Philosophy: A Text with Readings (13th Edition)

Download Philosophy: A Text with Readings (13th Edition) written by Manuel Velasquez in PDF format. This book is under the category Others and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 1305410475/9781305410473. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.


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Manuel Velasquez


Cengage Learning; 13th edition




672 pages









Book Description

One needs only to read a few pages of Philosophy: A Text With Readings, 13th Edition (PDF) to appreciate Manuel Velasquez’s gift for making difficult philosophical concepts accessible to today’s college students while still exposing them to college-level writing. This book is available in PDF format. Because it covers such a broad range of topics as reality, human nature, ethics, the truth, diversity, the meaning of life, and social and political philosophy, this ebook is an excellent option for students who are just beginning their studies in philosophy at a college or university. All of its claims are backed up by non-technical primary sources. The most recent version, the 13th edition, has been updated to add new components that make it easier for students to interact with the material (both the readings and the themes). This new thirteenth version, just like the previous edition, features argument analysis and critical thinking activities that have been meticulously weaved throughout the narrative of the ebook.

Note that we also have the test bank and instructors handbook for the thirteenth edition of Philosophy: A Text with Readings available for download for just ten dollars. Contact us for additional details.

Table of contents

Table of contents :

Preface xv

Chapter 1
The nature of Philosophy 2
1.1 What Is Philosophy? 4
Plato’s Allegory of the Cave 4
Plato’s Allegory and “Doing” Philosophy 6
thinking critically Assumptions and Critical Thinking 8
The Diversity of Philosophy 9
thinking critically Reasoning 10

1.2 The Traditional Divisions of Philosophy 11
Epistemology: The Study of Knowledge 11
thinking critically Avoiding Vague and Ambiguous Claims 12
Metaphysics: The Study of Reality or Existence 13
philosophy and life Philosophical Issues 15
thinking critically Supporting Claims with Reasons and Arguments 15
Ethics: The Study of Values 16
Other Philosophical Inquiries 18

1.3 A Philosopher in Action: Socrates 19
Euthyphro: Do We Know What Holiness Is? 20
thinking critically Evaluating Arguments 24
The Republic: Is Justice Whatever Benefts the Powerful? 24
The Apology: Socrates’ Trial 27
Crito: Do We Have an Obligation to Obey the Law? 31
philosophy and life Breaking the Law for the Sake of Justice 35
thinking critically Identifying Premises, Conclusions,
and Assumptions 35

1.4 The Value of Philosophy 38
Achieving Freedom 38
Building Your View of Life 39
Cultivating Awareness 39
philosophy and life Albert Ellis and Rational Emotive
Behavior Therapy 40
Learning to Think Critically 40
The Theme of This Text 41

1.5 Reading 43
Voltaire, “Story of a Good Brahmin” 44
1.6 Historical Showcase: The First Philosophers 45
Pre-Socratic Western Philosophers 45
Eastern Philosophers 47
human nature 50

Chapter 2
2.1 Why Does Your View of Human Nature Matter? 52
thinking critically Deductive Arguments, Validity,
and Soundness 54
The Importance of Understanding Human Nature 56
philosophy and life Is Selflessness Real? 57
2.2 What Is Human Nature? 58
The Rationalistic Version of the Traditional Western
View of Human Nature 59
philosophy and life Is Human Nature Irrational? 62
The Judeo-Christian Version of the Traditional Western
View of Human Nature 66
The Darwinian Challenge 70
thinking critically Inference to the Best Explanation 76
The Existentialist Challenge 78
The Feminist Challenge 81
2.3 The Mind–Body Problem: How Do Your Mind and Your Body Relate? 86
The Dualist View of Human Nature: You Are an Immaterial
Mind with a Material Body 88
thinking critically Evaluating an Argument’s Premises 92
The Materialist View of Human Nature: You Are Your
Physical Body 94
The Mind/Brain Identity Theory of Human Nature: Your Mind
Is Your Brain 95
The Behaviorist View of Human Nature: Your Mind Is How
You Behave 97
The Functionalist View of Human Nature: Your Mind Is Like
a Computer 100
Eliminative Materialism: You Have No Mind 104
The New Dualism: Your Mind Has Nonphysical Properties 105
2.4 Is There an Enduring Self? 107
The Soul Is the Enduring Self 111
Consciousness as the Source of the Enduring Self 111
The No-Self View 113
2.5 Are We Independent and Self-Sufcient Individuals? 118
The Atomistic Self 118
The Relational Self
Power and Hegel 122
Culture and Self-Identity 123
Search for the Real Self 125
Chapter Summary 126
2.6 Readings 128
Kate Chopin, “The Story of an Hour” 129
Janice M. Steil, “Contemporary Marriage: Still an Unequal
Partnership” 130
Jean Grimshaw, “Women’s Identity In Feminist Thinking” 131
2.7 Historical Showcase: Plato, Aristotle, and Confucius 133
Plato 133
Aristotle 140
Confucius 145
Reality and Being 150

Chapter 3
3.1 What Is Real? 152
philosophy and life The Experience Machine, or Does Reality
Matter? 154
Metaphysical Questions of Reality 154
The Search for Reality 155
3.2 Reality: Material or Nonmaterial? 155
Materialism: Reality as Matter 156
Objections to Materialism 160
philosophy and life The Neutrino 162
Idealism: Reality as Nonmatter 163
philosophy and life Our Knowledge of the World 168
thinking critically Conditional Arguments 173
Objections to Idealism 175
3.3 Reality in Pragmatism 178
Pragmatism’s Approach to Philosophy 179
The Pragmatic Method 180
Objections to Pragmatism 183
3.4 Reality and Logical Positivism 184
philosophy and life Parallel Universes 187
thinking critically Categorical Syllogism Arguments 188
Objections to Logical Positivism 191
3.5 Antirealism: The Heir of Pragmatism and Idealism 193
Proponents of Antirealism 194
Objections to Antirealism 197
3.6 Is Freedom Real? 200
Determinism 202

philosophy and life Does Our Brain Make Our Decisions Before
We Consciously Make Them? 212
Compatibilism 213
3.7 Is Time Real? 218
Time and Human Life 218
Augustine: Only the Present Moment Is Real 219
McTaggart: Subjective Time Is Not Real 221
Kant: Time Is a Mental Construct 223
Bergson: Only Subjective Time Is Real 225
Chapter Summary 226
3.8 Readings 228
Sophocles, “Oedipus the King” 229
Robert C. Solomon, “Fate and Fatalism” 238
3.9 Historical Showcase: Hobbes and Berkeley 240
Philosophy, Religion, and God 250

Chapter 4
4.1 The Signifcance of Religion 252
Defning Religion 253
Religious Belief, Religious Experience, and Theology 254
4.2 Does God Exist? 255
The Ontological Argument 256
The Cosmological Argument 260
philosophy and life Religion and Science 265
The Design Argument 266
thinking critically Arguments by Analogy 268
4.3 Atheism, Agnosticism, and the Problem of Evil 275
Atheism 275
philosophy and life God’s Omniscience and Free Will 284
Agnosticism 285
thinking critically Formal and Informal Fallacies 287
4.4 Traditional Religious Belief and Experience 290
Religious Belief 290
“The Will to Believe” 290
Personal Experience of the Divine 295
4.5 Nontraditional Religious Experience 299
Radical Theology 299
Feminist Theology 307
Eastern Religious Traditions 310
4.6 Readings 316
Fyodor Dostoevsky, “Excerpt From The Brothers Karamazov” 316
William P. Alston, “The Inductive Argument from Evil and the
Human Cognitive Condition” 318
4.7 Historical Showcase: Aquinas, Descartes, and Conway 321
The Sources of Knowledge 336

Chapter 5
5.1 Why Is Knowledge a Problem? 338
Acquiring Reliable Knowledge: Reason and the Senses 341
The Place of Memory 342
5.2 Is Reason the Source of Our Knowledge? 343
Descartes: Doubt and Reason 345
Innate Ideas 352
philosophy and life Innate Ideas? 356
5.3 Can the Senses Account for All Our Knowledge? 359
Locke and Empiricism 359
philosophy and life Science and the Attempt to Observe Reality 364
Berkeley and Subjectivism 366
Hume and Skepticism 370
thinking critically Inductive Generalizations 376
5.4 Kant: Does the Knowing Mind Shape the World? 383
Hume’s Challenge 383
The Basic Issue 384
Space, Time, and Mathematics 386
philosophy and life Knowledge and Gestalt Psychology 387
Causality and the Unity of the Mind 390
Constructivist Theories and Recovered Memories 396
5.5 Does Science Give Us Knowledge? 398
Inductive Reasoning and Simplicity 399
philosophy and life Society and Truth 401
The Hypothetical Method and Falsifability 402
Paradigms and Revolutions in Science 405
thinking critically Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience 407
Is the Theory of Recovered Memories Science or Pseudoscience? 409
Chapter Summary 409
5.6 Readings 412
Ambrose Bierce, “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” 412
Peter Unger, “A Defense of Skepticism” 416
Thomas Nagel, “How Do We Know Anything?” 418
5.7 Historical Showcase: Hume 419

Chapter 6
Truth 426
6.1 Knowledge and Truth 428
Knowledge as Justifed True Belief 429
6.2 What Is Truth? 432
Correspondence Theory 433
philosophy and life Truth and Paradox 434
Coherence Theory 439
philosophy and life Historical Facts 445
Pragmatic Theory 447
Does Truth Matter? 451
Reconciling the Theories of Truth 453
6.3 Does Science Give Us Truth? 454
The Instrumentalist View 455
The Realist View of Science 457
The Conceptual Relativist View 458
6.4 Can Interpretations Be True? 461
Symbolic Interpretation and Intention 463
Wittgenstein and the Ideal Clear Language 465
Gadamer and Prejudice 467
Chapter Summary 470
6.5 Readings 471
Ryunosuke Akutagawa, “In a Grove” 472
Hugh Tomlinson, “After Truth: Post-Modernism and the Rhetoric
of Science” 475
John Searle, “Reality and Truth” 476
6.6 Historical Showcase: Kant 477
The Problem of Synthetic a Priori Knowledge 478
Space, Time, and Mathematics 479
Our Unifed Mind Must Organize Sensations into Changing Objects 480
Causality Is in the World As We Experience It 482
Two Versions of the Categorical Imperative of Morality 483
The Moral Argument for God’s Existence 484
ethics 486

Chapter 7
7.1 What Is Ethics? 488
7.2 Is Ethics Relative? 490
7.3 Do Consequences Make an Action Right? 497
Ethical Egoism 499
Utilitarianism 501
Some Implications of Utilitarianism 507
7.4 Do Rules Defne Morality? 510
Divine Command Theory 510
philosophy and life Embryonic Stem Cell Research 513
Implications of Divine Command Ethics 517
Kant’s Categorical Imperative 519
Buddhist Ethics 528
7.5 Is Ethics Based on Character? 533
Aristotle’s Theory of Virtue 534
Love and Friendship 540
Male and Female Ethics? 543
Conclusions 547
7.6 Can Ethics Resolve Moral Quandaries? 549
Abortion 550
Euthanasia 555
thinking critically Moral Reasoning 560
Chapter Summary 562
7.7 Readings 564
Fyodor Dostoyevsky, “The Heavenly Christmas Tree” 564
Peter Singer, “Famine, Affluence, and Morality” 566
7.8 Historical Showcase: Nietzsche and Wollstonecraft 568
Nietzsche 568
Wollstonecraft 573
Social and Political Philosophy 578

Chapter 8
8.1 What Is Social and Political Philosophy? 580
8.2 What Justifes the State and Its Power? 582
Hobbes and the War of All against All 584
Locke and Natural Moral Laws 587
Contemporary Social Contract: Rawls 592
The Communitarian Critique 594
Social Contract and Women 599
8.3 What Is Justice? 603
philosophy and life Society and the Bomb 605
Justice as Merit 606
Justice as Equality 609
Justice as Social Utility 611
Justice Based on Need and Ability 613
Justice Based on Liberty 615
philosophy and life Welfare 616
8.4 Limits on the State 621
Unjust Laws and Civil Disobedience 622
Freedom 626
Human Rights 630
War and Terrorism 634
philosophy and life The Purpose of Business 645
Chapter Summary 647
8.5 Readings 649
Erich Maria Remarque, “From All Quiet on the Western Front” 649
Bertrand Russell, “The Ethics of War” 651
8.6 Historical Showcase: Marx and Rawls 653
Marx 653
Rawls 660
Postscript: The Meaning of Life 666

Chapter 9
9.1 Does Life Have Meaning? 668
What Does the Question Mean? 670
9.2 The Theistic Response to Meaning 671
9.3 Meaning and Human Progress 674
9.4 The Nihilist Rejection of Meaning 676
9.5 Meaning as a Self-Chosen Commitment 678
Chapter Summary 682
Glossary 683
Index 687


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