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Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (9th Edition)

Download Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (9th Edition) written by Kang-Tsung Chang in PDF format. This book is under the category Geography and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 1259929647/9781259929649. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

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Specifications

book-author

Kang-tsung Chang

publisher

McGraw-Hill Higher Education; 9th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

464 pages

language

English

asin

B078XH4KYK

isbn10

1259929647

isbn13

9781259929649


Book Description

Introduction to Geographic Information Systems 9th edition (PDF) eBook is designed to provide college students in a first or second Geographic Information Systems (GIS) course with a solid foundation in both GIS concepts and the use of GIS. Introduction to GIS 9e PDF strikes a careful balance between GIS concepts andhands-on applications. The main portion of the chapter presents GIS terms and concepts and helps college students learn how each one fits into a complete GIS system. At the end of each chapter an application section with two to seven tasks presents students with actual GIS exercises and the necessary data to solve the problem.

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book-author

Kang-tsung Chang

publisher

McGraw-Hill Higher Education; 9th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

464 pages

language

English

asin

B078XH4KYK

isbn10

1259929647

isbn13

9781259929649

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Brief Contents……Page 3
Contents……Page 4
Preface……Page 14
Chapter 1 Introduction……Page 16
1.1 GIS……Page 17
1.1.2 A Brief History of GIS……Page 18
1.1.3 GIS Software Products……Page 19
Box 1.2 ArcGIS……Page 20
1.2.1 Geospatial Data……Page 21
1.2.4 Data Display……Page 23
1.2.6 Data Analysis……Page 24
1.3 Applications of GIS……Page 25
Box 1.3 A List of GIS Applications……Page 26
1.4 Integration of GIS, Web 2.0, and Mobile Technology……Page 27
1.4.3 Collaborative Web Mapping……Page 28
1.5 Organization of This Book……Page 29
Key Concepts and Terms……Page 30
Review Questions……Page 31
Task 1 Introduction to ArcCatalog……Page 32
Task 2 Introduction to ArcMap……Page 33
References……Page 35
Chapter 2 Coordinate Systems……Page 37
2.1 Geographic Coordinate System……Page 38
2.1.1 Approximation of the Earth……Page 39
2.1.3 NAD27 and NAD83……Page 40
Box 2.1 Datum Accuracy……Page 41
Box 2.2 How to Measure Distances on the Earth’s Surface……Page 42
2.2.1 Types of Map Projections……Page 43
2.2.2 Map Projection Parameters……Page 44
2.3.1 Transverse Mercator……Page 46
2.3.3 Albers Equal-Area Conic……Page 47
Box 2.3 Map Scale……Page 48
2.4.1 The Universal Transverse Mercator Grid System……Page 49
2.4.3 The State Plane Coordinate System……Page 50
2.4.4 The Public Land Survey System……Page 51
2.5.2 Predefined Coordinate Systems……Page 52
2.5.3 On-the-Fly Projection……Page 53
Key Concepts and Terms……Page 54
Applications: Coordinate Systems……Page 56
Task 1 Project from a Geographic to a Projected Coordinate System……Page 57
Task 3 Project Using a Predefined Coordinate System……Page 58
Task 5 Reproject a Raster……Page 59
Challenge Task……Page 60
Chapter 3 Vector Data Model……Page 61
3.1 Representation of Spatial Features……Page 62
Box 3.1 Specifications of Spatial Features by Google, OpenStreetMap, and GeoJSON……Page 63
3.2.1 TIGER……Page 64
Box 3.2 Adjacency and Incidence……Page 65
3.2.2 Importance of Topology……Page 66
3.3.2 Coverage Data Structure……Page 67
3.3.3 The Shapefile……Page 69
3.4.1 Classes and Class Relationships……Page 70
3.4.3 The Geodatabase……Page 71
Box 3.3 ArcObjects and ArcGIS……Page 72
3.4.4 Topology Rules……Page 73
Box 3.5 NHDinGEO……Page 74
3.5.1 TINs……Page 75
3.5.2 Regions……Page 76
3.5.3 Routes……Page 78
Key Concepts and Terms……Page 79
Review Questions……Page 80
Task 1 Examine the Data File Structure of Coverage and Shapefile……Page 81
Task 2 Create File Geodatabase, Feature Dataset, and Feature Class……Page 82
Task 4 Examine Polylines with Measures……Page 83
Challenge Task……Page 84
References……Page 85
Chapter 4 Raster Data Model……Page 86
4.1 Elements of the Raster Data Model……Page 87
4.1.5 Spatial Reference……Page 88
Box 4.1 Data Volumes of High Resolution (SPOT 5) and Very High Resolution (IKONOS) Satellite Images……Page 89
4.2.1 Landsat……Page 90
4.2.2 SPOT……Page 91
Box 4.2 An Example of a Digital Elevation Model……Page 92
4.3.3 LiDAR……Page 93
4.4.1 Digital Orthophotos……Page 94
4.4.6 GIS Software-Specific Raster Data……Page 95
4.5.1 Cell-by-Cell Encoding……Page 96
4.5.3 Quadtree……Page 97
4.5.4 Header File……Page 98
4.6 Raster Data Compression……Page 99
Box 4.4 A Simple Wavelet Example: The Haar Wavelet……Page 100
4.7.2 Vectorization……Page 101
Box 4.5 Digital Earth……Page 102
Review Questions……Page 103
Task 1 View and Import DEM Data……Page 104
Task 4 Convert Vector Data to Raster Data……Page 105
References……Page 106
Chapter 5 GISIS Data Acquisition……Page 108
5.1.2 U.S. Geological Survey……Page 109
Box 5.1 Data Formats for USGS Products……Page 110
5.1.3 National Aeronautics and Space Administration……Page 111
5.1.6 Examples of Statewide, Metropolitan, and County-Level Data……Page 112
Box 5.2 LiDAR Data Sources……Page 113
5.3.1 Direct Translation……Page 114
5.4 Creation of New Data……Page 115
5.4.2 Survey Data……Page 116
5.4.3 GPS Data……Page 117
Box 5.3 An Example of GPS Data……Page 118
Box 5.5 GPS and OpenStreetMap……Page 119
Box 5.6 Positional Accuracy of GPS Units and GPS-Enabled Mobile Phones……Page 120
5.4.5 Digitizing Using a Digitizing Table……Page 121
5.4.6 Scanning……Page 122
5.4.8 Importance of Source Maps……Page 125
Key Concepts and Terms……Page 126
Task 1 Download USGS DEM……Page 127
Task 2 Digitize On-Screen……Page 128
Task 3 Add XY Data……Page 129
References……Page 130
Chapter 6 Geometric Transformation……Page 132
6.1.2 Transformation Methods……Page 133
6.1.3 Affine Transformation……Page 134
6.1.4 Control Points……Page 135
Box 6.1 Estimation of Transformation Coefficients……Page 136
6.2 Root Mean Square (RMS) Error……Page 137
Box 6.3 RMS from an Affine Transformation……Page 138
6.3 Interpretation of RMS Errors on Digitized Maps……Page 139
6.4.1 Resampling Methods……Page 140
6.4.2 Other Uses of Resampling……Page 141
Review Questions……Page 142
Task 1 Georeference and Rectify a Scanned Map……Page 143
Task 2 Vectorize Raster Lines……Page 144
Task 3 Perform Image-to-Map Transformation……Page 145
References……Page 147
Chapter 7 Spatial Data Accuracy & Quality……Page 148
7.1.2 Causes of Digitizing Errors……Page 149
7.2 Spatial Data Accuracy Standards……Page 150
Box 7.1 National Standard for Spatial Data Accuracy Statistic……Page 151
7.3.1 Topological Errors with Spatial Features……Page 152
7.3.2 Topological Errors between Layers……Page 153
Box 7.2 Topological Editing in GIS……Page 154
7.5.1 Editing Existing Features……Page 155
7.5.2 Creating Features from Existing Features……Page 156
7.6.2 Line Generalization and Smoothing……Page 157
Review Questions……Page 159
Task 1 Edit a Shapefile……Page 160
Task 2 Use Cluster Tolerance to Fix Digitizing Errors Between Two Shapefiles……Page 161
Task 3 Use Topology Rule to Fix Dangles……Page 162
Task 4 Use Topology Rule to Ensure Two Polygon Layers Covering Each Other……Page 164
References……Page 165
Chapter 8 Attribute Data Management……Page 166
8.1.2 Database Management……Page 168
Box 8.2 What Is BLOB?……Page 169
8.2 The Relational Model……Page 170
8.2.2 Normalization……Page 172
8.2.3 Types of Relationships……Page 175
8.4 Spatial Join……Page 177
8.5.2 Methods of Data Entry……Page 178
8.6.2 Classification of Attribute Data……Page 179
Key Concepts and Terms……Page 180
Applications: Attribute Data Management……Page 181
Task 1 Use Validation Rule for Entering Attribute Data……Page 182
Task 4 Create New Attribute by Data Classification……Page 183
Task 5 Use Advanced Method for Attribute Data Classification……Page 184
Task 7 Create Relationship Class……Page 185
References……Page 186
Chapter 9 Data Display and Cartography……Page 187
9.1.1 Spatial Features and Map Symbols……Page 189
Box 9.1 Choice of Map Symbols in Google My Maps……Page 190
9.1.3 Data Classification……Page 191
9.1.4 Generalization……Page 192
9.2 Types of Quantitative Maps……Page 193
Box 9.3 Mapping Derived and Absolute Values……Page 195
9.3.1 Type Variations……Page 196
9.3.2 Selection of Type Variations……Page 197
9.3.3 Placement of Text in the Map Body……Page 198
Box 9.4 Options for Dynamic Labeling……Page 199
9.4.1 Layout……Page 201
Box 9.5 Better Mapping Campaign……Page 202
9.4.2 Visual Hierarchy……Page 204
9.5 Animated Maps……Page 205
9.6 Map Production……Page 206
Box 9.6 Working with Soft-Copy Maps……Page 207
Key Concepts and Terms……Page 208
Review Questions……Page 209
Task 1 Make a Choropleth Map……Page 210
Task 2 Use Graduated Symbols, Line Symbols, Highway Shield Symbols, and Text Symbols……Page 213
Task 3 Label Streams……Page 215
Challenge Task……Page 216
References……Page 217
Chapter 10 Data Exploration……Page 219
Box 10.1 Data Visualization and Visual Analytics……Page 220
Box 10.2 Descriptive Statistics……Page 221
10.1.2 Graphs……Page 222
10.2.1 Data Classification……Page 225
10.2.2 Spatial Aggregation……Page 226
10.2.3 Map Comparison……Page 227
Box 10.4 SQL for Attribute Data Query……Page 228
10.3.2 Query Expressions……Page 229
10.3.4 Examples of Query Operations……Page 231
10.4 Spatial Data Query……Page 232
10.4.1 Feature Selection by Graphic……Page 233
Box 10.5 Spatial Query and Spatial Join Tools in ArcGIS……Page 234
10.5.1 Query by Cell Value……Page 235
Key Concepts and Terms……Page 236
Applications: Data Exploration……Page 237
Task 2 Make Dynamic Chart……Page 238
Task 4 Query Attribute Data from a Relational Database……Page 239
Task 5 Combine Spatial and Attribute Data Queries……Page 240
Task 6 Perform Spatial Join……Page 241
Challenge Task……Page 242
References……Page 243
Chapter 11 Vector Data Analysis……Page 244
11.1.1 Variations in Buffering……Page 245
Box 11.1 Riparian Buffer Width……Page 246
11.1.2 Applications of Buffering……Page 247
11.2 Overlay……Page 248
11.2.2 Overlay Methods……Page 249
Box 11.4 Difference between Overlay and Spatial Join……Page 250
11.2.4 Slivers……Page 251
11.2.5 Error Propagation in Overlay……Page 252
11.2.6 Applications of Overlay……Page 253
11.4 Pattern Analysis……Page 254
11.4.1 Analysis of Random and Nonrandom Patterns……Page 255
11.4.2 Moran’s I for Measuring Spatial Autocorrelation……Page 257
11.4.3 G-Statistic for Measuring High/Low Clustering……Page 259
11.5 Feature Manipulation……Page 260
Key Concepts and Terms……Page 262
Task 1 Perform Buffering and Overlay……Page 264
Task 3 Perform Areal Interpolation……Page 266
Task 4 Compute General and Local G-Statistics……Page 267
Task 6 Perform Dissolve……Page 268
Challenge Task……Page 269
References……Page 270
Chapter 12 Raster Data Analysis……Page 273
Box 12.1 How to Make an Analysis Mask……Page 274
12.2.3 Local Operations with Multiple Rasters……Page 275
12.2.4 Applications of Local Operations……Page 276
Box 12.2 A Case Study of RUSLE……Page 277
12.3.2 Applications of Neighborhood Operations……Page 278
12.4.1 Zonal Statistics……Page 280
12.4.2 Applications of Zonal Operations……Page 281
12.5 Physical Distance Measure Operations……Page 282
12.5.2 Applications of Physical Distance Measure Operations……Page 283
12.6.1 Raster Data Management……Page 284
12.6.3 Raster Data Generalization……Page 285
12.8 Comparison of Vector- and Raster-Based Data Analysis……Page 286
Box 12.6 A Case for Raster-Based Overlay……Page 287
Review Questions……Page 288
Task 1 Perform a Local Operation……Page 289
Task 5 Measure Physical Distances……Page 290
Task 7 Run Map Algebra……Page 291
References……Page 292
Chapter 13 Terrain Mapping and Analysis……Page 294
13.1.2 TIN……Page 295
13.2.1 Contouring……Page 296
13.2.2 Vertical Profiling……Page 297
13.2.3 Hill Shading……Page 298
Box 13.2 A Worked Example of Computing Relative Radiance……Page 299
13.2.5 Perspective View……Page 300
13.3 Slope and Aspect……Page 302
13.3.1 Computing Algorithms for Slope and Aspect Using Raster……Page 303
Box 13.4 Conversion of D to Aspect……Page 304
Box 13.5 A Worked Example of Computing Slope and Aspect Using Raster……Page 305
13.3.3 Factors Influencing Slope and Aspect Measures……Page 306
Box 13.7 A Worked Example of Computing Surface Curvature……Page 308
13.5 Raster Versus TIN……Page 309
Review Questions……Page 310
Task 1 Use DEM for Terrain Mapping……Page 311
Task 2 Derive Slope, Aspect, and Curvature from DEM……Page 313
Task 3 Build and Display a TIN……Page 314
Challenge Task……Page 315
References……Page 316
Chapter 14 Viewshed & Watershed Analysis……Page 318
14.1.1 Line-of-Sight Operation……Page 319
14.1.4 Cumulative Viewshed……Page 320
Box 14.1 An Application Example of Cumulative Viewshed……Page 321
Box 14.2 Tools for Selecting Viewpoints……Page 322
14.3 Applications of Viewshed Analysis……Page 324
14.4.1 Filled DEM……Page 325
14.4.2 Flow Direction……Page 326
14.4.5 Stream Links……Page 327
14.4.7 Point-Based Watersheds……Page 328
Box 14.5 Snapping Pour Points……Page 329
14.5.1 DEM Resolution……Page 330
14.5.3 Flow Accumulation Threshold……Page 332
14.6 Applications of Watershed Analysis……Page 333
Review Questions……Page 334
Task 1 Perform Viewshed Analysis……Page 335
Task 2 Create a New Lookout Shapefile for Viewshed Analysis……Page 336
Task 3 Delineate Areawide Watersheds……Page 337
Task 4 Derive Upstream Contributing Areas at Pour Points……Page 338
References……Page 339
Chapter 15 Spatial Interpolation……Page 342
15.1.2 Type of Spatial Interpolation……Page 343
15.2.1 Trend Surface Models……Page 344
Box 15.1 A Worked Example of Trend Surface Analysis……Page 345
15.3 Local Methods……Page 346
15.3.1 Thiessen Polygons……Page 347
15.3.2 Density Estimation……Page 348
15.3.3 Inverse Distance Weighted Interpolation……Page 349
Box 15.2 A Worked Example of Kernel Density Estimation……Page 350
15.3.4 Thin-Plate Splines……Page 351
Box 15.4 Radial Basis Functions……Page 352
15.4.1 Semivariogram……Page 353
15.4.2 Models……Page 355
15.4.3 Ordinary Kriging……Page 357
15.4.5 Other Kriging Methods……Page 358
Box 15.6 A Worked Example of Ordinary Kriging Estimation……Page 359
15.5 Comparison of Spatial Interpolation Methods……Page 360
Box 15.7 A Worked Example of Universal Kriging Estimation……Page 361
Key Concepts and Terms……Page 362
Task 1 Use Trend Surface Model for Interpolation……Page 364
Task 3 Use IDW for Interpolation……Page 366
Task 4 Use Ordinary Kriging for Interpolation……Page 367
Challenge Task……Page 368
References……Page 369
Chapter 16 Geocoding and Dynamic Segmentation……Page 371
16.1.1 Geocoding Reference Database……Page 372
Box 16.2 Positional Accuracy of Road Networks in TIGER/Line Files……Page 373
16.1.2 The Address Matching Process……Page 374
16.1.4 Offset Plotting Options……Page 375
16.1.5 Quality of Geocoding……Page 376
Box 16.5 Online Geocoding Services……Page 377
16.3.2 Business Applications……Page 378
16.4.1 Routes……Page 379
16.4.2 Creating Routes……Page 380
16.4.4 Creating Event Tables……Page 382
16.5.1 Data Management……Page 383
16.5.4 Data Analysis……Page 384
Review Questions……Page 385
Task 1 Geocode Street Addresses……Page 386
Task 2 Display and Query Routes and Events……Page 387
Task 3 Analyze Two Event Layers……Page 388
Task 4 Create a Stream Route and Analyze Slope Along the Route……Page 389
Task 6 Check the Quality of TIGER/Line Files……Page 390
References……Page 391
Chapter 17 Least-Cost Path Analysis and Network Analysis……Page 393
Box 17.1 Cost Raster for a Site Analysis of Pipelines……Page 394
17.1.4 Deriving the Least Accumulative Cost Path……Page 395
17.1.5 Options for Least-Cost Path Analysis……Page 397
Box 17.2 Derivation of the Least Accumulative Cost Path……Page 398
17.3.2 Junction and Turn Impedance……Page 399
Box 17.3 Routing Network for Disabled People……Page 400
17.4.3 Attributing the Network Features……Page 401
17.5.1 Shortest Path Analysis……Page 402
17.5.4 Closest Facility……Page 404
17.5.5 Allocation……Page 405
17.5.6 Location–Allocation……Page 406
Key Concepts and Terms……Page 408
Task 1 Compute the Least Accumulative Cost Distance……Page 409
Task 2 Compute the Path Distance……Page 410
Task 3 Run Shortest Path Analysis……Page 411
Task 4 Build a Geodatabase Network Dataset……Page 412
Task 5 Find Closest Facility……Page 413
Challenge Task……Page 414
References……Page 415
Chapter 18 GIS Models and Modeling……Page 417
18.1.1 Classification of GIS Models……Page 418
18.1.3 The Role of GIS in Modeling……Page 419
18.2 Binary Models……Page 420
18.2.2 Raster-Based Method……Page 421
Box 18.2 The Conservation Reserve Program……Page 422
18.3.1 The Weighted Linear Combination Method……Page 423
18.3.2 Other Index Methods……Page 424
Box 18.3 The Land Evaluation and Site Assessment System……Page 427
18.4.1 Multiple Linear Regression Models……Page 428
18.4.2 Regression Models with Spatial Data……Page 429
18.4.3 Logistic Regression Models……Page 430
18.5.1 Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation……Page 431
18.5.2 Critical Rainfall Model……Page 432
Review Questions……Page 433
Task 1 Build a Vector-Based Binary Model……Page 434
Task 2 Build a Raster-Based Binary Model……Page 435
Task 3 Build a Vector-Based Index Model……Page 436
Task 4 Build a Raster-Based Index Model……Page 437
References……Page 438
Index……Page 442

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