Campbell Biology in Focus, Global Edition (3rd edition)

Download Campbell Biology in Focus, Global Edition (3rd edition) written by Lisa A. Urry; Michael L. Cain; Steven A. Wasserman; Peter V. Minorsky; Rebecca Orr in PDF format. This book is under the category Biology and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 129232497X/9781292324975. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.


Category: Tag:



Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Peter V. Minorsky, Rebecca Orr, Steven A. Wasserman













Book Description

To help students move away from rote memorization, Campbell Biology in Focus is constructed on a unit-by-unit basis to achieve a balance between the breadth and depth of concepts covered. Students are given the ability to prioritize essential biology content, concepts, and scientific skills through the use of streamlined content. These are the skills that are required to develop conceptual understanding as well as the ability to apply their knowledge in future courses. Based on reviews of over one thousand syllabi from across the country, surveys, curriculum initiatives, reviews, discussions with hundreds of biology professors, and the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education report, each unit takes an approach to streamlining the material in order to best fit the needs of instructors and students. This is done in order to make the material as efficient as possible.


This foundation is built upon in the third edition to assist students in making connections across chapters, interpreting real data, and synthesizing their knowledge. The Campbell hallmark standards of accuracy, clarity, and pedagogical innovation are maintained throughout the book. Students will be able to actively learn, remember difficult course concepts, and successfully engage with their studies and assessments with the assistance of more than 450 videos and animations that are included in the new edition of Mastering Biology. The new edition also integrates new, key scientific findings throughout.


In addition, this is included with Mastering Biology.

Mastering improves each student’s results while also making the learning experience more personalized for them. This is accomplished by combining trusted author content with digital tools and a flexible platform. Mastering Biology enables students to extend their learning by providing a platform for them to practice, learn, and apply outside of the classroom. This extension of learning is built for, and directly tied to, the textbook.


Please be aware that you are purchasing a separate product; the content you seek is not included in the Mastering Biology bundle that you have selected. If you are a student and are interested in purchasing this book along with Mastering Biology, please inquire with your teacher about the appropriate package ISBN and Course ID. For further information, professors, please get in touch with your Pearson representative.

Table of content

Front Cover
Title Page
Copyright Page
About the Authors
Organization and New Content
Featured Figures
Brief Contents
Detailed Contents
Introduction: Evolution and the Foundations of Biology
Overview Inquiring About Life
Concept 1.1 The study of life reveals unifying themes
Theme: New Properties Emerge at Successive Levels of Biological Organization
Theme: Life’s Processes Involve the Expression and Transmission of Genetic Information
Theme: Life Requires the Transfer and Transformation of Energy and Matter
Theme: Organisms Interact with Other Organisms and the Physical Environment
Concept 1.2 The Core Theme: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life
Classifying the Diversity of Life
Unity in the Diversity of Life
Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection
The Tree of Life
Concept 1.3 In studying nature, scientists form and test hypotheses
Exploration and Discovery
Gathering and Analyzing Data
Forming and Testing Hypotheses
The Flexibility of the Scientific Process
A Case Study in Scientific Inquiry: Investigating Coat Coloration in Mouse Populations
Variables and Controls in Experiments
Theories in Science
Science as a Social Process
Unit 1 Chemistry and Cells
2 The Chemical Context of Life
Overview The Importance of Chemistry to Life
Concept 2.1 Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds
Elements and Compounds
The Elements of Life
Evolution of Tolerance to Toxic Elements
Concept 2.2 An element’s properties depend on the structure of its atoms
Subatomic Particles
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
The Energy Levels of Electrons
Electron Distribution and Chemical Properties
Concept 2.3 The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms
Covalent Bonds
Ionic Bonds
Weak Chemical Interactions
Molecular Shape and Function
Concept 2.4 Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds
Concept 2.5 Hydrogen bonding gives water properties that help make life possible on Earth
Cohesion of Water Molecules
Moderation of Temperature by Water
Floating of Ice on Liquid Water
Water: The Solvent of Life
Acids and Bases
3 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
Overview Carbon Compounds and Life
Concept 3.1 Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms
The Formation of Bonds with Carbon
Molecular Diversity Arising from Variation in Carbon Skeletons
The Chemical Groups Most Important to Life
ATP: An Important Source of Energy for Cellular Processes
Concept 3.2 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers
The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers
The Diversity of Polymers
Concept 3.3 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material
Concept 3.4 Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules
Concept 3.5 Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions
Amino Acid Monomers
Polypeptides (Amino Acid Polymers)
Protein Structure and Function
Concept 3.6 Nucleic acids store, transmit, and help express hereditary information
The Roles of Nucleic Acids
The Components of Nucleic Acids
Nucleotide Polymers
The Structures of DNA and RNA Molecules
Concept 3.7 Genomics and proteomics have transformed biological inquiry and applications
DNA and Proteins as Tape Measures of Evolution
4 A Tour of the Cell
Overview The Fundamental Units of Life
Concept 4.1 Biologists use microscopes and biochemistry to study cells
Cell Fractionation
Concept 4.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions
Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
A Panoramic View of the Eukaryotic Cell
Concept 4.3 The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes
The Nucleus: Information Central
Ribosomes: Protein Factories
Concept 4.4 The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions
The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory
The Golgi Apparatus: Shipping and Receiving Center
Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments
Vacuoles: Diverse Compartments
The Endomembrane System: A Review
Concept 4.5 Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another
The Evolutionary Origins of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Mitochondria: Chemical Energy Conversion
Chloroplasts: Capture of Light Energy
Peroxisomes: Oxidation
Concept 4.6 The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell
Roles of the Cytoskeleton: Support and Motility
Components of the Cytoskeleton
Concept 4.7 Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities
Cell Walls of Plants
The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) of Animal Cells
Cell Junctions
Concept 4.8 A cell is greater than the sum of its parts
5 Membrane Transport and Cell Signaling
Overview Life at the Edge
Concept 5.1 Cellular membranes are fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins
The Fluidity of Membranes
Evolution of Differences in Membrane Lipid Composition
Membrane Proteins and Their Functions
The Role of Membrane Carbohydrates in Cell-Cell Recognition
Synthesis and Sidedness of Membranes
Concept 5.2 Membrane structure results in selective permeability
The Permeability of the Lipid Bilayer
Transport Proteins
Concept 5.3 Passive transport is diffusion of a substance across a membrane with no energy investment
Effects of Osmosis on Water Balance
Facilitated Diffusion: Passive Transport Aided by Proteins
Concept 5.4 Active transport uses energy to move solutes against their gradients
The Need for Energy in Active Transport
How Ion Pumps Maintain Membrane Potential
Cotransport: Coupled Transport by a Membrane Protein
Concept 5.5 Bulk transport across the plasma membrane occurs by exocytosis and endocytosis
Concept 5.6 The plasma membrane plays a key role in most cell signaling
Local and Long-Distance Signaling
The Three Stages of Cell Signaling: A preview
Reception, the Binding of a Signaling Molecule to a Receptor Protein
Transduction by Cascades of Molecular Interactions
Response: Regulation of Transcription or Cytoplasmic Activities
6 Introduction to Metabolism
Overview The Energy of Life
Concept 6.1 An organism’s metabolism transforms matter and energy
Metabolic Pathways
Forms of Energy
The Laws of Energy Transformation
Concept 6.2 The free-energy change of a reaction tells us whether or not the reaction occurs spontaneously
Free-Energy Change (DG), Stability, and Equilibrium
Free Energy and Metabolism
Concept 6.3 ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions
The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP
How ATP Provides Energy that Performs Work
The Regeneration of ATP
Concept 6.4 Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers
The Activation Energy Barrier
How Enzymes Speed Up Reactions
Substrate Specificity of Enzymes
Catalysis in the Enzyme’s Active Site
Effects of Local Conditions on Enzyme Activity
The Evolution of Enzymes
Concept 6.5 Regulation of enzyme activity helps control metabolism
Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes
Organization of Enzymes Within the Cell
7 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
Overview Life Is Work
Concept 7.1 Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels
Catabolic Pathways and Production of ATP
Redox Reactions: Oxidation and Reduction
The Stages of Cellular Respiration:
Concept 7.2 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate
Concept 7.3 After pyruvate is oxidized, the citric acid cycle completes the energyyielding oxidation of organic molecules
Concept 7.4 During oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis couples electron transport to ATP synthesis
The Pathway of Electron Transport
Chemiosmosis: The Energy-Coupling Mechanism
An Accounting of ATP Production by Cellular Respiration
Concept 7.5 Fermentation and anaerobic respiration enable cells to produce ATP without the use of oxygen
Types of Fermentation
Comparing Fermentation with Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration
The Evolutionary Significance of Glycolysis
Concept 7.6 Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle connect to many other metabolic pathways
The Versatility of Catabolism
Biosynthesis (Anabolic Pathways)
8 Photosynthesis
Overview The Process That Feeds the Biosphere
Concept 8.1 Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food
Chloroplasts: The Sites of Photosynthesis in Plants
Tracking Atoms Through Photosynthesis
The Two Stages of Photosynthesis: A Preview
Concept 8.2 The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH
The Nature of Sunlight
Photosynthetic Pigments: The Light Receptors
Excitation of Chlorophyll by Light
A Photosystem: A Reaction-Center Complex Associated with Light-Harvesting Complexes
Linear Electron Flow
A Comparison of Chemiosmosis in Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
Concept 8.3 The calvin cycle uses the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2 to sugar
Evolution of Alternative Mechanisms of Carbon Fixation in Hot, Arid Climates
Concept 8.4 Life depends on photosynthesis
9 The Cell Cycle
Overview The Key Roles of Cell Division
Concept 9.1 Most cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells
Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material
Distribution of Chromosomes During Eukaryotic Cell Division
Concept 9.2 The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle
Phases of the Cell Cycle
The Mitotic Spindle: A Closer Look
Cytokinesis: A Closer Look
Binary Fission in Bacteria
The Evolution of Mitosis
Concept 9.3 The eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by a molecular control system
Evidence for Cytoplasmic Signals
Checkpoints of the Cell Cycle Control System
Loss of Cell Cycle Controls in Cancer Cells
Unit 2 Genetics
10 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles
Overview Variations on a Theme
Concept 10.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes
Inheritance of Genes
Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
Concept 10.2 Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles
Sets of Chromosomes in Human Cells
Behavior of Chromosome Sets in the Human Life Cycle
The Variety of Sexual Life Cycles
Concept 10.3 Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploid
The Stages of Meiosis
Crossing over and Synapsis During Prophase
A Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
Concept 10.4 Genetic variation produced in sexual life cycles contributes to evolution
Origins of Genetic Variation Among Offspring
The Evolutionary Significance of Genetic Variation Within Populations
11 Mendel and the Gene Idea
Overview Drawing from the Deck of Genes
Concept 11.1 Mendel used the scientific approach to identify two laws of inheritance
Mendel’s Experimental, Quantitative Approach
The Law of Segregation
The Law of Independent Assortment
Concept 11.2 Probability laws govern mendelian inheritance
The Multiplication and Addition Rules Applied to Monohybrid Crosses
Solving Complex Genetics Problems with the Rules of Probability
Concept 11.3 Inheritance patterns are often more complex than predicted by simple mendelian genetics
Extending Mendelian Genetics for a Single Gene
Extending Mendelian Genetics for Two or More Genes
Nature and Nurture: the Environmental Impact on Phenotype
A Mendelian View of Heredity and Variation
Concept 11.4 Many human traits follow mendelian patterns of inheritance
Pedigree Analysis
Recessively Inherited Disorders
Dominantly Inherited Disorders
Multifactorial Disorders
Genetic Counseling Based on Mendelian Genetics
12 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
Overview Locating Genes Along Chromosomes
Concept 12.1 Morgan showed that mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior of chromosomes: Scientific Inquiry
Morgan’s Choice of Experimental Organism
Correlating Behavior of a Gene’s Alleles with Behavior of a Chromosome Pair
Concept 12.2 Sex-linked genes exhibit unique patterns of inheritance
The Chromosomal Basis of Sex
Inheritance of X-Linked Genes
X Inactivation in Female Mammals
Concept 12.3 Linked genes tend to be inherited together because they are located near each other on the same chromosome
How Linkage Affects Inheritance
Genetic Recombination and Linkage
Mapping the Distance Between Genes Using Recombination Data: Scientific Inquiry
Concept 12.4 Alterations of chromosome number or structure cause some genetic disorders
Abnormal Chromosome Number
Alterations of Chromosome Structure
Human Disorders Due to Chromosomal Alterations
13 The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Overview Life’s Operating Instructions
Concept 13.1 DNA is the genetic material
The Search for the Genetic Material: Scientific Inquiry
Building a Structural Model of DNA: Scientific Inquiry
Concept 13.2 Many proteins work together in DNA replication and repair
The Basic Principle: Base Pairing to a Template Strand
DNA Replication: A Closer Look
Proofreading and Repairing DNA
Evolutionary Significance of Altered DNA Nucleotides
Replicating the Ends of DNA Molecules
Concept 13.3 A chromosome consists of a DNA molecule packed together with proteins
Concept 13.4 Understanding DNA structure and replication makes genetic engineering possible
DNA Cloning: Making Multiple Copies of a Gene or Other DNA Segment
Using Restriction Enzymes to Make a Recombinant DNA Plasmid
Amplifying DNA: The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Its Use in Cloning
DNA Sequencing
Editing Genes and Genomes
14 Gene Expression: From Gene To Protein
Overview The Flow of Genetic Information
Concept 14.1 Genes specify proteins via transcription and translation
Evidence from Studying Metabolic Defects
Basic Principles of Transcription and Translation
The Genetic Code
Concept 14.2 Transcription is the DNA-directed synthesis of RNA: A Closer Look
Molecular Components of Transcription
Synthesis of an RNA Transcript
Concept 14.3 Eukaryotic cells modify RNA after transcription
Alteration of mRNA Ends
Split Genes and RNA Splicing
Concept 14.4 Translation is the RNA-directed synthesis of a polypeptide: A Closer Look
Molecular Components of Translation
Building a Polypeptide
Completing and Targeting the Functional Protein
Making Multiple Polypeptides in Bacteria and Eukaryotes
Concept 14.5 Mutations of one or a few nucleotides can affect protein structure and function
Types of Small-Scale Mutations
New Mutations and Mutagens
What Is a Gene? Revisiting the Question
15 Regulation of Gene Expression
Overview Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder
Concept 15.1 Bacteria often respond to environmental change by regulating transcription
Operons: The Basic Concept
Repressible and Inducible Operons: Two Types of Negative Gene Regulation
Positive Gene Regulation
Concept 15.2 Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated at many stages
Differential Gene Expression
Regulation of Transcription Initiation
Regulation of Chromatin Structure
Mechanisms of Post-transcriptional Regulation
Concept 15.3 Noncoding RNAs play multiple roles in controlling gene expression
Effects on mRNAs by MicroRNAs and Small Interfering RNAs
Chromatin Remodeling and Effects on Transcription by Noncoding RNAs
Concept 15.4 Researchers can monitor expression of specific genes
Studying the Expression of Single Genes
Studying the Expression of Groups of Genes
16 Development, Stem Cells, and Cancer
Overview Orchestrating Life’s Processes
Concept 16.1 A program of differential gene expression leads to the different cell types in a multicellular organism
A Genetic Program for Embryonic Development
Cytoplasmic Determinants and Inductive Signals
Sequential Regulation of Gene Expression During Cellular Differentiation
Pattern Formation: Setting Up the Body Plan
Genetic Analysis of Early Development: Scientific Inquiry
Concept 16.2 Cloning of organisms showed that differentiated cells could be “reprogrammed” and ultimately led to the production of stem cells
Cloning Plants: Single-Cell Cultures
Cloning Animals: Nuclear Transplantation
Stem Cells of Animals
Concept 16.3 Abnormal regulation of genes that affect the cell cycle can lead to cancer
Types of Genes Associated with Cancer
Interference with Cell-Signaling Pathways
The Multistep Model of Cancer Development
Inherited Predisposition and Other Factors Contributing to Cancer
17 Viruses
Overview A Borrowed Life
Concept 17.1 A virus consists of a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat
Viral Genomes
Capsids and Envelopes
Concept 17.2 Viruses replicate only in host cells
General Features of Viral Replicative Cycles
Replicative Cycles of Phages
Bacterial Defenses Against Phages
Replicative Cycles of Animal Viruses
Evolution of Viruses
Concept 17.3 Viruses and prions are formidable pathogens in animals and plants
Viral Diseases in Animals
Emerging Viruses
Viral Diseases in Plants
Prions: Proteins as Infectious Agents
18 Genomes and Their Evolution
Overview Mining the Genome
Concept 18.1 The human genome project fostered development of faster, less expensive sequencing techniques
Concept 18.2 Scientists use bioinformatics to analyze genomes and their functions
Centralized Resources for Analyzing Genome Sequences
Understanding the Functions of Protein-Coding Genes
Understanding Genes and Gene Expression at the Systems Level
Concept 18.3 Genomes vary in size, number of genes, and gene density
Genome Size
Number of Genes
Gene Density and Noncoding DNA
Concept 18.4 Multicellular eukaryotes have a lot of noncoding DNA and many multigene families
Transposable Elements and Related Sequences
Other Repetitive DNA, Including Simple Sequence DNA
Genes and Multigene Families
Concept 18.5 Duplication, rearrangement, and mutation of DNA contribute to genome evolution
Duplication of Entire Chromosome Sets
Alterations of Chromosome Structure
Duplication and Divergence of Gene-Sized Regions of Dna
Rearrangements of Parts of Genes: Exon Duplication and Exon Shuffling
How Transposable Elements Contribute to Genome Evolution
Concept 18.6 Comparing genome sequences provides clues to evolution and development
Comparing Genomes
Widespread Conservation of Developmental Genes Among Animals
Unit 3 Evolution
19 Descent with Modification
Overview Endless Forms Most Beautiful
Concept 19.1 The darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young earth inhabited by unchanging species
Scala Naturae and Classification of Species
Ideas About Change over Time
Lamarck’s Hypothesis of Evolution
Concept 19.2 Descent with modification by natural selection explains the adaptations of organisms and the unity and diversity of life
Darwin’s Research
The Voyage of the Beagle
Darwin’s Focus on Adaptation
Ideas from The Origin of Species
Artificial Selection, Natural Selection, and Adaptation
Concept 19.3 Evolution is supported by an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence
Direct Observations of Evolutionary Change
The Fossil Record
What Is Theoretical About Darwin’s View of Life?
20 Phylogeny
Overview Investigating the Evolutionary History of Life
Concept 20.1 Phylogenies show evolutionary relationships
Binomial Nomenclature
Hierarchical Classification
Linking Classification and Phylogeny
What We Can and Cannot Learn from Phylogenetic Trees
Applying Phylogenies
Concept 20.2 Phylogenies are inferred from morphological and molecular data
Morphological and Molecular Homologies
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Evaluating Molecular Homologies
Concept 20.3 Shared characters are used to construct phylogenetic trees
Phylogenetic Trees with Proportional Branch Lengths
Maximum Parsimony
Phylogenetic Trees as Hypotheses
Concept 20.4 Molecular clocks help track evolutionary time
Molecular Clocks
Applying a Molecular Clock: Dating the Origin of Hiv
Concept 20.5 New information continues to revise our understanding of evolutionary history
From Two Kingdoms to Three Domains
The Important Role of Horizontal Gene Transfer
21 The Evolution of Populations
Overview The Smallest Unit of Evolution
Concept 21.1 Genetic variation makes evolution possible
Genetic Variation
Sources of Genetic Variation
Concept 21.2 The hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to test whether a population is evolving
Gene Pools and Allele Frequencies
The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
Concept 21.3 Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow can alter allele frequencies in a population
Natural Selection
Genetic Drift
Gene Flow
Concept 21.4 Natural selection is the only mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution
Natural Selection: A Closer Look
The Key Role of Natural Selection in Adaptive Evolution
Balancing Selection
Sexual Selection
Why Natural Selection Cannot Fashion Perfect Organisms
22 The Origin of Species
Overview That “Mystery of Mysteries”
Concept 22.1 The biological species concept emphasizes reproductive isolation
The Biological Species Concept
Other Definitions of Species
Concept 22.2 Speciation can take place with or without geographic separation
Allopatric (“Other Country”) Speciation
Sympatric (“Same Country”) Speciation
Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation: A Review
Concept 22.3 Hybrid zones reveal factors that cause reproductive isolation
Patterns Within Hybrid Zones
Hybrid Zones and Environmental Change
Hybrid Zones over Time
Concept 22.4 Speciation can occur rapidly or slowly and can result from changes in few or many genes
The Time Course of Speciation
Studying the Genetics of Speciation
From Speciation to Macroevolution
23 Broad Patterns of Evolution
Overview A Surprise in the Desert
Concept 23.1 The fossil record documents life’s history
The Fossil Record
How Rocks and Fossils Are Dated
Fossils Frame the Geologic Record
The Origin of New Groups of Organisms
Concept 23.2 The rise and fall of groups of organisms reflect differences in speciation and extinction rates
Plate Tectonics
Mass Extinctions
Adaptive Radiations
Concept 23.3 Major changes in body form can result from changes in the sequences and regulation of developmental genes
Effects of Developmental Genes
The Evolution of Development
Concept 23.4 Evolution is not goal oriented
Evolutionary Novelties
Evolutionary Trends
Unit 4 The Evolutionary History of Life
24 Early Life and the Diversification of Prokaryotes
Overview The First Cells
Concept 24.1 Conditions on early earth made the origin of life possible
Synthesis of Organic Compounds on Early Earth
Abiotic Synthesis of Macromolecules
Self-Replicating RNA
Fossil Evidence of Early Life
Concept 24.2 Diverse structural and metabolic adaptations have evolved in prokaryotes
Cell-Surface Structures
Internal Organization and DNA
Nutritional and Metabolic Adaptations
Adaptations of Prokaryotes: A Summary
Concept 24.3 Rapid reproduction, mutation, and genetic recombination promote genetic diversity in prokaryotes
Rapid Reproduction and Mutation
Genetic Recombination
Concept 24.4 Prokaryotes have radiated into a diverse set of lineages
An Overview of Prokaryotic Diversity
Concept 24.5 Prokaryotes play crucial roles in the biosphere
Chemical Recycling
Ecological Interactions
Impact on Humans
25 The Origin and Diversification of Eukaryotes
Overview Shape Changers
Concept 25.1 Eukaryotes arose by endosymbiosis more than 1.8 billion years ago
The Fossil Record of Early Eukaryotes
Endosymbiosis in Eukaryotic Evolution
Concept 25.2 Multicellularity has originated several times in eukaryotes
Multicellular Colonies
Independent Origins of Complex Multicellularity
Steps in the Origin of Multicellular Animals
Concept 25.3 Four “supergroups” of eukaryotes have been proposed based on morphological and molecular data
Four Supergroups of Eukaryotes
SAR: Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizarians
Concept 25.4 Single-Celled eukaryotes play key roles in ecological communities and affect human health
Structural and Functional Diversity in Protists
Photosynthetic Protists
Symbiotic Protists
Effects on Human Health
26 The Colonization of Land
Overview The Greening of Earth
Concept 26.1 Fossils show that plants colonized land more than 470 million years ago
Evidence of Algal Ancestry
Adaptations Enabling the Move to Land
Derived Traits of Plants
Early Plants
Concept 26.2 Though not closely related to plants, fungi played a key role in the colonization of land
The Origin of Fungi
Fungal Adaptations for Life on Land
Diversification of Fungi
Concept 26.3 Early plants radiated into a diverse set of lineages
Bryophytes: A Collection of Basal Plant Lineages
Seedless Vascular Plants: The First Plants to Grow Tall
Concept 26.4 Seeds and pollen grains are key adaptations for life on land
Terrestrial Adaptations in Seed Plants
Early Seed Plants and the Rise of Gymnosperms
The Origin and Diversification of Angiosperms
Concept 26.5 Plants and fungi fundamentally changed chemical cycling and biotic interactions
Physical Environment and Chemical Cycling
Biotic Interactions
27 The Rise of Animal Diversity
Overview Life Becomes Dangerous
Concept 27.1 Animals originated more than 700 million years ago
Fossil and Molecular Evidence
Early-Diverging Animal Groups
Concept 27.2 The diversity of large animals increased dramatically during the “Cambrian explosion”
Evolutionary Change in the Cambrian Explosion
Dating the Origin of Bilaterians
Concept 27.3 Diverse animal groups radiated in aquatic environments
Animal Body Plans
The Diversification of Animals
Bilaterian Radiation I: Diverse Invertebrates
Concept 27.4 Vertebrates have been the ocean’s dominant predators for more than 400 million years
Bilaterian Radiation Ii: Aquatic Vertebrates
Summary: Effects of Bilaterian Radiations I and Ii
Concept 27.5 Several animal groups had features facilitating their colonization of land
Early Land Animals
Colonization of Land by Arthropods
Terrestrial Vertebrates
Concept 27.6 Amniotes have key adaptations for life in a wide range of terrestrial environments
Terrestrial Adaptations in Amniotes
The Origin and Radiation of Amniotes
Human Evolution
Concept 27.7 Animals have transformed ecosystems and altered the course of evolution
Ecological Effects of Animals
Evolutionary Effects of Animals
Unit 5 Plant Form and Function
28 Vascular Plant Structure and Growth
Overview Beauty Through Repetition
Concept 28.1 Plants have a hierarchical organization consisting of organs, tissues, and cells
The Three Basic Plant Organs: Roots, Stems, and Leaves
Dermal, Vascular, and Ground Tissue
Common Types of Plant Cells
Concept 28.2 Different meristems generate new cells for primary and secondary growth
Gene Expression and Control of Cell Differentiation
Meristematic Control of the Transition to Flowering and the Life Spans of Plants
Concept 28.3 Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots
Primary Growth of Roots
Primary Growth of Shoots
Concept 28.4 Secondary growth increases the diameter of stems and roots in woody plants
The Vascular Cambium and Secondary Vascular Tissue
The Cork Cambium and the Production of Periderm
29 Resource Acquisition, Nutrition, and Transport in Vascular Plants
Overview A Whole Lot of Shaking Going on
Concept 29.1 Adaptations for acquiring resources were key steps in the evolution of vascular plants
Shoot Architecture and Light Capture
Root Architecture and Acquisition of Water and Minerals
Concept 29.2 Different mechanisms transport substances over short or long distances
The Apoplast and Symplast: Transport Continuums
Short-Distance Transport of Solutes Across Plasma Membranes
Short-Distance Transport of Water Across Plasma Membranes
Long-Distance Transport: the Role of Bulk Flow
Concept 29.3 Plant roots absorb many types of essential elements from the soil
Macronutrients and Micronutrients
Symptoms of Mineral Deficiency
Soil Management
The Living, Complex Ecosystem of Soil
Concept 29.4 Plant nutrition often involves relationships with other organisms
Bacteria and Plant Nutrition
Fungi and Plant Nutrition
Epiphytes, Parasitic Plants, and Carnivorous Plants
Concept 29.5 Transpiration drives the transport of water and minerals from roots to shoots via the xylem
Absorption of Water and Minerals by Root Cells
Transport of Water and Minerals into the Xylem
Bulk Flow Transport Via the Xylem
Xylem Sap Ascent by Bulk Flow: A Review
Concept 29.6 The rate of transpiration is regulated by stomata
Stomata: Major Pathways for Water Loss
Mechanisms of Stomatal Opening and Closing
Stimuli for Stomatal Opening and Closing
Effects of Transpiration on Wilting and Leaf Temperature
Adaptations That Reduce Evaporative Water Loss
Concept 29.7 Sugars are transported from sources to sinks via the phloem
Movement from Sugar Sources to Sugar Sinks
Bulk Flow by Positive Pressure: the Mechanism of Translocation in Angiosperms
30 Reproduction and Domestication of Flowering Plants
Overview Getting Hooked
Concept 30.1 Flowers, double fertilization, and fruits are unique features of the angiosperm life cycle
Flower Structure and Function
Flower Formation
The Angiosperm Life Cycle: an Overview
Pollination: A Closer Look
Seed Development and Structure
Germination, Growth, and Flowering
Fruit Structure and Function
Concept 30.2 Flowering plants reproduce sexually, asexually, or both
Mechanisms of Asexual Reproduction
Advantages and Disadvantages of Asexual Versus Sexual Reproduction
Mechanisms That Prevent Self-Fertilization
Totipotency, Vegetative Reproduction, and Tissue Culture
Concept 30.3 People modify crops through breeding and genetic engineering
Plant Breeding
Plant Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
The Debate over Plant Biotechnology
31 Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals
Overview Stimuli and a Stationary Life
Concept 31.1 Plant hormones help coordinate growth, development, and responses to stimuli
The Discovery of Plant Hormones
A Survey of Plant Hormones
Concept 31.2 Responses to light are critical for plant success
Biological Clocks and Circadian Rhythms
Photoperiodism and Responses to Seasons
Concept 31.3 Plants respond to a wide variety of stimuli other than light
Mechanical Stimuli
Environmental Stresses
Concept 31.4 Plants respond to attacks by herbivores and pathogens
Defenses Against Herbivores
Defenses Against Pathogens
Unit 6 Animal Form and Function
32 The Internal Environment of Animals: Organization and Regulation
Overview Diverse Forms, Common Challenges
Concept 32.1 Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization
Concept 32.2 The endocrine and nervous systems act individually and together in regulating animal physiology
An Overview of Coordination and Control
Endocrine Glands and Hormones
Regulation of Endocrine Signaling
Simple Endocrine Pathways
Neuroendocrine Signaling
Hormone Solubility
Multiple Effects of Hormones
Concept 32.3 Feedback control maintains the internal environment in many animals
Regulating and Conforming
Thermoregulation: A Closer Look
Concept 32.4 A shared system mediates osmoregulation and excretion in many animals
Osmosis and Osmolarity
Osmoregulatory Challenges and Mechanisms
Nitrogenous Wastes
Excretory Processes
Concept 32.5 The mammalian kidney’s ability to conserve water is a key terrestrial adaptation
From Blood Filtrate to Urine: A Closer Look
Concentrating Urine in the Mammalian Kidney
Adaptations of the Vertebrate Kidney to Diverse Environments
Homeostatic Regulation of the Kidney
33 Animal Nutrition
Overview The Need to Feed
Concept 33.1 An animal’s diet must supply chemical energy, organic building blocks, and essential nutrients
Essential Nutrients
Dietary Deficiencies
Concept 33.2 Food processing involves ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination
Digestive Compartments
Concept 33.3 Organs specialized for sequential stages of food processing form the mammalian digestive system
The Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esophagus
Digestion in the Stomach
Digestion in the Small Intestine
Absorption in the Small Intestine
Processing in the Large Intestine
Concept 33.4 Evolutionary adaptations of vertebrate digestive systems correlate with diet
Dental Adaptations
Stomach and Intestinal Adaptations
Mutualistic Adaptations in Humans
Mutualistic Adaptations in Herbivores
Concept 33.5 Feedback circuits regulate digestion, energy allocation, and appetite
Regulation of Digestion
Energy Allocation
Regulation of Appetite and Consumption
34 Circulation and Gas Exchange
Overview Trading Places
Concept 34.1 Circulatory systems link exchange surfaces with cells throughout the body
Open and Closed Circulatory Systems
Organization of Vertebrate Circulatory Systems
Concept 34.2 Coordinated cycles of heart contraction drive double circulation in mammals
Mammalian Circulation
The Mammalian Heart: A Closer Look
Maintaining the Heart’s Rhythmic Beat
Concept 34.3 Patterns of blood pressure and flow reflect the structure and arrangement of blood vessels
Blood Vessel Structure and Function
Blood Flow Velocity
Blood Pressure
Capillary Function
Fluid Return by the Lymphatic System
Concept 34.4 Blood components function in exchange, transport, and defense
Blood Composition and Function
Cardiovascular Disease
Concept 34.5 Gas exchange occurs across specialized respiratory surfaces
Partial Pressure Gradients in Gas Exchange
Respiratory Media
Respiratory Surfaces
Gills in Aquatic Animals
Tracheal Systems in Insects
Concept 34.6 Breathing ventilates the lungs
How a Mammal Breathes
Control of Breathing in Humans
Concept 34.7 Adaptations for gas exchange include pigments that bind and transport gases
Coordination of Circulation and Gas Exchange
Respiratory Pigments
Carbon Dioxide Transport
Respiratory Adaptations of Diving Mammals
35 The Immune System
Overview Recognition and Response
Concept 35.1 In innate immunity, recognition and response rely on traits common to groups of pathogens
Innate Immunity of Invertebrates
Innate Immunity of Vertebrates
Evasion of Innate Immunity by Pathogens
Concept 35.2 In adaptive immunity, receptors provide pathogen-Specific recognition
Antigen Recognition by B Cells and Antibodies
Antigen Recognition by T Cells
B Cell and T Cell Development
Concept 35.3 Adaptive immunity defends against infection of body fluids and body cells
Helper T Cells: Activating Adaptive Immunity
B Cells and Antibodies: A Response to Extracellular Pathogens
Cytotoxic T Cells: A Response to Infected Host Cells
Summary of the Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses
Active and Passive Immunity
Antibodies as Tools
Immune Rejection
Disruptions in Immune System Function
Cancer and Immunity
36 Reproduction and Development
Overview Let Me Count the Ways
Concept 36.1 Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdom
Mechanisms of Asexual Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction: An Evolutionary Enigma
Reproductive Cycles
Variation in Patterns of Sexual Reproduction
External and Internal Fertilization
Ensuring the Survival of Offspring
Concept 36.2 Reproductive organs produce and transport gametes
Variation in Reproductive Systems
Human Male Reproductive Anatomy
Human Female Reproductive Anatomy
Concept 36.3 The interplay of tropic and sex hormones regulates reproduction in mammals
Biological Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation in Human Sexuality
Hormonal Control of the Male Reproductive System
Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Cycles
Human Sexual Response
Concept 36.4 Development of an egg into a mature embryo requires fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, and organogenesis
Conception, Cleavage, and Embryo Implantation in Humans
Embryonic Development in Humans
Fetal Development and Birth
Infertility and in Vitro Fertilization
37 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling
overview Lines of Communication
Concept 37.1 Neuron structure and organization reflect function in information transfer
Neuron Structure and Function
Introduction to Information Processing
Concept 37.2 Ion pumps and ion channels establish the resting potential of a neuron
Formation of the Resting Potential
Modeling the Resting Potential
Concept 37.3 Action potentials are the signals conducted by axons
Hyperpolarization and Depolarization
Graded Potentials and Action Potentials
Generation of Action Potentials:
Conduction of Action Potentials
Concept 37.4 Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses
Generation of Postsynaptic Potentials
Summation of Postsynaptic Potentials
Modulated Signaling at Synapses
38 Nervous and Sensory Systems
Overview Command and Control Center
Concept 38.1 Nervous systems consist of circuits of neurons and supporting cells
Organization of the Vertebrate Nervous System
The Peripheral Nervous System
Concept 38.2 The vertebrate brain is regionally specialized
Functional Imaging of the Brain
Arousal and Sleep
Biological Clock Regulation
The Brain’s Reward System and Drug Addiction
Concept 38.3 The cerebral cortex controls voluntary movement and cognitive functions
Language and Speech
Lateralization of Cortical Function
Information Processing
Frontal Lobe Function
Evolution of Cognition in Vertebrates
Neuronal Plasticity
Memory and Learning
Future Directions in Brain Research
Concept 38.4 Sensory receptors transduce stimulus energy and transmit signals to the central nervous system
Sensory Reception and Transduction
Amplification and Adaptation
Types of Sensory Receptors
Concept 38.5 In hearing and equilibrium, mechanoreceptors detect moving fluid or settling particles
Sensing of Gravity and Sound in Invertebrates
Hearing and Equilibrium in Mammals
Concept 38.6 The diverse visual receptors of animals depend on light-absorbing pigments
Evolution of Visual Perception
The Vertebrate Visual System
39 Motor Mechanisms and Behavior
Overview The How and Why of Animal Activity
Concept 39.1 The physical interaction of protein filaments is required for muscle function
Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle
Other Types of Vertebrate Muscle
Concept 39.2 Skeletal systems transform muscle contraction into locomotion
Types of Skeletal Systems
Types of Locomotion
Concept 39.3 Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors
Fixed Action Patterns
Behavioral Rhythms
Animal Signals and Communication
Concept 39.4 Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior
Experience and Behavior
Concept 39.5 Selection for individual survival and reproductive success can explain diverse behaviors
Evolution of Foraging Behavior
Mating Behavior and Mate Choice
Concept 39.6 Genetic analyses and the concept of inclusive fitness provide a basis for studying the evolution of behavior
Genetic Basis of Behavior
Genetic Variation and the Evolution of Behavior
Inclusive Fitness
Unit 7 Ecology
40 Population Ecology and the Distribution of Organisms
Overview Discovering Ecology
Concept 40.1 Earth’s climate influences the distribution of terrestrial biomes
Global Climate Patterns
Regional and Local Effects on Climate
Climate and Terrestrial Biomes
General Features of Terrestrial Biomes
Concept 40.2 Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of earth
Concept 40.3 Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species
Dispersal and Distribution
Biotic Factors
Abiotic Factors
Concept 40.4 Biotic and abiotic factors affect population density, dispersion, and demographics
Density and Dispersion
Concept 40.5 The exponential and logistic models describe the growth of populations
Changes in Population Size
Exponential Growth
Carrying Capacity
The Logistic Growth Model
The Logistic Model and Real Populations
Concept 40.6 Population dynamics are influenced strongly by life history traits and population density
“Trade-Offs” and Life Histories
Population Change and Population Density
Mechanisms of Density-Dependent Population Regulation
Population Dynamics
41 Ecological Communities
Overview Communities in Motion
Concept 41.1 Interactions between species may help, harm, or have no effect on the individuals involved
Positive Interactions
Concept 41.2 Biological communities can be characterized by their diversity and trophic structure
Species Diversity
Diversity and Community Stability
Trophic Structure
Species with a Large Impact
Bottom-Up and Top-Down Controls
Concept 41.3 Disturbance influences species diversity and composition
Characterizing Disturbance
Ecological Succession
Human Disturbance
Concept 41.4 Biogeographic factors affect community diversity
Latitudinal Gradients
Area Effects
Concept 41.5 Pathogens alter community structure locally and globally
Effects on Community Structure
Community Ecology and Zoonotic Diseases
42 Ecosystems and Energy
Overview Transformed to Tundra
Concept 42.1 Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems
Conservation of Energy
Conservation of Mass
Energy, Mass, and Trophic Levels
Concept 42.2 Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems
Ecosystem Energy Budgets
Primary Production in Aquatic Ecosystems
Primary Production in Terrestrial Ecosystems
Concept 42.3 Energy transfer between trophic levels is typically only 10% efficient
Production Efficiency
Trophic Efficiency and Ecological Pyramids
Concept 42.4 Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients and water in ecosystems
Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling Rates
Biogeochemical Cycles
Case Study: Nutrient Cycling in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
Concept 42.5 Restoration ecologists return degraded ecosystems to a more natural state
Biological Augmentation
Ecosystems: A Review
43 Conservation Biology and Global Change
Overview Psychedelic Treasure
Concept 43.1 Human activities threaten earth’s biodiversity
Three Levels of Biodiversity
Biodiversity and Human Welfare
Threats to Biodiversity
Concept 43.2 Population conservation focuses on population size, genetic diversity, and critical habitat
Small-Population Approach
Declining-Population Approach
Weighing Conflicting Demands
Concept 43.3 Landscape and regional conservation help sustain biodiversity
Landscape Structure and Biodiversity
Establishing Protected Areas
Concept 43.4 Earth is changing rapidly as a result of human actions
Nutrient Enrichment
Toxins in the Environment
Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change
Concept 43.5 The human population is no longer growing exponentially but is still increasing rapidly
The Global Human Population
Global Carrying Capacity
Concept 43.6 Sustainable development can improve human lives while conserving biodiversity
Sustainable Development
The Future of the Biosphere
Appendix A Answers
Appendix B Periodic Table of the Elements
Appendix C The Metric System
Appendix D A Comparison of the Light Microscope and the Electron Microscope
Appendix E Classification of Life
Appendix F Scientific Skills Review
Back Cover

Recent Posts

Blogging And How You Can Get A Lot From It

Whether you’re just looking to type about a hobby you have or if you want to attempt to run a business, starting a blog might be worthy of your consideration. Before you get started, first take a few minutes to read these expert-provided tips below. Once you learn about blogging,…

5 tips for a good business blog

Follow my blog with BloglovinAre you also looking for a good structure for your business blogs? That you finally have a serious and good structure for all your texts that are online? On your website but also on social media. In this review you will find 5 tips from Susanna Florie from her…

Study tips from a budding engineer

“Why engineering?” is a question I get often. The answer for me is simple: I like to solve problems. Engineering is a popular field for many reasons. Perhaps this is because almost everything around us is created by engineers in one way or another, and there are always new, emerging and exciting technologies impacting…

How do I study mathematics and pass my exam?

Not sure how best to study math ? Are you perhaps someone who starts studying the day before the exam? Then you know yourself that your situation is not the most ideal. Unfortunately, there is no magic bullet to make you a maths crack or pass your exam in no time . It is important to know that mathematics always builds on…