopathology of hypoxic arteriopathy (Table 9)
Congestive vasculopathy
Epidemiology, causal factors
Histopathology of congestive vasculopathy (Table 11)
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis
Introduction
Epidemiology and clinical features
Radiological features of PVOD/PCH
Histopathology (Table 13)
Differential diagnosis
Congenital heart disease with hypo- or hyperperfusion
Cardiac malformations with pulmonary hypoflow
Cardiac malformations with pulmonary hyperflow
Pulmonary vasculopathy in pulmonary hypertension associated with connective tissue diseases
Introduction
Systemic sclerosis
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Pulmonary hypertension in interstitial lung diseases
Pulmonary hypertension in vasculitis
Acknowledgements
References
Chapter 19 Pulmonary vasculitis and pulmonary hemorrhage syndromes
Introduction
ANCA-associated diseases
Wegener granulomatosis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Laboratory findings
Pathogenesis
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Microscopic polyangiitis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Laboratory findings
Pathogenesis
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Churg-Strauss syndrome
Introduction
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Laboratory findings
Pathogenesis
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Goodpasture syndrome
Introduction
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Radiographic findings
Macro- and histopathology
Cytology
Ultrastructural findings
Laboratory findings
Pathogenesis
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage syndromes and capillaritis
Polyarteritis nodosa
Introduction
Epidemiology
Clinical manifestations
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Laboratory findings
Pathogenesis
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Giant cell arteritis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Histopathology
Laboratory findings
Pathogenesis
Differential diagnosis
Natural history and prognosis
Takayasu arteritis
Introduction
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Laboratory findings
Pathogenesis
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Behçet syndrome
Introduction
Epidemiology
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Laboratory findings
Pathogenesis
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
References
Chapter 20 The pathology of lung transplantation
Introduction
The pathologists role in lung transplantation
Methods for monitoring the pulmonary allograft
Transbronchial biopsy
Bronchoalveolar lavage
Open lung biopsy (OLB) or video-assisted lung biopsy (VATS)
A temporal approach to lung transplant pathology
Perioperative and early post-transplant period (up to 1 month)
Primary graft dysfunction / ischemic-reperfusion injury
Hyperacute rejection
Vascular and airway anastomotic complications
Infection in the early post-transplant period
Intermediate period after transplantation (1 month – 1 year)
Acute cellular rejection
Grade AX (ungradeable specimen)
Grade A0 (no evidence of rejection / NER)
Grade A1 (minimal acute rejection)
Grade A2 (mild acute rejection)
Grade A3 (moderate acute rejection)
Grade A4 (severe acute rejection)
Morphological mimics and pitfalls in the diagnosis and grading of acute rejection
Issues related to the diagnosis and classification of acute rejection
Airway inflammation without scarring
Antibody-mediated rejection
Infection
Viral infections including cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Common community-acquired viral infections
Fungal infections
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other EBV-related disorders
1. Early lesions including plasmacytic hyperplasia (PH) and infectious-mononucleosis (IM)-like PTLD
2. Polymorphous PTLD
3. Monomorphic PTLD
4. Classic Hodgkin lymphoma-type PTLD
Other EBV-associated neoplasms
Other pulmonary complications in lung transplant recipients
Late period after transplantation ( 12 months)
Obliterative bronchiolitis and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome
Chronic vascular rejection
Recurrent disease in the allograft
Future directions
References
Chapter 21 The lungs in connective tissue disease
Introduction to connective tissue diseases
Secondary complications in connective tissue disease
Acute exacerbation of connective tissue diseases
Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias as a presenting manifestation of connective tissue disease
Genetics of connective tissue diseases
Rheumatoid arthritis
Pleuritis
Rheumatoid nodules
Interstitial lung disease
UIP pattern in rheumatoid arthritis
NSIP pattern in rheumatoid arthritis
Organizing pneumonia pattern in rheumatoid arthritis
Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia pattern in rheumatoid arthritis
Diffuse alveolar damage pattern in rheumatoid arthritis
Airway disease
Obliterative bronchiolitis pattern (constrictive bronchiolitis) in rheumatoid arthritis
Follicular bronchiolitis / lymphoid hyperplasia in rheumatoid arthritis
Chronic bronchiolitis
Bronchiectasis
Vascular disease
Primary pulmonary hypertension in rheumatoid arthritis
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage/capillaritis in rheumatoid arthritis
Other rare pulmonary manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Pleuritis
Acute lupus pneumonitis
Involvement of pulmonary vasculature
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage
Pulmonary hypertension
Interstitial lung disease
Shrinking lung syndrome
Drug reactions
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome
Scleroderma
Interstitial lung disease in scleroderma
NSIP and UIP patterns
Other patterns of parenchymal involvement
Pulmonary hypertension in scleroderma
Lung cancer in scleroderma
Sjögren syndrome
Interstitial lung disease
NSIP and LIP patterns
Other patterns of parenchymal involvement
Airway disease
Tracheobronchial sicca (xerotrachea)
Chronic bronchiolitis
Pulmonary arterial hypertension
Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia
Polymyositis/dermatomyositis
Interstitial lung disease
Other rare pulmonary manifestations
Mixed connective tissue disease
Interstitial lung disease
Pulmonary hypertension
Other pulmonary manifestations
Undifferentiated connective tissue disease
Interstitial lung disease
Ankylosing spondylitis
Relapsing polychondritis
Behçet syndrome
Pyoderma gangrenosum
Sweet syndrome
Pulmonary involvement by inflammatory bowel disease
References
Chapter 22 Benign epithelial neoplasms and tumor-like proliferations of the lung
Introduction
Bronchial inflammatory polyps
Introduction
Classification, cell of origin, pathogenesis and etiology
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Bronchial papillomas
Introduction
Squamous cell papillomas
Classification, cell of origin, pathogenesis and etiology
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Glandular and mixed squamous cell and glandular papillomas
Multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Papillary adenoma
Introduction
Classification, cell of origin and etiology
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Alveolar adenoma
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Sclerosing hemangioma
Introduction
Classification, cell of origin, pathogenesis and etiology
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma
Introduction
Clinical details, including epidemiology and etiology
Genetics
Radiological details
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytopathology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Pathogenesis
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnoses
Prognostic factors and natural history
Pulmonary endometriosis
Introduction
Clinical details, including epidemiology and etiology
Genetics
Radiographic details
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Pathogenesis
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognostic factors and natural history
References
Chapter 23 Pulmonary pre-invasive disease
Introduction
Bronchial carcinogenesis
Etiology of SD/CIS
Morphologically recognizable pre-invasive bronchial lesions
Mucous cell (goblet cell) hyperplasia
Basal cell hyperplasia
Squamous metaplasia
Squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ
Macroscopic features of SD/CIS
Microscopic features of SD/CIS
Exfoliative cytology and the diagnosis of SD/CIS
Problems in the histological assessment of SD/CIS
Differential diagnosis of SD/CIS
Molecular biology of bronchial pre-invasive lesions
Hyperproliferation
p53 and related proteins
P16 (ink4a)-CyclinD1-CDK4-RB pathway
Tyrosine kinase (TK) signaling pathways
Angiogenesis and related factors
Cell immortalization
Transcription factors and other intracellular effectors
Other tumor suppressor genes
Human papilloma virus, cell adhesion molecules and other assorted factors
Studies of genomic instability and other global expression data
Predicting the progression of bronchial pre-invasive disease
Bronchial pre-invasive lesions: comment and conclusion
Carcinogenesis in peripheral lung epithelium
Morphologically recognizable pre-invasive bronchioloalveolar lesions
Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia
Macroscopic features of AAH
Microscopic features of AAH
Issues in the diagnosis of AAH
Differential diagnosis of AAH
Prevalence of AAH
Etiology and other associations of AAH
Molecular biology of peripheral lung adenocarcinogenesis
Cell morphometry and cytofluorimetry
Hyperproliferation
p53 and related proteins
P16 (ink4a)-CyclinD1-CDK4-RB pathway
Tyrosine kinase (TK) signaling pathways
Angiogenesis and related factors
Cell immortalization
Transcription factors and other intracellular effectors
Other tumor suppressor genes
Lineage markers, cell adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases and other factors
Studies of clonality, genomic instability and other global expression data
The clinical relevance and prognosis of AAH
Peripheral lung adenocarcinogenesis: comment and conclusions
Pulmonary pre-invasive disease: final comments
References
Chapter 24 Epidemiological and clinical aspects of lung cancer
Introduction
Epidemiology
Incidence and mortality
Gender
Age
Race
Histology
Etiologies
Tobacco
Radon
Environmental pollution
Occupational factors
Infections
Human papilloma virus
Epstein-Barr virus
Human immunodeficiency virus
Bacterial infections
Fungal infections
Lung injury
Diet
Genetic susceptibility
Familial lung cancer
Single gene polymorphism studies and lung cancer risk
Genome-wide studies and lung cancer risk
Genome-wide linkage studies and familial lung cancer
Lung cancer screening
Clinical manifestations
Radiographic tools
Methods of diagnosis
Lung cancer treatment and prognosis
Acknowledgements
References
Chapter 25 Lung cancer staging
Introduction
The TNM classification
T classification
N classification
M classification
Optional descriptors
Specific situations
Overall survival
Conclusion
References
Chapter 26Immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of pulmonary tumors
Introduction
TTF-1
Role of TTF-1 in embryology and non-neoplastic conditions
TTF-1 expression in lung tumors
TTF-1 expression in non-pulmonary tumors
Prognostic value of TTF-1 in lung carcinoma
Comparison of monoclonal antibodies and practical considerations
Napsin
Surfactant proteins
Neuroendocrine markers
p16 and p63
Cytokeratins
Other markers
Problems of differential diagnosis
Small cell carcinoma versus lymphoid infiltrates
Small cell carcinoma versus small cell variant of squamous carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma versus adenocarcinoma
Differential diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma
Adenocarcinoma of the lung versus metastatic adenocarcinoma of the colorectum
Adenocarcinoma of the lung versus metastatic adenocarcinoma of the breast
Diagnosis of metastatic melanoma
References
Chapter 27 Adenocarcinoma of the lung
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special epidemiological features
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway
Kirsten-rat derived retroviruses causing sarcoma (KRAS) mutations
Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (EML4-ALK) translocation
BRAF mutation
STK/LKB1
Other mutations
Copy number alterations
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Adenocarcinoma variants
Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma
Colloid adenocarcinoma
Fetal adenocarcinoma
Enteric adenocarcinoma
References
Chapter 28 Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Squamous cell carcinoma variants
Papillary SCC
Clear cell SCC
Small cell SCC
Basaloid SCC
References
Chapter 29 Large cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung
Large cell carcinoma
Large cell carcinomas, not otherwise specified
Introduction
Cell of origin
Special clinical findings
Radiographic findings
Macroscopy pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Genetic and molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Large cell carcinoma variants
Basaloid carcinoma
Prognosis
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma
Prognosis
Clear cell carcinoma
Large cell carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype
Adenosquamous carcinoma
Prognosis and treatment
References
Chapter 30 Salivary gland neoplasms of the lung
Introduction
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma
Classification and cell of origin
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings and genetics
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Adenoid cystic carcinoma
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Acinic cell carcinoma
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics and molecular findings
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Pleomorphic adenoma
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Pneumocytic adenomyoepithelioma
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Differential diagnosis
Clinicopathological correlation
Prognosis and natural history
Mucous gland adenoma
Definition
Clinical features
Macroscopic pathology
Radiographic findings
Histopathology
Immunohistochemistry
Differential diagnosis
Clinicopathological correlation
Prognosis and natural history
Oncocytoma
References
Chapter 31 Neuroendocrine tumors and other neuroendocrine proliferations of the lung
Introduction
Classification schemes
Clinical features
Typical carcinoid tumor
Atypical carcinoid tumor
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma
Small cell carcinoma
Radiographic findings and macroscopic pathology
Carcinoid tumor
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma
Small cell carcinoma
Histopathology and cytopathology
Typical carcinoid tumor
Atypical carcinoid tumor
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma
Small cell carcinoma
Immunohistochemistry
Neuroendocrine antigens
Other antigens
Electron microscopy
Typical carcinoid
Atypical carcinoid
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma
Small cell carcinoma
Genetics
Carcinoid tumors
Large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinomas
Differential diagnosis
Distinguishing neuroendocrine from non-neuroendocrine pulmonary tumors and tumors metastatic to the lungs
Distinguishing pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors from each other
Prognosis and natural history
Typical carcinoids
Atypical carcinoids
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma
Small cell carcinoma
Other pulmonary tumors displaying neuroendocrine differentiation
Non-small cell carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation
Pulmonary blastoma
Primitive neuroectodermal tumor
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor
Carcinomas with rhabdoid phenotype
Paraganglioma
Proliferative lesions of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells
Reactive proliferation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells
Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH)
Clinical and radiological features
Pathology
Reactive proliferation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells and DIPNECH
Tumorlets and carcinoid tumors
Peritumoral proliferation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells
References
Chapter 32 Sarcomatoid carcinomas and variants
Introduction
Pleomorphic carcinoma and spindle cell carcinoma
Definition
Clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Giant cell carcinoma
Definition
Clinical features
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Carcinosarcoma
Definition
Clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Pulmonary blastoma
Historical overview
Definition and cell of origin
Clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Chapter 33 Mesenchymal and miscellaneous neoplasms
Introduction
Pulmonary hamartoma
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Minute pulmonary meningothelial-like nodules
Introduction
Clinical features
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Primary pulmonary meningioma
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Primary pulmonary lipoma
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Primary pulmonary liposarcoma
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Primary pulmonary extraosseous osteoma
Pulmonary osteogenic sarcoma
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Pulmonary chondromas
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Radiographic findings
Special clinical features
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Primary pulmonary chondrosarcoma
Neurogenic tumors
Granular cell tumor
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Radiographic findings
Special clinical features
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Pulmonary rhabdomyosarcomas
Primary pulmonary leiomyoma/leiomyosarcoma
Pulmonary vein sarcoma
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Benign metastasizing leiomyoma
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Primary pulmonary glomus tumors
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Pulmonary angiomyolipoma
Clear cell (sugar) tumor (PEComa)
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Arteriovenous malformations
Introduction
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Hemangiomas
Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Kaposi sarcoma
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Special clinical features
Genetics
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic findings
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Primary pulmonary angiosarcoma
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Fibrohistiocytic neoplasms
Pulmonary giant cell tumor
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor
Introduction
Etiology
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Pulmonary artery sarcomas
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Intra-pulmonary thymomas
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Pulmonary teratoma
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Primary pulmonary malignant melanoma
Introduction
Classification and cell of origin
Genetics
Special clinical features
Radiographic findings
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Clinicopathological correlation
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
References
Chapter 34 Pulmonary lymphoproliferative diseases
Introduction
Lymphoid tissue in the normal lung
Intra-pulmonary lymph nodes
Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue
Benign lymphoid proliferations
Lymphoid proliferation in interstitial lung disease
Rare benign pulmonary lymphoid proliferations
Follicular bronchiolitis
Clinical features
Pathology
Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia
Clinical features
Pathology
Differential diagnosis
Pulmonary nodular lymphoid hyperplasia
Clinical features
Pathology
Differential diagnosis
Castleman disease
Multicentric Castleman disease
Clinical features
Pathology
Primary pulmonary B-cell lymphomas
Concept and histogenesis
Marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT-type)
Clinical features
Pathology
Immunohistochemistry
Molecular pathology
Differential diagnosis
Treatment
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
Clinical features
Pathological features
Immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology
Other primary pulmonary B-cell lymphomas
Lymphomatoid granulomatosis
Clinical features
Pathology
Immunohistochemistry
Differential diagnosis
Treatment
Intravascular large B-cell (angiotropic) lymphoma
Clinical features
Pathology
Immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology
Differential diagnosis
Plasma cell disorders
Amyloidosis
Pulmonary amyloidosis in systemic amyloidosis
Primary (localized) pulmonary amyloidosis
Immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology
Light chain deposition disease
Tumor-associated amyloid
Multiple myeloma
Plasmacytoma
Clinical features
Pathology
Immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis
Treatment
Hodgkin lymphoma
Primary pulmonary T-cell lymphomas
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma
Other primary pulmonary T-cell lymphomas
Pulmonary lymphomas in immunodeficient patients
Age-related EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders
Pulmonary lymphoma in congenital immunodeficiency
HIV/AIDS-related pulmonary lymphoma
Post-transplant immunoproliferative disorders in the lung
Pulmonary lymphoma associated with cytotoxic drugs
Secondary pulmonary changes in systemic lymphoma
Secondary malignant lymphoma
Clinical features
Specific lymphoma types
B-cell lymphomas
T-cell lymphomas
Hodgkin lymphoma
Pulmonary complications of leukemia
Systemic mast cell disease
Myeloid metaplasia in the lung
Lung biopsy in leukemic patients
Histiocytic disorders
Langerhans cell histiocytosis
Clinical features
Radiology
Diagnosis
Pathology
Histogenesis
Differential diagnosis
Multisystem and malignant Langerhans cell disease
Other tumors of histiocytes and dendritic cells
Erdheim-Chester disease
Clinical features
Pathology
Rosai-Dorfman disease
Pleural lymphomas
Primary effusion lymphoma
Clinical features
Pathology
Immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology
Differential diagnosis
Pyothorax-associated lymphoma
Clinical features
Pathology
Immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology
Differential diagnosis
Secondary pleural lymphoma
References
Chapter 35: Metastases involving the lungs
Introduction
Route of spread for metastases to reach the lung
Incidence
Clinical features
Patterns of pulmonary metastases
Parenchymal nodules
Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis
Endobronchial metastases
Tumor emboli
Unusual patterns of metastatic spread
Lepidic
Interstitial and/or intra-alveolar spread
Intrathoracic nodal spread
Specific organ system metastases
Head and neck
Thyroid
Breast
Liver
Pancreas
Colon and rectum
Kidney
Ovary
Uterus
Gestational trophoblastic diseases
Prostate
Testis
Neuroendocrine carcinomas
Sarcomas
Malignant melanoma
Lymphomas and leukemias
References
Chapter 36 Diseases of the pleura
Introduction
Normal pleural fluid volume and cell content
Mesothelial cell function
Pleural effusion
Physiology
Clinical features
Transudates and exudates
Pleural transudates
Congestive cardiac failure
Hepatic cirrhosis
Peritoneal dialysis
Urinothorax
Nephrotic syndrome
Atelectasis
Pleural exudates
Infective pleural effusions
Eosinophilic pleural effusions
Radiology of pleural effusions
Pathophysiology of pleural effusion
Treatment
Pneumothorax
Epidemiology
Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP)
Pathogenesis
Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP)
Genetics
Clinical features of pneumothorax
Pathology
Pathophysiology
Differential diagnosis
Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis
The pleura in cystic fibrosis
Eosinophilic vasculitis
Pleural fibrosis, idiopathic pleuritis and other changes
Dressler syndrome (post-cardiac injury syndrome)
IgG4-related sclerosing disease
Apical cap
Pathogenesis
Differential diagnosis
Amyloid
Granulomatous pleural disease
Parasitic infections
The pleura in connective tissue diseases
Rheumatoid disease
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Other collagen diseases
Drug-induced pleural disease
Pleural endometriosis
Chylothorax
Calcifying fibrous tumor of the pleura
Clinical features
Pathology
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis
Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura
Introduction
Cell of origin
Genetics
Clinical features
Radiology
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Cytology
Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy
Molecular findings
Differential diagnosis
Clinicopathological correlation
Prognosis, natural history and therapy
Benign asbestos-related pleural disease
Introduction
Pleural plaques
Factors affecting plaque production
Epidemiology
Etiology
Non-asbestos causes of pleural plaques
Pleural plaques and smoking
Routes by which asbestos fibers reach the pleura
Genetics
Lag period between asbestos exposure and plaque development
Clinical features
Radiology
Pathology
Macroscopic appearance
Histopathology
Pathological differential diagnosis
Diffuse pleural fibrosis
Mesothelioma
Desmoid tumor
Risk of development of pleuro-pulmonary malignancy in the presence of pleural plaques
Lung cancer
Mesothelioma
Benign asbestos-related pleural effusion
Definition and epidemiology
Etiology
Lag period between asbestos exposure and development of an asbestos-related effusion
Genetics
Clinical manifestations
Pathology
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis and natural history
Diffuse pleural fibrosis (DPF) (termed pachypleuritis in Europe)384
Incidence
Genetics
Etiology
Clinical manifestations
Lag period between asbestos exposure and development of DPF
Radiographic findings
Pathology
Macroscopic
Histology
Asbestos fiber counts in DPF
Differential diagnosis
Progression and prognosis
Risk of development of pleuropulmonary malignancy in cases of DPF
Pathophysiology
Folded lung (shrinking pleuritis with rounded atelectasis)
Clinical manifestations
Etiology
Radiology
Pathology
Cytology
Macroscopic pathology
Histopathology
Asbestos count in rounded atelectasis (RA)
Differential diagnosis
Infection
Pleural plaques
Prognosis
Atypical mesothelial hyperplasia (AMH)
Atypical mesothelial hyperplasia versus so-called in situ malignant mesothelioma and mesothelioma with minimal invasion
Ancillary techniques in reactive mesothelial hyperplasia versus neoplastic processes
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM)
Introduction
Anatomical sites
Epidemiology
Asbestos fiber type and threshold for developing mesothelioma
Types of exposure to asbestos
Occupational exposure to asbestos
Paraoccupational mesothelioma (non-work-related mesotheliomas), including mesothelioma in women
Exposure to asbestos in buildings (outside Turkey)
Environmental mesothelioma
“Familial mesothelioma´´
Mesothelioma in children
Occupational and other risk factors for peritoneal mesothelioma
Non-asbestos causes of mesothelioma
Erionite – discussed above
Fluoro-edenite
Thorotrast
Ionizing radiation
Man-made mineral fibers
Simian virus 40
Latent period from exposure to asbestos to development of mesothelioma
Mechanisms of asbestos-induced oncogenesis
Cell signaling by asbestos in MPM, including reactive oxygen species
Apoptotic control in MPM
MicroRNA (MiRNA)
Tumor suppressor genes
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and MPM
PI3K/AKT pathway in MPM
Growth factors and MPM
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and MPM
Chromosomal changes in pleural mesothelioma
Clinical features of malignant pleural mesothelioma
Radiology
Staging of malignant pleural mesothelioma
Primary, non-pleural, mesotheliomas
Peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeritM)
Pericardial mesothelioma
Mesothelioma of the ovary
Mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis
Testicular mesothelioma
Primary hepatic mesothelioma
Cystic tumor (“mesothelioma´´) of the atrioventricular node
Cytology
Macroscopic pathology
Diffuse mesothelioma
Localized mesotheliomas
Synchronous bilateral pleural tumors
Spread of pleural mesothelioma
Intra-pulmonary spread
Distant spread
Peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeritM)
Examination of lungs from a pleural mesothelioma
Histology of pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas
Epithelioid mesothelioma
Sarcomatoid mesothelioma
Desmoplastic mesothelioma
Biphasic or mixed mesothelioma
Histological subtypes of epithelioid mesothelioma (Table 12)
Deciduoid peritoneal mesothelioma
Microcystic mesothelioma (adenomatoid)
Mucin-positive mesotheliomas
Lipid-rich diffuse MPM
Clear cell mesothelioma
Pleomorphic (giant cell) mesothelioma
Lepidic pattern (in lung)
Small cell mesothelioma
Histological variants of sarcomatoid mesothelioma
Lymphohistiocytoid mesothelioma
Reproducibility of histopathological diagnosis of mesothelioma vs. adenocarcinoma
Electron microscopic features of mesotheliomas
Epithelioid mesothelioma
Sarcomatoid mesothelioma
Biphasic mesothelioma
Special stains in mesothelioma
Histochemistry
Mucins
Immunohistochemistry
The ability of immunohistochemistry to distinguish between epithelioid mesothelioma (EpM) and pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PAC)
Carcinoma markers
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
Glycoproteins Ber-EP4 and B72.3
MOC-31
E-cadherins
Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1)
Blood group antigens (Lewisy)
Intermediate filaments and cytokeratins (CK)
Cytokeratin-negative mesotheliomas
Mesothelioma markers
Calretinin
Wilms´ tumor gene product (WT1)
Cytokeratin 5/6
D2-40
Podoplanin
N- and E-cadherin
HBME-1
Miscellaneous immunohistochemical markers
GLUT1
Newer antibodies
An immunohistochemical algorithm for differentiating between mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma
The role of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of biphasic and sarcomatoid mesothelioma
Cytokeratins
CK5/6
Calretinin
HBME-1, thrombomodulin, N-cadherin and WT-1
Separation of benign from malignant pleural disease
The role of immunohistochemistry in differentiating between benign and malignant mesothelial proliferations
p53
Epithelial membrane antigen
Desmin
Bcl-2 and p-170
Argyrophil nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR)
Other stains
Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma (WDPM)
Clinical features
Pathology
Electron microscopy
Differential diagnosis
Prognosis
Differential diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma
Pleural epithelioid tumors
Carcinoma of lung
Primary squamous carcinoma of the pleura
Carcinoma, metastatic from an extrapulmonary site
Thymic tumors
Serous papillary carcinoma of the ovary
Adenomatoid tumor of the pleura
Malignant melanoma
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma
Pleural-based lymphoma
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma
Biphasic tumors
Sarcomatoid carcinoma and carcinosarcoma
Synovial sarcoma
Sarcomatoid tumors
Sarcomatoid carcinoma
Pleural spindle cell sarcomas
Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura
Desmoplastic round cell tumor (DRSCT)
Peripheral nerve sheath tumors
Ganglioneuroma and other neural neoplasms
Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)/Ewing sarcoma
Leiomyoma, smooth muscle tumor of undetermined malignant potential and leiomyosarcoma
Desmoid tumor
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMT)
Other tumors
Differential diagnosis of peritoneal mesothelioma in women
Peritoneal mesothelial proliferations
Peritoneal mesothelial hyperplasia
Peritoneal inclusion cysts
Multiloculated peritoneal inclusion cysts (“benign cystic mesothelioma´´) (MPIC)
Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma (WDPM)
Adenomatoid tumor
Peritoneal serous lesions
Endosalpingiosis
Peritoneal serous borderline tumors
Low-grade peritoneal serous carcinomas
High-grade peritoneal serous carcinoma
Primary peritoneal carcinoma
Role of immunocytochemistry in distinguishing mesothelioma from ovarian and peritoneal serous tumors
Pathophysiology of malignant pleural mesothelioma
Prognosis in malignant pleural mesothelioma
Other biological prognostic factors
Prognosis after extrapleural pneumonectomy for pleural mesothelioma
References
Index

Recent Posts

5 tips for a good business blog

Follow my blog with BloglovinAre you also looking for a good structure for your business blogs? That you finally have a serious and good structure for all your texts that are online? On your website but also on social media. In this review you will find 5 tips from Susanna Florie from her…

Study tips from a budding engineer

“Why engineering?” is a question I get often. The answer for me is simple: I like to solve problems. Engineering is a popular field for many reasons. Perhaps this is because almost everything around us is created by engineers in one way or another, and there are always new, emerging and exciting technologies impacting…

How do I study mathematics and pass my exam?

Not sure how best to study math ? Are you perhaps someone who starts studying the day before the exam? Then you know yourself that your situation is not the most ideal. Unfortunately, there is no magic bullet to make you a maths crack or pass your exam in no time . It is important to know that mathematics always builds on…

(0)
×