Biology: Concepts and Applications (10th Edition)

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Download Biology: Concepts and Applications (10th Edition) written by Cecie Starr, Christine Evers, Lisa Starr in PDF format. This book is under the category Biology and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 130596733X; 1305967356/9781305967335/ 9781305967359. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

SKU: 98c724289484 Category: Tags: ,

Specifications

book-author

Cecie Starr, Christine Evers, Lisa Starr

publisher

Brooks Cole (Cengage); 10th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

880 pages

language

English

isbn10

130596733X; 1305967356

isbn13

9781305967335/ 9781305967359


Book Description

Should employers be allowed to require drug testing? Should there be warning labels on fast foods? This introductory textbook teaches you basic concepts of biology in context of critical issues. The Biology: Concepts And Applications 10th edition (PDF) was developed in partnership by authors Cecie Starr; Christine A. Evers; and Lisa Starr with the National Geographic Society; known for its eye-opening photography and legacy of inspiring people. The result is a textbook that combines unparalleled visuals with clear explanations to introduce the process of science and core concepts of biology. “Engage” boxes help students see chapter concepts being put to work in the real world; “Figure It Out” questions help you check understanding; “Applications” bring chapter content to real life; “Learning Objectives” help focus your studying; and “Data Analysis” activities strengthen your analytical skills. This ebook is widely praised for engaging and clear writing; exceptional art; and terrific support from media that all work together to help you “get” biology.

 

Every chapter explores core concepts aligned with the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) initiative “Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education” to help college students master associated learning objectives. By continuously challenging biology students to question what they read and to apply the concepts they learn; the textbook allows our citizens and future policy-makers to hone critical thinking skills as they gain scientific literacy.

Additional information

book-author

Cecie Starr, Christine Evers, Lisa Starr

publisher

Brooks Cole (Cengage); 10th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

880 pages

language

English

isbn10

130596733X; 1305967356

isbn13

9781305967335/ 9781305967359

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Cover……Page 1
Detailed Contents……Page 8
Introduction……Page 32
Chapter 1: The Science of Biology……Page 33
Life’s Organization……Page 34
Energy and Nutrients……Page 36
DNA Is Hereditary Material……Page 37
1.3 Life’s Diversity……Page 38
Engage: Kristofer Helgen, National Geographic Explorer……Page 39
Distinguishing Species……Page 40
The Scientific Method……Page 42
Butterflies and Birds……Page 44
Sampling Error……Page 46
Objectivity……Page 47
What Science Is Not……Page 48
Application: The Secret Life of Earth……Page 49
Unit 1: Principles of Cellular Life……Page 52
Chapter 2: Life’s Chemical Basis……Page 53
Isotopes and Radioisotopes……Page 54
Engage: Kenneth Sims, National Geographic Explorer……Page 55
Electrons Have Energy……Page 56
The Importance of Vacancies……Page 57
Ionic Bonds……Page 58
Covalent Bonds……Page 59
Water Is an Excellent Solvent……Page 60
Water Stabilizes Temperature……Page 61
Application: Sharing Viruses……Page 62
Application: Mercury Rising……Page 63
Chapter 3: Molecules of Life……Page 67
Carbon, the Stuff of Life……Page 68
Metabolic Reactions……Page 69
Polysaccharides……Page 70
Fats……Page 72
Steroids……Page 73
Tertiary and Quaternary Structure……Page 74
Finishing Touches……Page 75
3.5 The Importance of Protein Structure……Page 76
Application: Fear of Frying……Page 77
Chapter 4: Cell Structure……Page 81
Components of All Cells……Page 82
Constraints on Cell Size……Page 83
4.2 How We See Cells……Page 84
Engage: Dr. Aydogan Ozcan, National Geographic Explorer……Page 85
Proteins Add Function……Page 86
Structural Features……Page 88
Biofilms……Page 89
General Features of Eukaryotic Cells……Page 90
The Nucleus……Page 91
Endoplasmic Reticulum……Page 92
Golgi Bodies……Page 93
4.7 Mitochondria……Page 94
4.8 Chloroplasts and Other Plastids……Page 95
Cellular Movement……Page 96
Extracellular Matrices……Page 98
Cell Junctions……Page 99
Life Is Squishy……Page 100
Application: Food for Thought……Page 101
Chapter 5: Ground Rules of Metabolism……Page 107
Energy’s One-Way Flow……Page 108
Why Earth Does Not Go Up in Flames……Page 110
Energy In, Energy Out……Page 111
The Need for Speed……Page 112
Influences on Enzyme Activity……Page 113
Controls Over Metabolism……Page 114
Electron Transfers……Page 115
5.5 Cofactors……Page 116
ATP—A Special Coenzyme……Page 117
Osmosis……Page 118
Turgor……Page 119
Passive Transport……Page 120
Active Transport……Page 121
Vesicle Movement……Page 122
Membrane Recycling……Page 123
Application: A Toast to Alcohol Dehydrogenase……Page 124
Chapter 6: Where It Starts—Photosynthesis……Page 129
Two Stages of Reactions……Page 130
Where Photosynthesis Occurs……Page 131
To Catch a Rainbow……Page 132
The Noncyclic Pathway……Page 134
The Cyclic Pathway……Page 135
The Calvin–Benson Cycle……Page 136
Photorespiration……Page 137
CAM Plants……Page 138
Engage: Sanga Moses, National Geographic Explorer……Page 139
Chapter 7: Releasing Chemical Energy……Page 143
7.1 Introduction to Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathways……Page 144
Reaction Pathways……Page 145
Comparing Other Pathways……Page 146
7.3 Acetyl–CoA Formation and the Citric Acid Cycle……Page 148
Electron Transfer Phosphorylation……Page 150
Summing Up……Page 151
Alcoholic Fermentation……Page 152
Lactate Fermentation……Page 153
Proteins……Page 154
Application: Mitochondrial Malfunction……Page 156
Unit 2: Genetics……Page 160
Chapter 8: DNA Structure and Function……Page 161
A Surprising Result……Page 162
Final Pieces of Evidence……Page 163
Building Blocks of DNA……Page 164
DNA Sequence……Page 165
Chromosome Number……Page 166
Engage: Mariana Fuentes, National Geographic Explorer……Page 167
Semiconservative Replication……Page 168
Directional Synthesis……Page 169
8.5 Mutations and Their Causes……Page 170
Engage: Dr. Rosalind Franklin……Page 171
8.6 Cloning Adult Animals……Page 172
Application: A Hero Dog’s Golden Clones……Page 173
Chapter 9: From DNA to Protein……Page 177
9.1 Introducing Gene Expression……Page 178
Engage: Dr. John “Jack” Horner, National Geographic Explorer……Page 179
9.2 Transcription: DNA to RNA……Page 180
Post-Transcriptional Modifications……Page 181
The Messenger: mRNA……Page 182
The Translators: rRNA and tRNA……Page 183
9.4 Translation: RNA to Protein……Page 184
9.5 Consequences of Mutations……Page 186
Application: The Aptly Acronymed RIPs……Page 188
Chapter 10: Control of Gene Expression……Page 193
Transcription……Page 194
Protein Degradation……Page 195
10.2 Orchestrating Early Development……Page 196
10.3 Details of Body Form……Page 198
Lactose Metabolism in Mammals……Page 200
Circadian Rhythms in Plants……Page 201
10.5 Epigenetics……Page 202
Application: Between You and Eternity……Page 203
Chapter 11: How Cells Reproduce……Page 207
Mitosis Maintains the Chromosome Number……Page 208
Why Cells Divide by Mitosis……Page 209
11.2 A Closer Look at Mitosis……Page 211
11.3 Cytoplasmic Division……Page 212
11.4 Marking Time With Telomeres……Page 213
The Role of Mutations……Page 214
Cancer……Page 215
Application: Henrietta’s Immortal Cells……Page 216
Engage: Dr. Iain Couzin, National Geographic Explorer……Page 217
Chapter 12: Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction……Page 221
On the Advantages of Sex……Page 222
Engage: Maurine Neiman, National Geographic Explorer……Page 223
How Meiosis Works……Page 224
Fertilization Restores the Chromosome Number……Page 225
12.3 A Visual Tour of Meiosis……Page 226
Crossing Over……Page 228
Chromosome Segregation……Page 229
12.5 Mitosis and Meiosis—An Ancestral Connection……Page 230
Application: How to Survive for 80 Million Years
Without Sex……Page 231
Chapter 13: Patterns in Inherited Traits……Page 235
Mendel’s Experiments……Page 236
Inheritance in Modern Terms……Page 237
13.2 Mendel’s Law of Segregation……Page 238
13.3 Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment……Page 240
The Contribution of Crossovers……Page 241
Codominance……Page 242
Pleiotropy……Page 243
13.5 Nature and Nurture……Page 244
Engage: Dr. Gay Bradshaw……Page 245
13.6 Complex Variation in Traits……Page 246
Application: Menacing Mucus……Page 247
Chapter 14: Human Inheritance……Page 251
14.1 Human Chromosomes……Page 252
Engage: Dr. Nancy Wexler……Page 253
Huntington’s Disease……Page 254
Albinism……Page 255
Red–Green Color Blindness……Page 256
Hemophilia……Page 257
Translocations……Page 258
Chromosomes and Evolution……Page 259
Down Syndrome……Page 260
XYY Syndrome……Page 261
14.6 Genetic Screening……Page 262
Application: Shades of Skin……Page 263
Chapter 15: Biotechnology……Page 267
DNA Cloning……Page 268
Why Clone DNA……Page 269
PCR……Page 270
15.3 DNA Sequencing……Page 272
The Human Genome Project……Page 273
15.4 Genomics……Page 274
DNA Profiling……Page 275
Plants……Page 276
Animals……Page 277
CRISPR……Page 278
Application: Personal Genetic Testing……Page 279
Unit 3: Principles of Evolution……Page 282
Chapter 16: Evidence of Evolution……Page 283
16.1 Early Beliefs, Confusing Discoveries……Page 284
16.2 A Flurry of New Ideas……Page 286
Evolution by Natural Selection……Page 287
Evidence in Rock Formations……Page 288
Engage: Dr. Paul Sereno, National Geographic Explorer……Page 289
16.4 Filling in Pieces of the Puzzle……Page 290
Missing Links……Page 291
16.5 Drifting Continents, Changing Seas……Page 292
16.6 Putting Time Into Perspective……Page 294
Morphological Divergence……Page 296
Morphological Convergence……Page 297
Patterns in Animal Development……Page 298
Application: Reflections of a Distant Past……Page 299
Chapter 17: Processes of Evolution……Page 303
An Evolutionary View of Mutations……Page 304
Allele Frequency……Page 305
Applying the Hardy–Weinberg Principle……Page 306
Populations Evolve……Page 307
The Peppered Moth……Page 308
Warfarin-Resistant Rats……Page 309
Stabilizing Selection……Page 310
Disruptive Selection……Page 311
Maintaining Multiple Alleles……Page 312
Bottlenecks and the Founder Effect……Page 314
Gene Flow……Page 315
17.7 Reproductive Isolation……Page 316
Speciation in Archipelagos……Page 318
Sympatric Speciation……Page 320
Engage: Dr. Julia J. Day, National Geographic Explorer……Page 321
Coevolution……Page 322
Evolutionary Theory……Page 323
17.11 Phylogeny……Page 324
Cladistics……Page 325
Medical Research……Page 326
Application: Directional Selection: Superbug
Farms……Page 327
Chapter 18: Life’s Origin and Early Evolution……Page 331
Sources of Organic Subunits……Page 332
Engage: Dr. Robert Ballard, National Geographic Explorer……Page 333
Origin of the Genome……Page 334
Protocell Formation……Page 335
Stromatolites and the Rise in Oxygen……Page 336
Early Eukaryotes……Page 337
Nucleus and Endoplasmic Reticulum……Page 338
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts……Page 339
18.5 Perspective on the Precambrian……Page 340
Application: Looking for Life……Page 341
Unit 4: Evolution and Biodiversity……Page 344
Chapter 19: Viruses, Bacteria, and Archaea……Page 345
Bacteriophage Replication……Page 346
HIV Replication……Page 347
Emerging Viral Diseases……Page 348
Engage: Dr. Nathan Wolfe, National Geographic Explorer……Page 349
Reproduction and Gene Exchange……Page 350
Metabolic Diversity……Page 351
Gram-Positive Bacteria……Page 352
Spirochetes……Page 353
Toxins and Disease……Page 354
Archaeal Diversity……Page 355
Relationships Among Domains……Page 356
Chapter 20: The Protists……Page 361
Metabolism……Page 362
Life Cycles……Page 363
Chloroplasts……Page 364
Trypanosomes and Euglenoids……Page 365
Alveolates……Page 366
Rhizarians……Page 367
Life Cycle of Plasmodium……Page 368
Engage: Ken Banks, National Geographic Explorer……Page 369
Red Algae……Page 370
Green Algae……Page 371
Slime Molds……Page 372
Application: Toxic Algal Blooms……Page 373
Chapter 21: Plant Evolution……Page 377
Life-Cycle Changes……Page 378
Pollen and Seeds……Page 379
Mosses……Page 380
Liverworts and Hornworts……Page 381
Ferns and Close Relatives……Page 382
Lycophytes……Page 383
Rise of the Seed Plants……Page 384
Engage: Jeff Benca, National Geographic Explorer……Page 385
Conifers……Page 386
Lesser-Known Lineages……Page 387
Flowers and Fruits……Page 388
Angiosperm Lineages……Page 389
Animal-Dispersed Fruits……Page 390
Application: Saving Seeds……Page 391
Chapter 22: Fungi……Page 395
Metabolism and Nutrition……Page 396
Major Groups……Page 397
Zygote Fungi……Page 398
Club Fungi……Page 399
Parasites and Pathogens……Page 400
Engage: Dr. DeeAnn Reeder, National Geographic Explorer……Page 401
22.4 Human Uses of Fungi……Page 402
Application: Spread of Fungal Pathogens……Page 403
Chapter 23: Animals I: MajorInvertebrate Groups……Page 407
Body Plan Variations……Page 408
An Explosion of Diversity……Page 410
23.3 Sponges……Page 411
23.4 Cnidarians……Page 412
Engage: Dr. David Gruber, National Geographic Explorer……Page 413
Free-Living Flatworms……Page 414
Parasitic Flatworms……Page 415
Leeches……Page 416
Earthworm Ecology……Page 417
Bivalves……Page 418
Cephalopods……Page 419
23.8 Roundworms……Page 420
Metamorphosis……Page 421
Millipedes and Centipedes……Page 422
Insects……Page 423
Insect Ecology……Page 424
Health and Economic Effects……Page 425
23.12 Echinoderms……Page 426
Application: Medicines From the Sea……Page 427
Chapter 24: Animals II: The Chordates……Page 431
Invertebrate Chordates……Page 432
Overview of Chordate Evolution……Page 433
Cartilaginous Fishes……Page 434
Bony Fishes……Page 435
Modern Amphibians……Page 436
Declining Diversity……Page 437
24.4 Amniotes……Page 438
Crocodilians……Page 439
24.6 Birds—Adapted to Flight……Page 440
Modern Subgroups……Page 441
Primate Characteristics……Page 442
Modern Subgroups……Page 443
24.9 A Human–Ape Comparison……Page 444
24.10 Early Hominins……Page 445
Anatomically Modern Humans……Page 446
Engage: Drs. Louise Leakey and Meave Leakey, National Geographic Explorers……Page 447
Mixing Genomes……Page 448
Application: Downsides to Walking Upright……Page 449
Unit 5: How Plants Work……Page 452
Chapter 25: Plant Tissues……Page 453
25.1 The Plant Body……Page 454
Engage: Dr. Mark Olson, National Geographic Explorer……Page 455
Sclerenchyma……Page 456
Vascular Tissue……Page 457
Internal Structure……Page 458
Cladodes……Page 459
Internal Structure……Page 460
Internal Structure……Page 462
Primary Growth……Page 464
Secondary Growth……Page 465
25.7 Tree Rings and Old Secrets……Page 466
Application: Sequestering Carbon in Forests……Page 467
Chapter 26: Plant Nutrition and Transport……Page 471
Properties of Soil……Page 472
Engage: Dr. Jerry Glover, National Geographic Explorer……Page 473
The Function of Endodermis……Page 474
Mutualisms……Page 475
26.3 Water Movement Inside Plants……Page 476
Cohesion–Tension Theory……Page 477
Pressure Flow Theory……Page 478
Application: Leafy Cleanup……Page 480
Chapter 27: Reproduction and Development of Flowering Plants……Page 485
Floral Structure……Page 486
Pollination……Page 487
Double Fertilization……Page 488
Fruits: Mature Ovaries……Page 490
Agricultural Applications……Page 492
27.5 Plant Hormones……Page 493
27.6 Auxin and Cytokinin……Page 494
27.7 Gibberellin……Page 495
Abscisic Acid……Page 496
Ethylene……Page 497
After Germination……Page 498
Light……Page 500
Contact……Page 501
Seasonal Change……Page 502
Plants Do Not Want to Be Eaten……Page 504
Engage: Dr. Grace Gobbo, National Geographic Explorer……Page 505
Application: Prescription: Chocolate……Page 506
Engage: Dr. Dino Martins, National Geographic Explorer……Page 507
Unit 6: How Animals Work……Page 510
Chapter 28: Animal Tissues and Organ Systems……Page 511
Fluids of the Animal Body……Page 512
Evolution of Animal Body Plans……Page 513
Types of Epithelial Tissue……Page 514
Engage: Dr. Brenda Larison, National Geographic Explorer……Page 515
Types of Connective Tissue……Page 516
Smooth Muscle……Page 518
28.5 Nervous Tissues……Page 519
Organs and Organ Systems……Page 520
Components of Human Skin……Page 522
Sun and the Skin……Page 523
28.8 Negative Feedback in Homeostasis……Page 524
Application: Growing Replacement Tissues……Page 525
Chapter 29: Neural Control……Page 529
Bilateral Cephalized Systems……Page 530
The Vertebrate Nervous System……Page 531
Neuroglia……Page 532
Action Potential……Page 533
An All-or-Nothing Signal……Page 534
Propagation Along an Axon……Page 535
Signal and Receptor Variety……Page 536
Drugs That Act at Synapses……Page 537
Somatic Nervous System……Page 538
Fight or Flight……Page 539
Cerebrospinal Fluid……Page 540
Anesthesia and Injury……Page 541
29.9 The Vertebrate Brain……Page 542
Engage: Dr. Diana Reiss, National Geographic Explorer……Page 543
29.10 The Cerebral Cortex……Page 544
Making Memories……Page 545
Examining Brain Tissue……Page 546
Application: Impacts of Concussions……Page 547
Chapter 30: Sensory Perception……Page 551
Sensation Versus Perception……Page 552
Pain and Pain Relief……Page 553
Sense of Taste……Page 554
Anatomy of the Human Eye……Page 556
Focusing Mechanisms……Page 557
Visual Processing……Page 558
Loss of Vision……Page 559
Vertebrate Hearing……Page 560
Engage: Dr. Fernando Montealegre-Z, National Geographic Explorer……Page 561
30.8 Balance and Equilibrium……Page 562
Application: Neuroprostheses……Page 563
Chapter 31: Endocrine Control……Page 567
Types of Hormones……Page 568
Hormone Receptor Variation……Page 569
31.2 The Human Endocrine System……Page 570
Posterior Pituitary Function……Page 572
Hormonal Growth Disorders……Page 573
Metabolic and Developmental
Effects of Thyroid Hormone……Page 574
31.5 The Pineal Gland……Page 575
Hormones, Stress, and Health……Page 576
31.7 The Gonads……Page 577
Regulation of Blood Sugar……Page 578
31.9 Invertebrate Hormones……Page 579
Application: Endocrine Disruptors……Page 580
Engage: Dr. Tyrone Hayes, National Geographic Explorer……Page 581
Chapter 32: Structural Support and Movement……Page 585
32.1 Animal Locomotion……Page 586
Engage: Dr. Kakani Katija Young, National Geographic Explorer……Page 587
The Vertebrate Endoskeleton……Page 588
Bone Formation and Turnover……Page 590
Joints: Where Bones Meet……Page 591
32.4 Skeletal Muscle Functions……Page 592
32.5 Structure of Skeletal Muscle……Page 593
32.6 The Sliding-Filament Model……Page 594
Motor Units……Page 595
Types of Muscle Fibers……Page 596
Application: Exercise and Inactivity……Page 597
Chapter 33: Circulation……Page 601
Vertebrate Circulatory Systems……Page 602
The Pulmonary Circuit……Page 604
The Systemic Circuit……Page 605
The Cardiac Cycle……Page 606
Setting the Pace……Page 607
Red Blood Cells……Page 608
Platelets……Page 609
Adjusting Flow at Arterioles……Page 610
33.6 Blood Pressure……Page 611
33.7 Capillary Exchange……Page 612
Impaired Venous Return……Page 613
Atherosclerosis……Page 614
Heart Disease and Stroke……Page 615
Lymphoid Tissues……Page 616
Application: When the Heart Stops……Page 617
Chapter 34: Immunity……Page 621
Three Lines of Defense……Page 622
The Defenders……Page 623
Biological Barriers……Page 624
Physiological and Anatomical Barriers……Page 625
Phagocytosis……Page 626
Fever……Page 627
34.4 Antigen Receptors……Page 628
Antigen Receptor Diversity……Page 629
Two Arms of Adaptive Immunity……Page 630
Antigen Processing……Page 631
34.6 Adaptive Immunity I:
An Antibody-Mediated Response……Page 632
Antibodies in ABO Blood Typing……Page 633
Cytotoxic T Cells: Activation and Action……Page 634
Engage: Dr. Mark Merchant, National Geographic Explorer……Page 635
Acute Illnesses……Page 636
Immune Evasion……Page 637
Testing……Page 638
Prevention……Page 639
Application: Community Immunity……Page 640
Chapter 35: Respiration……Page 645
Factors Affecting Gas Exchange……Page 646
35.2 Invertebrate Respiratory Organs……Page 647
Vertebrate Lungs……Page 648
The Airways……Page 650
Muscles of Respiration……Page 651
The Respiratory Cycle……Page 652
Choking—A Blocked Airway……Page 653
Carbon Dioxide Transport……Page 654
Engage: Dr. Cynthia Beall, National Geographic Explorer……Page 655
Bronchitis, Asthma, and Emphysema……Page 656
Application: Effects of Smoking……Page 657
Chapter 36: Digestion and Human Nutrition……Page 661
Sac or Tube……Page 662
Specialized Regions……Page 663
36.2 Human Digestive Tract……Page 664
Bird Beaks……Page 665
Stomach Disorders……Page 666
36.5 The Small Intestine……Page 667
Fat Digestion……Page 668
Water Uptake……Page 669
36.7 The Large Intestine……Page 670
36.8 Metabolism of Absorbed Organic Compounds……Page 671
36.9 Vitamins and Minerals……Page 672
Engage: Dr. Christopher Golden, National Geographic Explorer……Page 673
Heart-Healthy Oils……Page 674
Minimal Added Salt and Sugar……Page 675
36.11 Maintaining a Healthy Weight……Page 676
Application: The Obesity Epidemic……Page 677
Chapter 37: Maintaining the Internal Environment……Page 681
Gains and Losses of Water and Solutes……Page 682
Kidneys……Page 683
The Nephrons……Page 684
Blood Vessels……Page 685
Concentrating the Urine……Page 686
37.4 Kidney Disorders……Page 688
Engage: Dr. Cheryl Knott, National Geographic Explorer……Page 689
Modes of Thermoregulation……Page 690
Vertebrate Responses to Heat……Page 691
Staying Warm……Page 692
Application: Genetic Adaptation to
Differing Climates……Page 693
Chapter 38: Reproduction and Development……Page 697
Asexual or Sexual……Page 698
Variation Among Sexual Reproducers……Page 699
Gastrulation……Page 700
Tissues and Organs Form……Page 701
Embryonic Induction……Page 702
Cell Migrations……Page 703
Developmental Mutations……Page 704
38.5 Overview of Human Development……Page 705
Female Reproductive Anatomy……Page 706
Egg Production and Release……Page 707
Ovarian and Menstrual Cycles……Page 708
Estrous Cycles……Page 709
Ducts and Accessory Glands……Page 710
Engage: Dr. Stewart C. Nicol, National Geographic Explorer……Page 711
Fertilization……Page 712
38.10 Birth Control……Page 714
38.11 Sexually Transmitted Diseases……Page 715
38.12 Early Human Development……Page 716
38.13 Emergence of Human Features……Page 718
Effects of Maternal Health and Behavior……Page 720
Investigating Birth Defects……Page 721
Lactation……Page 722
Application: Reproductive Technology……Page 723
Unit 7: Principles of Ecology……Page 726
Chapter 39: Animal Behavior……Page 727
Pair-Bonding in Voles……Page 728
Social Dominance in Cichlids……Page 729
Conditioned Responses……Page 730
Imitative Learning……Page 731
Types of Communication Signals……Page 732
Engage: Dr. Isabelle Charrier, National Geographic Explorer……Page 733
Mating Systems……Page 734
Parental Care……Page 735
Benefits of Grouping……Page 736
Evolution of Cooperation……Page 737
39.6 Eusocial Animals……Page 738
Application: Can You Hear Me Now……Page 739
Chapter 40: Population Ecology……Page 743
Size, Density, and Distribution……Page 744
Engage: Dr. Karen DeMatteo, National Geographic Explorer……Page 745
Zero to Exponential Growth……Page 746
Biotic Potential……Page 747
Logistic Growth……Page 748
Density-Independent Factors……Page 749
Timing of Births and Deaths……Page 750
r-Selection and K-Selection……Page 751
An Experimental Study……Page 752
Collapse of a Fishery……Page 753
Expansions and Innovations……Page 754
Fertility and Future Growth……Page 755
A Demographic Transition……Page 756
Application: Managing Canada Geese……Page 757
Chapter 41: Community Ecology……Page 761
41.1 Factors That Shape Communities……Page 762
41.2 Mutualism……Page 763
Competitive Exclusion……Page 764
Engage: Dr. Nayuta Yamashita, National Geographic Explorer……Page 765
Predator–Prey Arms Races……Page 766
Plant–Herbivore Arms Race……Page 767
Parasitism……Page 768
Brood Parasitism……Page 769
Ecological Succession……Page 770
Effects of Disturbance……Page 771
Exotic and Endemic Species……Page 772
41.8 Island Biogeography……Page 774
Application: Fighting Foreign Fire Ants……Page 775
Chapter 42: Ecosystems……Page 779
Energy Flows, Nutrients Cycle……Page 780
Trophic Structure……Page 781
Food Webs……Page 782
Ecological Pyramids……Page 783
42.4 The Water Cycle……Page 784
Engage: Jonathan Waterman, National Geographic Explorer……Page 785
Carbon Reservoirs and Flow……Page 786
The Greenhouse Effect……Page 787
Nitrogen Reservoirs and Flow……Page 788
Alterations to the Cycle……Page 789
42.7 The Phosphorus Cycle……Page 790
Application: Toxic Transfers……Page 791
Chapter 43: The Biosphere……Page 795
Air Circulation and Rainfall……Page 796
Surface Wind Patterns……Page 797
Regional Effects……Page 798
Similarities Within a Biome……Page 800
43.4 Tropical Rain Forests……Page 801
Coniferous Forests……Page 802
43.6 Fire-Adapted Biomes……Page 803
Desert Crust……Page 804
Engage: Dr. Katey Walter Anthony, National Geographic Explorer……Page 805
Seasonal Changes……Page 806
The Role of Dissolved Oxygen……Page 807
Rocky and Sandy Seashores……Page 808
Coral Reefs……Page 809
43.11 The Open Ocean……Page 810
Application: Effects of El Niño……Page 811
Chapter 44: Human Effectson the Biosphere……Page 815
Habitat Degradation and Fragmentation……Page 816
Engage: Dr. Paula Kahumbu, National Geographic Explorer……Page 817
Deforestation……Page 818
Talking Trash……Page 820
Mercury Deposition……Page 821
Near-Ground Ozone Pollution……Page 822
44.5 Global Climate Change……Page 823
Setting Priorities……Page 824
Preservation and Restoration……Page 825
44.7 Reducing Human Impacts……Page 826
Application: Citizen Scientists……Page 827
I: Periodic Table of the Elements……Page 830
II: The Amino Acids……Page 831
III: A Closer Look at Some Major Metabolic Pathways……Page 832
IV: A Plain English Map of the Human Chromosomes……Page 835
V: Restless Earth—Life’s Changing Geologic Stage……Page 836
VII: Answers to Self-Assessments/Genetics Problems……Page 838
Glossary……Page 842
Index……Page 862

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