Introductory Chemistry Essentials (5th Edition) – Global

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Download Introductory Chemistry Essentials (5th Edition) – Global written by Nivaldo J. Tro in PDF format. This book is under the category Chemistry and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 1292061332/9781292061337. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

SKU: cbf22ab286e2 Category: Tag:

Specifications

book-author

Nivaldo J. Tro

publisher

Pearson Education; 5th global edition (2016)

file-type

PDF

pages

743

asin

B01E1TIWYG

isbn10

1292061332

isbn13

9781292061337


Book Description

Introductory Chemistry Essentials 5th global edition PDF continues to foster deep engagement in the course by showing how chemistry manifests in a college student’s daily life. Expert author Nivaldo Tro draws upon his classroom experience as an award-winning instructor to extend chemistry from the laboratory to the college student’s world; capturing student attention with relevant applications and a very captivating writing style.

NOTE: This is the global edition of the ebook Introductory Chemistry Essentials 5th edition. Only the PDF file is included in this purchase. No access codes are included

Additional information

book-author

Nivaldo J. Tro

publisher

Pearson Education; 5th global edition (2016)

file-type

PDF

pages

743

asin

B01E1TIWYG

isbn10

1292061332

isbn13

9781292061337

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Cover……Page 1
Title……Page 6
Copyright……Page 7
Contents……Page 10
Preface……Page 23
1.1 Soda Pop Fizz……Page 42
1.3 All Things Are Made of Atoms and Molecules……Page 44
1.4 The Scientific Method: How Chemists Think……Page 45
1.5 A Beginning Chemist: How to Succeed……Page 47
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 48
EXERCISES……Page 49
2.2 Scientific Notation: Writing Large and Small Numbers……Page 52
2.3 Significant Figures: Writing Numbers to Reflect Precision……Page 55
Counting Significant Figures……Page 56
Exact Numbers……Page 57
CHEMISTRY IN THE MEDIA The COBE Satellite and Very Precise Measurements That Illuminate Our Cosmic Past……Page 58
Rounding……Page 59
Addition and Subtraction……Page 60
Calculations Involving Both Multiplication/Division and Addition/Subtraction……Page 61
The Base Units……Page 63
Prefix Multipliers……Page 64
Derived Units……Page 65
Converting Between Units……Page 66
General Problem-Solving Strategy……Page 68
Problem-Solving Procedure Solving Unit Conversion Problems……Page 69
2.7 Solving Multistep Unit Conversion Problems……Page 70
2.8 Units Raised to a Power……Page 72
CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Drug Dosage……Page 73
Calculating Density……Page 75
Density as a Conversion Factor……Page 76
2.10 Numerical Problem-Solving Strategies and the Solution Map……Page 78
Problem-Solving Procedure Solving Numerical Problems……Page 79
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 80
EXERCISES……Page 86
3.2 What Is Matter?……Page 96
3.3 Classifying Matter According to Its State: Solid, Liquid, and Gas……Page 98
3.4 Classifying Matter According to Its Composition: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures……Page 99
3.5 Differences in Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties……Page 102
3.6 Changes in Matter: Physical and Chemical Changes……Page 104
3.7 Conservation of Mass: There Is No New Matter……Page 106
3.8 Energy……Page 107
Units of Energy……Page 108
3.9 Energy and Chemical and Physical Change……Page 110
3.10 Temperature: Random Motion of Molecules and Atoms……Page 111
3.11 Temperature Changes: Heat Capacity……Page 115
3.12 Energy and Heat Capacity Calculations……Page 116
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 120
EXERCISES……Page 125
4.1 Experiencing Atoms at Tiburon……Page 134
4.2 Indivisible: The Atomic Theory……Page 135
4.3 The Nuclear Atom……Page 136
4.4 The Properties of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons……Page 138
EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Solid Matter?……Page 139
4.5 Elements: Defined by Their Numbers of Protons……Page 140
4.6 Looking for Patterns: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table……Page 143
4.7 Ions: Losing and Gaining Electrons……Page 147
Ions and the Periodic Table……Page 148
4.8 Isotopes: When the Number of Neutrons Varies……Page 150
4.9 Atomic Mass: The Average Mass of an Element’s Atoms……Page 152
CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT Radioactive Isotopes at Hanford, Washington……Page 153
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 155
EXERCISES……Page 158
5.1 Sugar and Salt……Page 168
5.2 Compounds Display Constant Composition……Page 169
5.3 Chemical Formulas: How to Represent Compounds……Page 170
Polyatomic Ions in Chemical Formulas……Page 172
Types of Chemical Formulas……Page 173
Molecular Compounds……Page 174
Ionic Compounds……Page 175
Problem-Solving Procedure Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds……Page 177
Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions……Page 178
5.7 Naming Ionic Compounds……Page 179
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal That Forms Only One Type of Cation……Page 180
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal That Forms More Than One Type of Cation……Page 181
Naming Ionic Compounds Containing a Polyatomic Ion……Page 182
EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Polyatomic Ions……Page 183
5.8 Naming Molecular Compounds……Page 184
Naming Binary Acids……Page 185
Naming Oxyacids……Page 186
5.10 Nomenclature Summary……Page 187
Acids……Page 188
5.11 Formula Mass: The Mass of a Molecule or Formula Unit……Page 189
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 190
EXERCISES……Page 195
6.1 How Much Sodium?……Page 206
6.2 Counting Nails by the Pound……Page 207
Converting between Moles and Number of Atoms……Page 208
Converting between Grams and Moles of an Element……Page 209
Converting between Grams of an Element and Number of Atoms……Page 212
Converting between Grams and Moles of a Compound……Page 213
Converting between Grams of a Compound and Number of Molecules……Page 215
6.5 Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors……Page 216
Converting between Grams of a Compound and Moles of a Constituent Element……Page 217
Converting between Grams of a Compound and Grams of a Constituent Element……Page 218
CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT Chlorine in Chlorofluorocarbons……Page 220
6.6 Mass Percent Composition of Compounds……Page 221
6.7 Mass Percent Composition from a Chemical Formula……Page 222
6.8 Calculating Empirical Formulas for Compounds……Page 224
Calculating an Empirical Formula from Experimental Data……Page 225
Problem-Solving Procedure Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Experimental Data……Page 226
6.9 Calculating Molecular Formulas for Compounds……Page 227
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 229
EXERCISES……Page 235
7.1 Grade School Volcanoes, Automobiles, and Laundry Detergents……Page 244
7.2 Evidence of a Chemical Reaction……Page 245
7.3 The Chemical Equation……Page 248
7.4 How to Write Balanced Chemical Equations……Page 250
Problem-Solving Procedure Writing Balanced Chemical Equations……Page 251
7.5 Aqueous Solutions and Solubility: Compounds Dissolved in Water……Page 253
Solubility……Page 254
Predicting Precipitation Reactions……Page 257
Problem-Solving Procedure Writing Equations for Precipitation Reactions……Page 259
7.7 Writing Chemical Equations for Reactions in Solution: Molecular, Complete Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations……Page 260
Acid–Base (Neutralization) Reactions……Page 262
Gas Evolution Reactions……Page 263
7.9 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions……Page 265
Combustion Reactions……Page 266
7.10 Classifying Chemical Reactions……Page 267
Classifying Chemical Reactions by What Atoms Do……Page 268
Classification Flowchart……Page 270
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 272
EXERCISES……Page 278
8.1 Climate Change: Too Much Carbon Dioxide……Page 288
8.2 Making Pancakes: Relationships between Ingredients……Page 289
8.3 Making Molecules: Mole-to-Mole Conversions……Page 290
8.4 Making Molecules: Mass-to-Mass Conversions……Page 292
CHEMISTRY IN THE MEDIA The Controversy over Oxygenated Fuels……Page 293
8.5 More Pancakes: Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield……Page 296
8.6 Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield from Initial Masses of Reactants……Page 299
8.7 Enthalpy: A Measure of the Heat Evolved or Absorbed in a Reaction……Page 303
Sign of Hrxn……Page 304
Stoichiometry of Hrxn……Page 305
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 307
KEY TERMS……Page 311
EXERCISES……Page 312
9.1 Blimps, Balloons, and Models of the Atom……Page 324
9.2 Light: Electromagnetic Radiation……Page 325
9.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum……Page 327
CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Radiation Treatment for Cancer……Page 329
9.4 The Bohr Model: Atoms with Orbits……Page 330
Baseball Paths and Electron Probability Maps……Page 333
9.6 Quantum-Mechanical Orbitals and Electron Configurations……Page 334
Quantum-Mechanical Orbitals……Page 335
Electron Configurations: How Electrons Occupy Orbitals……Page 337
9.7 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table……Page 341
9.8 The Explanatory Power of the Quantum-Mechanical Model……Page 344
Atomic Size……Page 346
Ionization Energy……Page 348
Metallic Character……Page 350
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 352
EXERCISES……Page 355
10.1 Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs……Page 364
10.2 Representing Valence Electrons with Dots……Page 365
10.3 Lewis Structures of Ionic Compounds: Electrons Transferred……Page 366
10.4 Covalent Lewis Structures: Electrons Shared……Page 367
Double and Triple Bonds……Page 368
10.5 Writing Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds……Page 369
Problem-Solving Procedure Writing Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds……Page 370
Writing Lewis Structures for Polyatomic Ions……Page 371
Exceptions to the Octet Rule……Page 372
10.6 Resonance: Equivalent Lewis Structures for the Same Molecule……Page 373
10.7 Predicting the Shapes of Molecules……Page 374
CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT The Lewis Structure of Ozone……Page 375
Representing Molecular Geometries on Paper……Page 378
CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Fooled by Molecular Shape……Page 379
Electronegativity……Page 380
Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules……Page 382
EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY How Soap Works……Page 384
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 385
EXERCISES……Page 388
11.1 Extra-Long Straws……Page 398
11.2 Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model for Gases……Page 399
11.3 Pressure: The Result of Constant Molecular Collisions……Page 401
Pressure Units……Page 402
Pressure Unit Conversion……Page 403
11.4 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and Volume……Page 404
EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Airplane Cabin Pressurization……Page 405
EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Extra-long Snorkels……Page 409
11.5 Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature……Page 410
11.6 The Combined Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature……Page 414
11.7 Avogadro’s Law: Volume and Moles……Page 416
11.8 The Ideal Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, Temperature, and Moles……Page 418
Molar Mass of a Gas from the Ideal Gas Law……Page 422
11.9 Mixtures of Gases: Why Deep-Sea Divers Breathe a Mixture of Helium and Oxygen……Page 424
Deep-Sea Diving and Partial Pressure……Page 426
Collecting Gases over Water……Page 427
11.10 Gases in Chemical Reactions……Page 428
Molar Volume at Standard Temperature and Pressure……Page 431
CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT Air Pollution……Page 433
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 434
EXERCISES……Page 439
12.1 Interactions between Molecules……Page 450
12.2 Properties of Liquids and Solids……Page 451
12.3 Intermolecular Forces in Action: Surface Tension and Viscosity……Page 452
Viscosity……Page 453
12.4 Evaporation and Condensation……Page 454
Boiling……Page 456
Energetics of Evaporation and Condensation……Page 457
Heat of Vaporization……Page 458
12.5 Melting, Freezing, and Sublimation……Page 459
Heat of Fusion……Page 460
Sublimation……Page 462
Dispersion Force……Page 464
Dipole–Dipole Force……Page 465
Hydrogen Bonding……Page 467
Ion–Dipole Force……Page 468
CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Hydrogen Bonding in DNA……Page 469
Molecular Solids……Page 471
Atomic Solids……Page 472
12.8 Water: A Remarkable Molecule……Page 473
CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT Water Pollution……Page 474
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 475
EXERCISES……Page 479
13.1 Tragedy in Cameroon……Page 486
13.2 Solutions: Homogeneous Mixtures……Page 487
13.3 Solutions of Solids Dissolved in Water: How to Make Rock Candy……Page 488
Solubility and Saturation……Page 489
Electrolyte Solutions: Dissolved Ionic Solids……Page 490
13.4 Solutions of Gases in Water: How Soda Pop Gets Its Fizz……Page 491
Mass Percent……Page 493
Using Mass Percent in Calculations……Page 494
13.6 Specifying Solution Concentration: Molarity……Page 496
CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT The Dirty Dozen……Page 497
Using Molarity in Calculations……Page 498
13.7 Solution Dilution……Page 500
13.8 Solution Stoichiometry……Page 502
Freezing Point Depression……Page 505
Boiling Point Elevation……Page 507
13.10 Osmosis: Why Drinking Salt Water Causes Dehydration……Page 509
CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Solutions in Medicine……Page 510
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 511
EXERCISES……Page 517
14.1 Sour Patch Kids and International Spy Movies……Page 526
14.2 Acids: Properties and Examples……Page 527
14.3 Bases: Properties and Examples……Page 528
The Arrhenius Definition……Page 529
The Brønsted–Lowry Definition……Page 530
Neutralization Reactions……Page 532
Acid Reactions……Page 533
14.6 Acid–Base Titration: A Way to Quantify the Amount of Acid or Base in a Solution……Page 535
Strong Acids……Page 538
Weak Acids……Page 539
Weak Bases……Page 542
14.8 Water: Acid and Base in One……Page 543
14.9 The pH and pOH Scales: Ways to Express Acidity and Basicity……Page 546
Calculating pH from [H3O+]……Page 547
Calculating [H3O+] from pH……Page 548
The pOH Scale……Page 549
14.10 Buffers: Solutions That Resist pH Change……Page 550
CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Alkaloids……Page 551
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 553
EXERCISES……Page 559
15.1 Life: Controlled Disequilibrium……Page 568
Collision Theory……Page 569
How Concentration Affects the Rate of a Reaction……Page 571
How Temperature Affects the Rate of a Reaction……Page 572
15.3 The Idea of Dynamic Chemical Equilibrium……Page 573
Writing Equilibrium Constant Expressions for Chemical Reactions……Page 576
The Significance of the Equilibrium Constant……Page 577
15.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria: The Equilibrium Expression for Reactions Involving a Solid or a Liquid……Page 579
Calculating Equilibrium Constants……Page 580
Using Equilibrium Constants in Calculations……Page 582
15.7 Disturbing a Reaction at Equilibrium: Le Châtelier’s Principle……Page 583
15.8 The Effect of a Concentration Change on Equilibrium……Page 585
15.9 The Effect of a Volume Change on Equilibrium……Page 587
CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH How a Developing Fetus Gets Oxygen from Its Mother……Page 589
15.10 The Effect of a Temperature Change on Equilibrium……Page 590
15.11 The Solubility-Product Constant……Page 592
Using Ksp to Determine Molar Solubility……Page 593
EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Hard Water……Page 594
How Activation Energies Affect Reaction Rates……Page 595
Catalysts Lower the Activation Energy……Page 597
Enzymes: Biological Catalysts……Page 598
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 599
EXERCISES……Page 603
16.1 The End of the Internal Combustion Engine?……Page 614
16.2 Oxidation and Reduction: Some Definitions……Page 615
16.3 Oxidation States: Electron Bookkeeping……Page 618
EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY The Bleaching of Hair……Page 620
16.4 Balancing Redox Equations……Page 621
Problem-Solving Procedure Balancing Redox Equations Using the Half-Reaction Method……Page 622
16.5 The Activity Series: Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions……Page 626
Predicting Whether a Metal Will Dissolve in Acid……Page 629
16.6 Batteries: Using Chemistry to Generate Electricity……Page 630
Dry-Cell Batteries……Page 632
Fuel Cells……Page 633
16.7 Electrolysis: Using Electricity to Do Chemistry……Page 634
16.8 Corrosion: Undesirable Redox Reactions……Page 635
EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY The Fuel-Cell Breathalyzer……Page 636
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 637
EXERCISES……Page 641
17.1 Diagnosing Appendicitis……Page 650
17.2 The Discovery of Radioactivity……Page 651
17.3 Types of Radioactivity: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay……Page 652
Alpha (α) Radiation……Page 653
Beta (β) Radiation……Page 655
Gamma (γ) Radiation……Page 656
Positron Emission……Page 657
17.4 Detecting Radioactivity……Page 659
17.5 Natural Radioactivity and Half-Life……Page 660
CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Environmental Radon……Page 661
A Natural Radioactive Decay Series……Page 662
17.6 Radiocarbon Dating: Using Radioactivity to Measure the Age of Fossils and Other Artifacts……Page 663
CHEMISTRY IN THE MEDIA The Shroud of Turin……Page 664
17.7 The Discovery of Fission and the Atomic Bomb……Page 665
17.8 Nuclear Power: Using Fission to Generate Electricity……Page 667
17.9 Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun……Page 668
Increased Cancer Risk……Page 669
Isotope Scanning……Page 670
Radiotherapy……Page 671
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 672
EXERCISES……Page 675
18.1 What Do I Smell?……Page 682
18.2 Vitalism: The Difference Between Organic and Inorganic……Page 683
18.3 Carbon: A Versatile Atom……Page 684
CHEMISTRY IN THE MEDIA The Origin of Life……Page 685
18.4 Hydrocarbons: Compounds Containing Only Carbon and Hydrogen……Page 686
18.5 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons……Page 687
CHEMISTRY IN THE MEDIA Environmental Problems Associated with Hydrocarbon Combustion……Page 688
18.6 Isomers: Same Formula, Different Structure……Page 692
18.7 Naming Alkanes……Page 693
Problem-Solving Procedure Naming Alkanes……Page 694
18.8 Alkenes and Alkynes……Page 696
Naming Alkenes and Alkynes……Page 698
18.9 Hydrocarbon Reactions……Page 699
Alkene and Alkyne Addition Reactions……Page 700
18.10 Aromatic Hydrocarbons……Page 701
Naming Aromatic Hydrocarbons……Page 702
18.11 Functional Groups……Page 704
Naming Alcohols……Page 705
Naming Ethers……Page 706
18.14 Aldehydes and Ketones……Page 707
About Aldehydes and Ketones……Page 708
18.15 Carboxylic Acids and Esters……Page 709
About Carboxylic Acids and Esters……Page 710
18.16 Amines……Page 712
18.17 Polymers……Page 713
EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Kevlar: Stronger Than Steel……Page 715
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 716
KEY TERMS……Page 720
EXERCISES……Page 721
19.1 The Human Genome Project……Page 736
19.3 Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, and Fiber……Page 737
Monosaccharides……Page 738
Disaccharides……Page 739
Polysaccharides……Page 740
Fatty Acids……Page 742
Fats and Oils……Page 743
Other Lipids……Page 745
CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Dietary Fats……Page 747
19.5 Proteins……Page 748
19.6 Protein Structure……Page 752
Secondary Structure……Page 753
Tertiary Structure……Page 755
Quaternary Structure……Page 756
19.7 Nucleic Acids: Molecular Blueprints……Page 757
19.8 DNA Structure, DNA Replication, and Protein Synthesis……Page 759
DNA Structure……Page 760
DNA Replication……Page 761
Protein Synthesis……Page 762
CHAPTER IN REVIEW……Page 764
EXERCISES……Page 767
Appendix: Mathematics Review……Page 776
Glossary……Page 782
Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises……Page 792
Photo Credits……Page 824
A……Page 826
B……Page 827
C……Page 828
D……Page 830
E……Page 831
F……Page 832
H……Page 833
I……Page 834
L……Page 835
M……Page 836
N……Page 837
O……Page 838
P……Page 839
R……Page 840
S……Page 841
V……Page 843
Z……Page 844

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