The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance (2nd Edition)

Download The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance (2nd Edition) written by K. Anders Ericsson, Robert R. Hoffman, Aaron Kozbelt, A. Mark Williams in PDF format. This book is under the category Medicine and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 1107137551/9781107137554. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

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Specifications

book-author

K. Anders Ericsson, Robert R. Hoffman, Aaron Kozbelt, A. Mark Williams

publisher

Cambridge University Press; 2nd edition

file-type

PDF

pages

943 pages

language

English

asin

B07BNQRTF7

isbn10

1107137551

isbn13

9781107137554


Book Description

In this updated and expanded The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance; 2nd edition (PDF); some of the world’s foremost experts on expertise share their scientific knowledge of expertise and expert performance and show how non-experts may differ from experts in terms of training; development; knowledge; reasoning; and social support. The ebook reviews innovative methods for measuring experts’ knowledge and performance in relevant tasks. 16 major domains of expertise are covered; including music; sports; business; medicine; writing; and drawing; with leading researchers summarizing their knowledge about the structure and acquisition of expert skills and knowledge; and discussing future prospects. General issues that cut across most domains are reviewed in chapters on various aspects of expertise; such as general and practical intelligence; differences in brain activity; self-regulated learning; deliberate practice; knowledge management; aging; and creativity.

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Half title……Page 2
Title page……Page 5
Imprints page……Page 6
Contents……Page 8
Notes on Contributors……Page 14
Acknowledgments……Page 23
Part I Introduction and Perspectives……Page 24
1 An Introduction to the Second Edition of The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance: Its Development, Organization, and Content……Page 25
Expert, Expertise, and Expert Performance: Dictionary Definitions……Page 27
Tracing the Development of Our Knowledge of Expertise and Expert Performance……Page 30
Conceptions of Generalizable Aspects of Expertise……Page 40
Individual Differences in Mental Capacities……Page 41
Expertise as the Extrapolation of Everyday Skill to Extended Experience……Page 44
Expertise as Qualitatively Different Representation and Organization of Knowledge……Page 46
Expertise as Elite Achievement Resulting from Superior Learning Environments……Page 49
Expertise as Reliably Superior (Expert) Performance on Representative Tasks……Page 51
General Comments……Page 53
General Outline of the Handbook……Page 54
Conclusion……Page 60
Author Notes……Page 63
References……Page 64
2 A Sociological/Philosophical Perspective on Expertise: The Acquisition of Expertise through Socialization……Page 72
Expertise as Performance……Page 74
Epistemic Injustice and the Limits of Attribution……Page 76
Expertise as Property……Page 78
Expertise as Real……Page 79
The Periodic Table of Expertises……Page 82
Using the Periodic Table of Expertises……Page 85
Interactional Expertise and Embodiment……Page 87
Three Dimensions of Expertise……Page 91
Summary……Page 93
References……Page 94
3 Reframing Expertise and its Development: A Lifeworld Perspective……Page 104
Introduction……Page 105
Rethinking Expert Knowledge and Expertise……Page 108
Developing Expert Performance……Page 111
Concluding Remarks……Page 116
References……Page 119
4 The Evolution of Expertise……Page 123
Introduction……Page 124
Ecological Dominance and Social Competition……Page 126
Models of Human Cognition……Page 129
Secondary Competencies and Expertise……Page 132
Expertise and Social Signaling……Page 134
Conclusion……Page 139
References……Page 140
5 Expertise in Other Animals: Canines as an Example……Page 146
Introduction……Page 147
Objective Definitions of Expertise……Page 149
Expertise as Exceptional Performance……Page 150
Expertise as a Social Construction……Page 152
Expertise as an Outcome of Prolonged Learning……Page 154
Benefits of Examining Animal Expertise……Page 156
New Methods……Page 157
Evolutionary Considerations……Page 159
Practical Benefits……Page 162
Conclusion……Page 163
References……Page 165
Part II Overview of Approaches to the Study of Expertise: Brief Historical Accounts of Theories and Methods……Page 169
6 Studies of Expertise from Psychological Perspectives: Historical Foundations and Recurrent Themes……Page 170
Introduction……Page 171
The Historical Development of Expertise Studies……Page 172
Artificial Intelligence: Expertise in the Code……Page 173
Cognitive Psychology: Expertise in the Experts……Page 176
Educational Psychology and Instructional Design: From Novice to Expert……Page 184
Recapitulation and Extensions……Page 187
Toward Generalizable Characteristics of Expertise and Expert Performance……Page 189
Expertise is Limited to a Domain of Knowledge, and Elite Performance is Mediated by Domain-Specific Skills and Adaptations……Page 190
The Intertwining of Knowledge and Basic Reasoning in Expertise……Page 193
Differences in Expertise: The Amount and Structure of Knowledge……Page 194
Expertise Involves Larger and More Integrated Cognitive Units……Page 196
Expertise Involves Deeper and More Functional Representations of Tasks……Page 198
Mechanisms Underlying Expert Performance……Page 200
From Short-Term to Long-Term Working Memory in Expertise……Page 202
Experts’ Usability of Their Knowledge……Page 203
Functionality of Expert Representations Extends to Entire Activities, Processes……Page 205
Analyzing Superior Performance……Page 207
Reflection and Mental Representations Mediate Expertise during Execution, Evaluation, and Learning……Page 208
Reasoning and Self-Monitoring in Expertise……Page 209
Routine versus Controlled Processing in Expertise……Page 211
Experience Alone is Not Sufficient for the Development of Expertise and Expert Performance……Page 214
Summary and Concluding Remarks……Page 217
References……Page 221
7 Expert Systems: A Perspective from Computer Science……Page 240
AI and Expert Systems: Foundational Ideas……Page 241
A Brief History of AI and Knowledge-Based Systems……Page 247
The Emergence of the Expert Systems Focus in AI Research, 1965–1975……Page 250
Claims about Expertise Resulting from Work on Expert Systems……Page 254
Knowledge of a Domain is More Essential for Expertise than Complex Inferential Procedures for Many Tasks……Page 255
There is More to Expertise than is Captured in the Oversimplified Model of Knowledge Base + Inference Engine……Page 257
Meta-Level Knowledge about the Strategies, Contextual Cues, and Appropriateness for Using Specific Items of Knowledge is an Important Part of Expertise……Page 258
Expertise Requires Dealing with Facts about People and Things in the World that are Almost Always Incomplete and Uncertain……Page 260
Expertise Also Requires Dealing with the Uncertainty of the Knowledge and Assumptions on which Inferences Are Based……Page 261
Eliciting Expert Knowledge is not Necessarily the Same as Eliciting Tacit Knowledge……Page 263
Continued Maintenance of a Knowledge Base is a Key to Continuing Success……Page 265
Expertise Serves Many Purposes and Can be Categorized Along at Least Two Dimensions: Formal vs. Informal Knowledge and Public vs. Private……Page 267
Human Expertise is Not Always Necessary for High Performance Problem-Solving……Page 268
Expertise in Knowledge-Based Systems, and in Many Humans, is Limited to a Circumscribed Frame of Reference……Page 269
The Specialized Knowledge of Experts Often Rests on a Base of Everyday Knowledge……Page 270
Expertise is Partly Defined by Experts’ Ability to Explain Their Reasoning……Page 271
Expertise is Difficult to Quantify and is Multidimensional……Page 273
Applications of Knowledge-Based Systems……Page 275
Analysis Tasks: Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Devices and Systems……Page 277
Process Monitoring and Control……Page 278
Synthesis Tasks: Planning and Scheduling……Page 279
Configuration of Manufactured Objects from Subassemblies……Page 280
Decision Making and Advice-Giving Tasks: Financial Decision Making……Page 281
Fraud Detection……Page 282
Procedure and Regulation Compliance……Page 283
Personalized Recommendations of Products and Services……Page 284
Some Variations in the Implementation of Expert Systems……Page 286
Conclusion……Page 288
References……Page 291
8 Developing Occupational Expertise through Everyday Work Activities and Interactions……Page 304
Prolegomenon……Page 305
Developing and Sustaining Occupational Expertise through Work Activities and Interactions……Page 310
Constituting Occupational Expertise: Canonical, Situational, and Personal Bases……Page 315
Canonical Occupational Knowledge……Page 316
Situated Manifestations of Occupational Expertise……Page 318
Personal Domains of Occupational Knowledge……Page 321
Development of Occupational Expertise through Work Activities……Page 324
The Importance of Experiencing and Practice……Page 325
Work Activities and Learning……Page 328
Conceptualizations of Learning Processes……Page 331
Supporting the Development of Occupational Expertise through Work Experiences……Page 334
The lived experience of occupations being enacted……Page 336
Providing access to knowledge that might not otherwise be learnt……Page 338
Practice Pedagogies……Page 340
Personal Epistemologies……Page 343
Developing Occupational Expertise through Everyday Work Activities and Interactions……Page 345
References……Page 348
9 Professionalism, Science, and Expert Roles: A Social Perspective……Page 362
Introduction……Page 363
Professionalism: The Sociology of Professional Groups……Page 365
The Early Years: From Professions to Professionalization……Page 367
The Discourse of Professionalism……Page 370
Professionalism and Occupational Control……Page 373
Epistemology of Professional Work……Page 376
Science……Page 381
Historical Overview……Page 382
Institutionalization……Page 385
Today’s Operating Conditions of Science……Page 388
The New Co-Production of Knowledge……Page 391
Expert Roles……Page 393
From Elitism to Interactional Expertise……Page 394
Expert Roles and the Social Division of Labor……Page 396
Two Dimensions of Expertise: Excellence and Professionalism……Page 401
Conclusion……Page 404
References……Page 406
Part III Methods for Studying the Structure of Expertise……Page 420
10 Perception in Expertise……Page 421
Introduction……Page 422
The Role of Perceptual Routines in Expertise……Page 426
Development of Specialized Functional Networks……Page 434
(How) Does Expertise Change Low-Level Perceptual Experience?……Page 438
Conclusions……Page 443
References……Page 445
11 Eliciting and Representing the Knowledge of Experts……Page 458
Introduction……Page 459
Cognitive Systems Engineering……Page 460
Expertise……Page 464
Knowledge Elicitation……Page 466
Knowledge Representation……Page 470
Design……Page 471
The Challenge……Page 473
Illustration: The UK National Health Service……Page 474
Illustration: Intelligence Analysis……Page 476
Implications: The Way Forward……Page 477
Illustration: Landmine Detection……Page 478
Illustration: Emergency Response Teams……Page 480
Commentary on the Techno-Centric Mindset……Page 482
Foundational Methods……Page 485
The Critical Decision Method……Page 486
Concept Maps……Page 488
Work Task Analysis……Page 492
Summary: Foundational Methods……Page 499
Emerging Methods……Page 500
Macrocognitive Modeling……Page 501
ShadowBox™……Page 507
Application Areas……Page 508
Conclusion……Page 511
References……Page 513
12 Capturing Expert Thought with Protocol Analysis: Concurrent Verbalizations of Thinking during Experts’ Performance on Representative Tasks……Page 523
Brief History of Verbal Reports on Expert Thought Processes……Page 527
Protocol Analysis: A Methodology for Eliciting Valid Data on Thinking……Page 532
Elicitation of Non-Reactive Verbal Reports of Thinking……Page 533
Validity of Verbalized Information while Thinking Aloud……Page 537
Protocol Analysis and the Expert Performance Approach……Page 540
The Original Research on Expert Memory Performance and Its Generalization……Page 541
Capturing Cognitive Processes Mediating Superior Digit-Span Performance……Page 542
The Expert Performance Approach with Protocol Analysis and Designed Experiments……Page 544
The pioneering studies of expertise in playing chess……Page 546
Mechanisms mediating higher levels of chess expertise……Page 548
Applications to Expert Performance Using Protocol Analysis in Other Domains……Page 552
Other Games……Page 553
Medicine……Page 554
Sports……Page 559
Other applications……Page 561
Conclusion……Page 562
Author Notes……Page 565
References……Page 566
13 Methods for Studying the Structure of Expertise: Psychometric Approaches……Page 579
Introduction……Page 580
General Aspects of Psychometric Approach: Predictors……Page 582
Reliability……Page 583
Validity……Page 586
Special Considerations of Measurement in the Prediction of Expert Performance……Page 589
Measurement of Change over Time……Page 590
Restriction of Range……Page 597
Base Rate Issues……Page 598
Interdependence of Performance……Page 599
Trait Predictors of Expertise……Page 601
Cognitive Traits……Page 603
Affective Traits……Page 608
Conative Traits……Page 610
Self-concept and self-efficacy……Page 611
Communality among Predictors and Trait Complexes……Page 613
Trait Complexes……Page 614
Classification Issues……Page 618
Revisiting Intra-Individual Differences……Page 620
Discussion and Challenges for Future Research……Page 622
References……Page 625
14 Studies of the Activation and Structural Changes of the Brain Associated with Expertise……Page 633
Introduction……Page 634
Cognitive Mechanisms of Expertise……Page 636
How the Brain Accommodates Expertise……Page 640
Perceptual Expertise……Page 641
Functional Brain Changes in Perceptual Expertise……Page 642
Structural Brain Changes in Perceptual Expertise……Page 650
Cognitive Expertise……Page 651
Functional Brain Changes in Cognitive Expertise……Page 652
Structural Brain Changes in Cognitive Expertise……Page 662
Motor Expertise……Page 666
Functional Brain Changes in Motor Expertise……Page 667
Structural Brain Changes in Motor Expertise……Page 671
Conclusions……Page 672
References……Page 674
Part IV Methods for Studying the Acquisition and Maintenance of Expertise……Page 688
15 Collecting and Assessing Practice Activity Data: Concurrent, Retrospective, and Longitudinal Approaches……Page 689
Introduction……Page 690
Concurrent Approaches……Page 692
Diaries/Training Logs……Page 694
Systematic Observation……Page 696
Experimental Approaches……Page 697
Retrospective Approaches……Page 699
Questionnaires……Page 700
Qualitative Interviews……Page 702
Longitudinal and Prospective Follow-Up……Page 704
Issues with Collecting and Analyzing Practice Activity Data……Page 707
Determining Reliability and Validity……Page 708
Limits to Recall……Page 710
Comparability and Generalizability of Findings……Page 712
Descriptions Versus Prescriptions……Page 714
Concluding Thoughts……Page 717
Author Note……Page 718
References……Page 719
16 Multidisciplinary Longitudinal Studies: A Perspective from the Field of Sports……Page 728
Introduction……Page 729
First Challenge: Defining Expertise……Page 732
Acquisition of Expertise……Page 734
Maintaining Expertise……Page 737
Second Challenge: Studying (the Development of) Performance and Performance Characteristics……Page 739
Specific Performance Characteristics……Page 740
Studying General Performance Characteristics……Page 745
Third Challenge: Choice of Appropriate Study Methods and Statistical Analyses……Page 747
Methodology……Page 748
From Mono-Disciplinary to Multidisciplinary and from Cross-Sectional to Longitudinal Study Designs……Page 750
Statistical Analyses in Longitudinal Studies……Page 752
Repeated (Multivariate) Analyses of (Co-)variance……Page 754
Multilevel Modeling……Page 755
Multidisciplinary Longitudinal Studies……Page 758
Concluding Remarks……Page 766
References……Page 768
17 Using Cases to Understand Expert Performance: Method and Methodological Triangulation……Page 780
Introduction……Page 781
Case Method……Page 784
Defining Cases……Page 785
Source Selection……Page 788
Abstraction Procedures……Page 790
Interpretation of Cases……Page 791
Criteria……Page 793
Controls……Page 795
Expert Performance……Page 796
Social Innovation Case Studies……Page 797
Experimental Studies of Social Innovation……Page 800
Expert Social Performance……Page 803
Cases of Leader Performance……Page 804
Experimental Studies of Leader Styles……Page 808
Expert Technical Performance……Page 810
Cases of Technical Performance……Page 811
Experimental Studies of Innovation……Page 813
Contingencies in Expert Performance……Page 815
Contingencies in Expert Performance Case Studies……Page 816
Experimental Studies of Constraints……Page 818
Conclusions……Page 820
Author Notes……Page 825
References……Page 826
18 Historiometric Methods……Page 837
Introduction……Page 838
History……Page 841
Methodological Issues……Page 845
Sampling Procedures……Page 846
Variable Definitions……Page 849
Performance Measures……Page 850
Acquisition Indicators……Page 852
Research Designs……Page 854
Cross-Sectional Designs……Page 855
Longitudinal Designs……Page 856
Mixed Designs……Page 857
Methodological Artifacts……Page 858
Empirical Findings……Page 859
Expertise Acquisition……Page 860
Overview……Page 861
Illustration……Page 865
Expert Performance……Page 868
Overview……Page 869
Illustration……Page 872
Conclusions……Page 874
References……Page 877
Part V.I Domains of Expertise: Professions……Page 891
19 Expertise in Medicine and Surgery……Page 892
Introduction……Page 893
The Institute of Medicine Report……Page 895
Simulation……Page 896
Clinical Diagnostic Reasoning……Page 897
Summary……Page 905
Approaches to Teaching Clinical Diagnostic Reasoning……Page 906
How Clinical Reasoning Develops through Education……Page 907
Curriculum Strategies to Enhance Clinical Reasoning……Page 909
Specific Instructional Strategies……Page 911
Summary……Page 914
Expertise in Surgery and the Development of Psychomotor Skills……Page 915
Objective Measurement of Technical Skills……Page 916
Simulation……Page 918
Simulation, practice, and mastery learning……Page 919
Surgical Expertise and Specificity of Practice……Page 921
Summary……Page 924
Predictors of Medical and Surgical Expertise……Page 925
Experience, Expertise, and Elite Performance……Page 927
Age and expertise in medicine……Page 928
Formal knowledge and practice measures……Page 929
Age, time, and expertise in surgery……Page 930
Summary……Page 932
Future Issues……Page 933
Management Decision Making……Page 934
Role of Emotion in Reasoning……Page 935
Situational and Structural Effects……Page 936
Conclusions……Page 937
References……Page 938
20 Expertise and Transportation……Page 960
Introduction……Page 961
People-Moving across Our Planet……Page 962
Transportation in the First Edition of the Cambridge Handbook……Page 965
Obtaining Expertise Effects Requires the Capture of the Domain of Expertise……Page 967
Experts Exhibit More Flexible Behaviors Than Do Novices……Page 970
Gaze is Less Constrained with Expertise, Unless There is a Threat……Page 973
Experts Anticipate……Page 977
Hazard Perception, and Not Vehicle Control Skills, Predicts Crash Risk and On-Road Driving Performance……Page 978
Experienced Drivers Are Superior at (Some Types of) Hazard Perception……Page 980
Minutes of Good Training on Hazard Detection Can Be Equivalent to Years of Driving Experience……Page 983
Meta-Processing Varies with Experience……Page 985
Experts Are Not Immune to Distraction……Page 987
Expert Performance Differs Based on Type of Technology……Page 988
Future Travel……Page 990
References……Page 993
21 Expertise in Professional Design……Page 1003
Introduction……Page 1004
Design Ability……Page 1005
Understanding Expertise in Design……Page 1007
Key Aspects of Expertise in Design……Page 1014
Problem Framing……Page 1015
Solution Conjecturing……Page 1017
Co-evolving Problem-Solution……Page 1019
Representations……Page 1023
Precedents……Page 1027
Apparent Weaknesses……Page 1029
Developing Expertise in Design……Page 1035
Conclusion……Page 1038
References……Page 1040
22 Toward Deliberate Practice in the Development of Entrepreneurial Expertise: The Anatomy of the Effectual Ask……Page 1046
Introduction……Page 1048
A Brief History of Entrepreneurship Research Leading up to a Focus on Expertise……Page 1049
Studies of Entrepreneurial Expertise……Page 1054
Summary of Effectuation Research……Page 1059
Purposeful Practice in Entrepreneurship……Page 1065
Toward Deliberate Practice in the Development of Entrepreneurial Expertise……Page 1068
Implications of The Ask: Purposeful Practice in Domains Characterized by Complex Indeterminate Causation……Page 1074
Agenda for Future Research……Page 1082
Experience Sampling……Page 1083
Helpfulness Experiment……Page 1084
Sequencing……Page 1086
Conclusion……Page 1087
Appendix The Venturing Instrument……Page 1088
Introduction……Page 1089
Description of the Product……Page 1090
Problem 2: Defining the Market……Page 1091
Survey #1: Internet users were allowed to download a scaled down version (game stops after 15 minutes of playing) of the prototype and were asked to fill out a questionnaire……Page 1092
Survey #2: The prototype was demonstrated at 2 Barnes and Noble and 3 Borders bookstores……Page 1093
Based on your market research, you arrive at the following cost estimates for marketing your product……Page 1094
Competition……Page 1095
References……Page 1096
23 Professional Writing Expertise……Page 1110
Introduction……Page 1111
Defining Professional Writing……Page 1112
Fundamental Writing Processes……Page 1114
Supporting Brain Regions……Page 1117
Writing Expertise……Page 1120
Verbal Ability……Page 1121
Managing the Cognitive Load……Page 1123
Domain Expertise……Page 1127
Rapid Access to Long-Term Memory……Page 1129
Managing the Emotional Challenges……Page 1130
Flow States……Page 1131
Environments, Schedules, and Rituals……Page 1133
Blocking……Page 1134
Skill Acquisition……Page 1136
Stages of Development……Page 1137
Deliberate Practice……Page 1141
The Ten-Year Rule……Page 1145
Conclusion……Page 1147
References……Page 1148
24 Expertise and Expert Performance in Teaching……Page 1161
Introduction……Page 1162
The Nature of Teaching……Page 1165
A Definition of Teaching……Page 1166
Teaching Is a System……Page 1169
Teaching Is a Cultural Activity……Page 1171
Expertise and Cultural Activities……Page 1175
Expertise in Teaching……Page 1177
Experience as a Proxy for Expertise……Page 1178
Studying What Recognized Experts Do……Page 1179
Identifying Experts Based on Student Achievement……Page 1182
The Construct of Learning Opportunities……Page 1186
Knowledge……Page 1189
Skill……Page 1192
Judgment……Page 1194
How Teachers Become Experts……Page 1196
Teachers versus Teaching as the Focus of Improvement……Page 1198
Creating the Conditions for Deliberate Practice of Teaching……Page 1201
Lesson Study as a Lab for Deliberate Practice……Page 1204
Analysis as the Key to Developing Expertise in Teaching……Page 1207
Conclusion……Page 1210
References……Page 1212
25 Expert Professional Judgments and “Naturalistic Decision Making”……Page 1224
Background and History of Naturalistic Decision Making……Page 1225
The Concept of Expertise in NDM……Page 1227
Perceptual Learning and Skills……Page 1229
Mental Models/Simulation……Page 1230
Sense of Typicality and Associations……Page 1231
Routines……Page 1232
Declarative Knowledge……Page 1233
Tacit Knowledge……Page 1234
Situation Assessment……Page 1235
Finding Leverage Points……Page 1236
Managing Uncertainty……Page 1237
Metacognition……Page 1238
NDM Frameworks……Page 1239
Recognition-Primed Decision Making (RPD)……Page 1240
Recognition/Metacognition (R/M) and RAWFS……Page 1242
Capturing and Unpacking Expertise……Page 1243
Expert Teams……Page 1245
Training for Expertise……Page 1248
Decision Skills Training……Page 1249
ShadowBox™: A Cognitive Tool……Page 1250
Transfer of training……Page 1251
Macrocognition: Extending the Focus of NDM……Page 1252
The Data/Frame Model of Sense-Making……Page 1254
The Flexecution Model of (Re-)planning……Page 1256
Emerging Challenges and Future Research……Page 1258
Expanding the Study of Domain Expertise……Page 1259
What Is the Role of Affect in Expert Decision Making?……Page 1260
NDM Cross-Cultural Research……Page 1262
Extending NDM Methods……Page 1263
Technology and NDM……Page 1265
Hybrid Ecologies……Page 1266
Sense-Making in the Hybrid Ecology……Page 1267
Technology Design for NDM……Page 1268
Multi-Team Systems……Page 1270
References……Page 1271
26 Skilled Decision Theory: From Intelligence to Numeracy and Expertise……Page 1292
Introduction……Page 1293
Numeracy and Decision Making Skill……Page 1295
Rationality and Normative Standards……Page 1299
Expert and Skilled Decision Making……Page 1302
Expert Performance……Page 1303
Expert Decision Making……Page 1305
General Decision Making Skill……Page 1307
Skilled Decision Theory……Page 1309
General Intelligence and Decision Making Skill……Page 1312
Decision Competency Assessment……Page 1317
Intelligence, Decisions, and Numeracy Components……Page 1322
How Numeracy Out-Predicts Fluid Intelligence……Page 1332
Simple, Powerful Decision Support……Page 1335
Efficient General Skill Training……Page 1339
Conclusions……Page 1341
Understanding Risks……Page 1344
Author Note……Page 1346
References……Page 1347
27 What Makes an Expert Team? A Decade of Research……Page 1366
Introduction……Page 1367
Chapter Aims and Organization……Page 1369
Theories of Team Effectiveness: A Brief Review……Page 1372
When Do Expert Teams Do Best?……Page 1375
Team Adaptation……Page 1378
Shared Cognition, Shared Mental Models, and Transactive Memory……Page 1381
Distinguishing between TMS and SMM……Page 1383
Current Research on Shared Cognition……Page 1387
Team Leadership……Page 1389
Team Composition……Page 1392
Virtuality……Page 1395
Current Methods Used to Investigate Expert Teams……Page 1400
The Next Ten Years: Opportunities for Future Team Research……Page 1403
Construct De-confliction……Page 1405
Fostering Expert Team Elements……Page 1409
Conclusion……Page 1412
References……Page 1414
Part V.II Domains of Expertise: Arts, Sports, Games, and Other Skills……Page 1436
28 Expertise in Music……Page 1437
Introduction……Page 1438
Increasing Performance through Practice……Page 1442
Practice: Investing the Time……Page 1443
Beyond Time: Investing the Effort……Page 1447
The Development of Musical Expertise……Page 1451
Stages and Phases……Page 1452
Cognitive Adaptations……Page 1455
Physiological Adaptations……Page 1459
Perceptual-Motor Adaptation……Page 1461
Outlook: Pushing the Limits……Page 1463
References……Page 1467
29 Brain Changes Associated with Acquisition of Musical Expertise……Page 1480
Performing Music as a Driver of Brain Plasticity……Page 1483
Brain Regions Involved in Performing Music: A Quick Overview……Page 1491
The Effects of Musical Training on Brain Function……Page 1498
The Effects of Musical Training on Brain Structure……Page 1503
De-expertise: Musician’s Dystonia as a Syndrome of Maladaptive Plasticity……Page 1511
Brain Changes Associated with Loss of Sensory Motor Control……Page 1518
Brain Plasticity as Prerequisite and Result of Expert Performance in Musicians……Page 1523
References……Page 1527
30 Expertise in Drawing……Page 1543
Introduction……Page 1544
Making Representational Depictions……Page 1546
Ways Artists Might See the World Differently……Page 1550
Psychological Explanations for Skill in Observational Drawing……Page 1554
Bottom-Up Explanations……Page 1555
Shape Constancy……Page 1558
Size Constancy……Page 1559
Summary of Bottom-Up Results……Page 1560
Top-Down Explanations……Page 1562
Domain-Specific Knowledge of Objects……Page 1563
Decision Making and Efficient Processing of Object Features……Page 1564
Visual Attention……Page 1566
Summary of Top-Down Results……Page 1567
Theoretical and Empirical Reconciliations……Page 1568
Future Directions……Page 1572
Methodological Issues……Page 1573
Conceptual Issues……Page 1577
Conclusion……Page 1581
References……Page 1583
31 Expertise in Chess……Page 1594
Expertise in Chess……Page 1595
Brief Description of the Game and the Rating System……Page 1597
Information Processing Models of Choosing a Good Move: The Trade-Offs between Knowledge and Search……Page 1599
Tracing Expertise Differences in Perception and Attention with Eye-Tracking Techniques……Page 1601
Memory Recall for Positions: Chase and Simon’s Key Results……Page 1603
Problems with the Chunking Theory Led to the Template Theory……Page 1604
Random Positions……Page 1605
New Estimates of the Vocabulary of the Master……Page 1606
Macrostructure of Search in Chess……Page 1608
Selective Search, Move Generation, and Pattern Recognition……Page 1610
High-Level Knowledge and Planning……Page 1612
Computational Models of Problem-Solving……Page 1614
Blindfold Chess……Page 1615
Risk……Page 1617
Building a Human Master……Page 1618
Learning……Page 1619
Training, education, and transfer……Page 1620
Individual Differences……Page 1621
Gender Differences……Page 1622
The Role of Deliberate Practice and Tournament Experience……Page 1624
Conclusions……Page 1629
References……Page 1631
32 Mathematical Expertise……Page 1644
Introduction……Page 1645
What Makes for Mathematical Expertise?……Page 1650
Intelligence……Page 1652
Perception……Page 1653
Memory……Page 1657
Working Memory……Page 1658
Long-Term Working Memory…….Page 1660
Domain-Specificity in Memory…….Page 1663
Management and Strengthening Memories…….Page 1664
Motivation and Instruction……Page 1667
Zeal and Inclination……Page 1668
The Role of Practice – 10,000 Hours……Page 1670
Education……Page 1672
Abacus Training……Page 1674
Genetics……Page 1676
Brain Systems for Mathematical Expertise……Page 1678
Conclusions……Page 1683
References……Page 1685
33 Expertise in Second Language Vocabulary……Page 1695
Introduction……Page 1696
Lexical Coverage……Page 1699
How Much Coverage Is Needed for Successful Comprehension?……Page 1700
Reading……Page 1701
Listening……Page 1703
Vocabulary Size: How Much Vocabulary Do Learners Need to Know?……Page 1705
Depth of Knowledge……Page 1709
Not Just Quantity……Page 1710
What Does Depth Mean?……Page 1713
Knowledge of Form……Page 1717
Knowledge of Meaning……Page 1719
Knowledge of Use……Page 1721
Formulaic Language……Page 1724
What Is Formulaic Language?……Page 1725
Why Is Formulaic Language Important?……Page 1727
Use of Formulaic Language by Second Language Learners……Page 1730
How Can L2 Learners Improve Their Use of Formulaic Sequences?……Page 1732
Practical Suggestions for Gaining L2 Expertise……Page 1734
Conclusion……Page 1737
References……Page 1739
34 Expertise in Sport: Specificity, Plasticity, and Adaptability in High-Performance Athletes……Page 1749
Introduction……Page 1750
What Type of Practice Experiences Describe the Developmental Pathways to Performance Excellence in Sport?……Page 1752
Practice History Profiles (the Macro Level)……Page 1753
Deliberate Practice (the Micro-Level)……Page 1758
Relationships between Practice Activities and Specific Perceptual-Cognitive Skills……Page 1762
Plasticity and Adaptability: Why Do Athletes Look Like They Have “All the Time in the World”?……Page 1767
Visual-Information Pick-Up: Perceptual-Cognitive Expertise……Page 1768
It’s All About the Context: High-Level Cognitive Processes……Page 1771
Exploring Interactions between Perceptual-Cognitive Skills……Page 1774
From Research into Practice: Implications for Talent Search and Development……Page 1779
Searching for the Holy Grail: Can We Predict Sporting Talent?……Page 1780
Systems, Structures, and Processes: Why Environment Is Everything?……Page 1784
Effective Practice and Instruction……Page 1785
Conclusions……Page 1787
References……Page 1789
Part VI Generalizable Mechanisms Mediating Types of Expertise……Page 1802
35 Superior Anticipation……Page 1803
Introduction and Overview……Page 1804
Creating Time by Anticipating the Actions of Others……Page 1806
Evidence of an Expert Advantage in Anticipatory Behavior during Interceptive Tasks……Page 1807
Evidence of Differential Use of Perceptual Information……Page 1810
Explanations of the Evolution of the Expert Advantage……Page 1814
Creating Time by the Anticipatory Encoding of Movement Pattern Information……Page 1816
Evidence of an Expert Advantage in Movement Pattern Encoding……Page 1817
Evidence of Superior Anticipatory Encoding of Patterns……Page 1820
Explanations of the Expert Advantage in Anticipatory Encoding……Page 1823
Creating Time by Predictive Gaze Behavior……Page 1825
Relationship of Eye Movements to Anticipatory and Interceptive Skill……Page 1826
Contributions of Central vs. Peripheral Vision……Page 1829
Can the Ability to Anticipate be Trained?……Page 1832
Studies of Practice History – Anticipatory Skill Correlates……Page 1833
Experimental Studies of Anticipatory Skill Learning……Page 1836
Summary and Concluding Remarks……Page 1840
References……Page 1842
36 Superior Working Memory in Experts……Page 1857
A Historical Background……Page 1860
Limits and Criticisms of the Simon–Chase Theory of Expertise……Page 1862
The Expert Performance Approach to Superior Working Memory……Page 1866
Capturing Superior Performance on Memory Tasks……Page 1868
Mechanisms Mediating Superior Memory Performance for Numbers……Page 1870
Chess……Page 1872
Practice Related to Improvements in Working Memory Support of Chess Playing……Page 1876
Working Memory during Mental Calculation……Page 1878
Working Memory during Simultaneous Translation……Page 1881
Sports and Working Memory……Page 1883
Working Memory in Other Domains of Expertise……Page 1886
Summary and Conclusion……Page 1889
References……Page 1893
37 Expertise and Situation Awareness……Page 1907
Introduction……Page 1908
Situation Awareness……Page 1911
Level 1 SA: Perception……Page 1912
Level 2 SA: Comprehension……Page 1913
Level 3 SA: Projection……Page 1914
SA Model……Page 1915
Role of Expertise in Situation Awareness……Page 1922
Novices……Page 1923
Mental Models……Page 1925
Schema……Page 1928
Automaticity……Page 1930
SA Skills……Page 1932
Running the Gamut……Page 1935
Cognitive Abilities Underlying Expertise in SA……Page 1936
SA and Expertise in Aviation Pilots……Page 1939
SA and Expertise in Army Infantry Officers……Page 1949
SA and Expertise in Driving……Page 1957
Conclusions……Page 1961
References……Page 1965
Part VII General Issues and Theoretical Frameworks……Page 1979
38 The Differential Influence of Experience, Practice, and Deliberate Practice on the Development of Superior Individual Performance of Experts……Page 1980
Toward Measurement of Domain-Specific Reproducibly Superior Performance……Page 1983
Tracing the Development of Performance……Page 1985
Measuring Individual Performance in Domains with Treatment Outcomes……Page 1986
Expert Performance of Teams and Groups……Page 1988
The Expert Performance Framework……Page 1990
Identification of Mechanisms Mediating Captured Superior Performance……Page 1991
Decision Making in Chess and Other Domains……Page 1992
Extended Activities, such as Running and Climbing……Page 1993
Summary……Page 1995
Development of Reproducibly Superior Performance……Page 1996
Accounting for Individual Differences in the Development of Expert Performance……Page 2001
Limited Effects of Accumulated Experience on Attained Level of Performance……Page 2002
Types of Training Mediating Improved Performance for Years and Decades……Page 2007
Other Types of Training Activities……Page 2013
Individualized Practice without a Coach……Page 2014
Chess and Decision Making……Page 2015
Control and Reproducibility of Performance……Page 2016
Other Types of Practice Activities……Page 2017
The Differential Effectiveness of Practice Activities to Improve Performance……Page 2018
Relations between Amount of Engagement and Attained Improvements of Performance……Page 2019
All Types of Practice are not Equally Effective in Improving Performance……Page 2020
Changes in the Effects of Practice Alone at Different Ages, Skills, and Stages of Careers……Page 2021
Problems Quantifying the Amount of Accumulated Practice and Assessing Its Relation to Attained Performance……Page 2023
Summary……Page 2028
General Remarks on Attaining Expert Performance as a Sequence of States……Page 2029
Author Notes……Page 2032
References……Page 2033
39 Practical Intelligence and Tacit Knowledge: An Ecological View of Expertise……Page 2046
Practical Intelligence and Tacit Knowledge: An Ecological View of Expertise……Page 2047
An Ecological View of Expertise……Page 2050
Tacit Knowledge and Practical Intelligence as Expertise……Page 2053
Tacit Knowledge: Domain-Specific Actionable Cognition……Page 2054
Practical Intelligence: Acquisition and Use of Tacit Knowledge……Page 2059
Assessing Expertise from an Ecological Perspective……Page 2064
Tacit Knowledge Inventories……Page 2066
Script Concordance Tests……Page 2067
Case Study Scenarios……Page 2068
Performance Modeling……Page 2069
Practical Intelligence, Tacit Knowledge, and Expertise……Page 2070
Developing Practical Intelligence and Tacit Knowledge……Page 2076
Making Tacit Knowledge Explicit……Page 2077
Facilitating Tacit Knowledge Acquisition……Page 2080
Developing Practical Intelligence……Page 2085
Future Directions……Page 2087
Conclusions……Page 2090
References……Page 2091
40 Cognitive Load and Expertise Reversal……Page 2112
Introduction……Page 2113
Cognitive Load Theory as a Framework for the Expertise Reversal Effect……Page 2117
Geary’s Evolutionary Educational Psychology……Page 2118
Information Store Principle……Page 2120
Randomness as Genesis Principle……Page 2121
Narrow Limits of Change Principle……Page 2122
Environmental Organizing and Linking Principle……Page 2123
Empirical Evidence for the Expertise Reversal Effect……Page 2125
Worked Examples vs. Unguided Problem-Solving……Page 2126
Process vs. Product Oriented Examples……Page 2129
Embedded Explanations/Prompts vs. Text Only……Page 2130
Added Structure vs. Unstructured Formats……Page 2131
Added Visuals vs. Symbolic Only Presentations……Page 2132
Feedback vs. No Feedback……Page 2133
Isolated Components vs. Interacting Components……Page 2134
Summary……Page 2135
Expertise Reversal in the Medical Field……Page 2139
Expertise Reversal in Training Sensorimotor Skills……Page 2142
Underlying Mechanism and Theoretical Models……Page 2144
Implications for the Acquisition of Expertise……Page 2149
References……Page 2154
41 Expertise and Structured Imagination in Creative Thinking: Reconsideration of an Old Question……Page 2165
Outline of the Chapter……Page 2167
Two Perspectives on Creativity and Expertise……Page 2168
Remote Associates and Creativity: Unstructured Imagination in Creative Thinking……Page 2169
Expertise and Structured Imagination in Creative Thinking……Page 2170
Remote Associates in Creative Thinking……Page 2171
Poincaré: Unconscious Thinking and Remote Associations……Page 2173
Flat Associative Hierarchies and Remote Associations……Page 2175
Modern Perspectives on Remote Associations……Page 2176
Cognitive Disinhibition and Remote Connections……Page 2177
Broad Attention and Creative Thinking……Page 2179
Lack of Executive Functioning in Creativity……Page 2181
Productive Thinking and Insight……Page 2183
Ohlsson: Deep Learning in a Changing World……Page 2184
Perkins: “Breakthrough Thinking” in an “Unreasonable” World……Page 2186
Kounios and Beeman: Insight and Remote Associations……Page 2187
Remote Associates and Creativity: Conclusions……Page 2190
Expertise in Creative Thinking……Page 2191
Types of Transfer of Expertise in Creative Thinking……Page 2193
Heuristic Methods……Page 2194
Degrees of Transfer of Expertise: Summary……Page 2196
Restructuring: New Information Stimulating New Ideas……Page 2197
Transfer of Expertise in Creative Thinking: Summary……Page 2200
The Double Helix……Page 2201
IDEO’s Shopping Cart……Page 2203
Fallingwater……Page 2206
Picasso’s Guernica……Page 2208
Pollock’s Poured Paintings……Page 2209
The Wright Brothers’ Control System……Page 2210
Transfer of Expertise and Structured Imagination in Creativity: Implications……Page 2213
Re-Examination of Case Studies Presented in Support for the Remote-Associates View……Page 2214
Wilkins and Radar……Page 2215
Edison’s Light Bulb……Page 2216
Leonardo’s Aerial Screw……Page 2218
Wag Dodge’s Escape Fire……Page 2219
Case Studies Reconsidered: Near versus Remote Associations……Page 2221
Expertise in Creative Thinking: Some Implications and Remaining Questions……Page 2222
Expertise, Creative Thinking, and Deliberate Practice……Page 2223
Remote Associates and Creative Thinking: A Re-examination?……Page 2224
Expertise and Creative Thinking: Conclusions……Page 2226
References……Page 2227
42 Aging and Expertise……Page 2233
Abilities and Their Relation to Expertise in Developmental Contexts……Page 2235
Expertise……Page 2238
General Processing Speed, Intellectual Abilities, and the Aging Brain……Page 2240
Implications for Non-Laboratory Performance……Page 2243
Theoretical Accounts of Expert Performance in Older Age……Page 2245
Cognitive Abilities, Age, and Expertise: Empirical Evidence……Page 2248
Neuropsychological Substrates of Expertise in Later Adulthood……Page 2250
Deliberate Practice and Expertise Maintenance in Later Adulthood……Page 2254
Expert Mechanisms as Compensatory Means for Age-Related Decline……Page 2257
Level of Skill, Experience, and Domain-Specificity of Maintained Skills……Page 2260
Age-Related Constraints on Improvement through Practice……Page 2263
Does Expertise Provide General Benefits at Advanced Ages?……Page 2266
Summary and Conclusions……Page 2270
References……Page 2272
Index of Subjects……Page 2290

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