Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks

Download Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks written by Devi Chadha in PDF format. This book is under the category Communication and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 1119393264/9781119393269. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.


SKU: c8862fc1a327 Category: Tag:



Devi Chadha


Wiley-IEEE Press




500 pages









Book Description

Provides an account that is both detailed and up to date of WDM optical network systems

Since 2010, there have been considerable advancements made in optical networking. There has been a significant shift toward an all-optical network in optical networking as a result of a variety of new technologies and applications, which has brought about this transformation. This e-book provides a significant amount of attention on the network concepts, technologies, and methodologies that will not only withstand the test of time but also help in comprehending and constructing advanced optical network systems.

The first chapter of Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks (PDF) lays a foundation for the subsequent chapters by presenting an overview of optical networking, the various network architectures, fundamental concepts, and an overview of the various network structures that will be discussed in subsequent chapters. It begins with an overview of the enabling technologies and the hardware devices that are found at the physical layer, and then moves on to present a more in-depth description of the network in the chapters that follow. The following sections provide an in-depth analysis of the three fundamental network structures: static broadcast networks, wavelength-routed networks, and electronic/optical logically routed networks. These three types of networks cover the characteristics of optical networks in access, metropolitan area, and long-haul reach, respectively. The big picture of networking, network control and administration, impairment management, and survivability are all topics covered in this article. The future technologies of flex-grid and software-defined optical networking are discussed in the book’s last chapter.



  • Includes a wide variety of working examples and practice problems for the student to work through.


  • Coverage of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical networks that is condensed, current, and exhaustive


  • Comprises not only the control and management of the networks, but also the protocols, designs, and analyses of those networks.


  • Contains extensive coverage of key issues, including access, local area, metropolitan, and wide-area all-optical and elastic network themes, among others.


  • Provides unique chapters on cutting-edge subjects to address current as well as upcoming developments in technology, such as software-defined optical networking and flexible grid optical networks.



Students of electrical and communication engineering at the undergraduate and graduate levels will find Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks to be an invaluable resource. In addition to this, it will be of great use to working professionals in the fields of communications, networking, and optical systems.

PLEASE TAKE NOTE That the only thing that is included in the purchase is the PDF version of the booklet “Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks.” There are no access codes contained within.

Table of contents

Table of contents :
Content: Preface xiiiAcknowledgments xvii1 Introduction to Optical Networks 11.1 Introduction 11.1.1 Trends in Optical Networking 21.1.2 Classification of Optical Networks 31.2 Optical Networks: A Brief Picture 71.2.1 Multiplexing in Optical Networks 81.2.2 Services Supported by Optical Networks 91.2.3 WDM Optical Network Architectures Broadcast?and?Select Networks Wavelength Routed Networks Linear Lightwave Networks 131.2.4 Services Types 131.2.5 Types of Traffic 141.2.6 Switching Granularities Optical Circuit Switching Packet Switching for Bursty Traffic 151.3 Optical Network Layered Architecture 161.3.1 Layers and Sub?layers 191.4 Organization of the Book 231.5 Summary 24Problems 24References 252 Network Elements 272.1 Introduction 272.2 Optical Fiber 292.2.1 Loss and Bandwidth Windows 302.2.2 Linear and Nonlinear Effects 322.3 Laser Transmitters 332.3.1 Laser Characteristics 342.3.2 Tunable Lasers 342.3.3 Modulation Techniques 352.4 Optical Receivers 362.5 Optical Amplifiers 372.5.1 Types of Optical Amplifiers 382.5.1.1 Semiconductor Optical Amplifier 382.5.1.2 Fiber Amplifiers 392.6 Optical Network Components 402.6.1 Passive Coupler Devices 402.6.1.1 Coupler Parameters 412.6.1.2 Scattering Matrix Formulation of the 2 x 2 Coupler 422.6.2 Switching Elements 442.6.2.1 Directive Switches 462.6.2.2 Gate Switches 462.6.2.3 Micro?Electro Mechanical Switches 472.6.2.4 Liquid Crystal Optical Switch 482.6.3 N x N Star Coupler 492.6.4 Gratings 522.6.4.1 Fiber Bragg Gratings 532.6.4.2 Arrayed Waveguide Grating 542.6.5 Optical Filters 552.6.5.1 Fabry?Perot Filter 562.6.5.2 Multi?Layer Dielectric Thin?Film Filter 582.6.5.3 Acousto?Optic Filter 582.7 Optical Multiplexer and De?Multiplexer 582.7.1 Mach?Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) Multiplexer 592.8 Routers 622.8.1 Static Wavelength Router 622.8.2 Reconfigurable Wavelength Router 622.8.3 Optical Packet Routing Switches 642.9 Optical Switching Fabrics 642.9.1 Classification of Switching Fabrics 652.9.1.1 Permutation Switching Fabric 652.9.1.2 Generalized Switching Fabric 652.9.1.3 Linear Divider and Combiner Switching Fabric 652.9.2 Classification According to Blocking Characteristics 662.9.3 Types of Space Switching Fabrics 672.9.3.1 Cross?Bar Switching Fabric 672.9.3.2 Clos Switch Fabric 692.9.3.3 Spanke Switch Fabric 702.9.3.4 Benes Switch Fabric 712.9.3.5 Spanke?Benes Switch Fabric 722.10 Wavelength Converter 722.10.1 Opto?Electronic Wavelength Converters 732.10.2 All?Optical Wavelength Converters 742.10.2.1 Transparent All?Optical Wavelength Converters 742.10.2.2 Opaque All?Optical Wavelength Converter 742.11 Optical Network Functional Blocks 762.11.1 Network Access Terminal 762.11.2 Optical Network Node 782.11.2.1 Optical Add?Drop Multiplexers 792.11.2.2 Optical Cross?Connect 822.12 Summary 85Problems 86References 883 Broadcast?and?Select Local Area Networks 913.1 Introduction 913.2 Physical Topologies of Single?Hop Networks 923.2.1 Star Topology 923.2.2 Folded Bus Topology 933.2.3 Tree Topology 933.3 Multiplexing and Multiple Access in B&S Networks 953.4 Network Traffic 953.4.1 Circuit?Switched Traffic 973.4.1.1 Streamed Synchronous Traffic on Dedicated Connections 973.4.1.2 Packet Traffic with Fixed Frame on Dedicated Connections 983.4.1.3 Traffic with Demand?Assigned Circuit?Switched Connections 1023.4.2 Optical Packet Switching 1053.5 Network Resource Sharing in Optical Networks 1063.5.1 Capacity Increase with Number of ?Channels 1073.5.2 Capacity Increase with Number of Time Slots 1073.6 Capacity of the B&S Network 1083.6.1 Scheduling Efficiency 1093.7 Packet Switching in the Optical Layer in B&S Networks 1103.8 Medium Access Protocols 1113.8.1 Non?pre?transmission Coordination 1123.8.2 Pre?transmission Coordinated MAC Protocol 1133.8.2.1 Slotted Aloha/Slotted Aloha Protocols 1143.8.2.2 DT?WDMA Scheduling Protocol 1183.8.2.3 MAC Scheduling Protocols 1213.9 Summary 122Problems 122References 1244 Optical Access Networks 1274.1 Introduction 1274.2 Available Access Technologies 1284.2.1 Access Network Classification 1294.2.1.1 Digital Subscriber Line 1304.2.1.2 Cable Television 1304.2.1.3 Hybrid Fiber Coaxial Network 1304.2.1.4 Fixed Wireless Access Networks 1314.2.1.5 Satellite Wireless Access Networks 1324.3 Optical Fiber Access Networks 1324.3.1 Passive Optical Network Topology 1344.4 PON Architectures in Access Networks 1354.4.1 Broadcast?and?Select Passive Optical Networks 1354.5 TDM/TDMA EPON Operation 1384.5.1 Upstream Communication in PON 1384.5.2 Multi?Point Control Protocol 1394.5.2.1 Auto?Discovery and Registration 1404.5.2.2 Ranging and Clock Synchronization 1414.5.2.3 Signaling Messages Used for Arbitration 1424.5.3 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithms 1434.5.3.1 Service Disciplines 1444.5.3.2 Interleaved Polling with Adaptive Cycle Time DBA Protocol 1454.6 WDM PON Network Architecture 1464.6.1 WDM PON with TPON Architecture 1464.6.2 Wavelength Routing WDM PON 1474.7 Next?Generation PONs 1474.7.1 NG?PON1 1484.7.2 Long?Term Evolution – NG?PON2 1504.8 Free Space Optical Access and WOBAN 1514.8.1 Optical Wireless Access System 1524.8.2 Hybrid Wireless?Optical Broadband Access Network 1534.9 Summary 153Problems 154References 1555 Optical Metropolitan Area Networks 1595.1 Introduction 1595.2 Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy 1615.2.1 SONET Networks 1615.2.2 SONET Multiplexing 1635.2.2.1 Virtual Tributaries 1645.2.3 SONET Frame 1655.2.4 SONET/SDH Devices 1665.2.4.1 Terminal Multiplexer/De?multiplexer 1665.2.4.2 Regenerator 1675.2.4.3 Add/Drop Multiplexer 1675.2.4.4 Digital Cross?Connect 1675.2.5 SONET Protocol Hierarchy 1675.2.6 SONET Network Configurations 1695.2.6.1 SONET Ring Architecture 1695.2.7 Traffic Grooming in SONET/SDH Networks 1725.2.8 Scalability of SONET/SDH Networks 1735.3 Optical Transport Network 1745.3.1 Layered Hierarchy of OTN 1755.3.2 Lines Rates of OTN 1775.3.3 OTN Frame Structure 1795.3.3.1 OTN Frame Structure Overheads 1805.3.4 OTN Switching 1815.3.4.1 OTN Switch 1825.3.5 Tandem Connection Monitoring 1835.4 Summary 186Problems 186References 1886 Wavelength Routed Wide Area Networks 1896.1 Introduction 1896.2 The Hybrid Wavelength Routed Network Architecture 1926.3 The Optical Layer in Wavelength Routing Networks 1966.4 Design of Wavelength Routed Network with Logical Routing Network Overlay 1976.5 Analysis of WDM Wavelength Routing Networks 1996.5.1 Optimization Problem Formulation of the WRN 2006.6 Heuristic Solutions for WDM Wavelength Routing Networks 2056.6.1 Design Parameters, Performance Metrics, and QoS Issues 2066.6.2 Route Selection Algorithms 2076.6.2.1 Breadth?First?Search Algorithm 2086.6.2.2 Dijkstra Algorithm 2106.6.3 Heuristic Wavelength Routing Algorithms 2116.6.3.1 Fixed Routing 2116.6.3.2 Fixed?Alternate Routing 2126.6.3.3 Adaptive Routing 2126.6.3.4 Least Congested Path Routing 2136.6.4 Wavelength Assignment Algorithms 2136.6.4.1 Fixed Order First Fit 2146.6.4.2 Random Assignment 2146.6.4.3 Least Used Wavelength Assignment 2146.6.4.4 Most Used Wavelength Assignment 2156.6.5 Joint Routing?Wavelength Assignment Algorithm 2186.7 Logical Topology Design Heuristics 2186.7.1 Logical Topology Design Algorithm with Congestion Minimization 2196.7.2 Logical Topology Design Algorithm with Delay Minimization 2206.7.3 Logical Topology Design Algorithm with Link Elimination and Matching 2206.7.4 Simulated Annealing?Based LT Heuristics 2216.8 Summary 222Problems 222References 2257 Network Control and Management 2297.1 Introduction 2297.2 NMS Architecture of Optical Transport Network 2327.3 Logical Architecture of Automatic Switched Optical Network 2347.3.1 Interaction Between the Client Control Layer and the Optical Control Layer 2367.4 Functions of Management and Control Plane 2387.4.1 Discovery or State Information 2387.4.2 Routing 2407.4.3 Signaling 2407.4.3.1 Signaling Network 2417.4.3.2 Alarm Management System 2427.4.3.3 Resource Reservation Signaling Protocol 2427.4.4 Performance Monitoring 2447.4.5 Fault Management 2457.4.6 Security, Accounting Management, and Policing 2467.5 Generalized Multi?Protocol Label Switching 2467.5.1 Interfaces in GMPLS 2487.5.2 GMPLS Control Plane Functions and Services 2487.5.3 GMPLS Protocol Suite 2517.5.4 Path Computation Element 2547.6 Summary 256Problems 256References 2578 Impairment Management and Survivability 2618.1 Introduction 2618.2 Impairments in Optical Networks 2628.2.1 Impairments in Transparent Optical Networks 2638.2.2 Evaluation Criteria of Signal Quality 2648.2.3 Optical System Impairments 2668.2.3.1 Linear Impairments 2678.2.3.2 Impairments Due to Nonlinearities 2728.2.4 Impairment Awareness and Compensation in Optical Networks 2768.3 Survivability in Optical Networks 2798.4 Protection and Restoration 2808.4.1 Protection and Restoration Schemes 2808.4.2 Restoration Schemes 2838.5 Survivability in Multilayer WDM Optical Networks 2848.5.1 Survivability in the Electronic Logical Layer 2858.5.2 Optical Layer Protection/Restoration 2878.6 Summary 291Problems 292References 2959 Flexible Optical Networks 2979.1 Introduction 2979.2 Coherent Modulation Schemes 2989.2.1 Dual Polarization?Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DP?QPSK) 2999.2.2 M?Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M?QAM) 3019.3 Multi?Carrier Modulation Schemes 3019.3.1 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 3039.3.1.1 Cyclic Prefix in OFDM 3059.3.1.2 Peak?to?Average Power Ratio for OFDM 3069.3.2 Optical OFDM 3079.3.2.1 Direct?Detection Optical OFDM 3099.3.2.2 Coherent?Detection Optical OFDM 3109.3.2.3 All?Optical OFDM 3119.4 Elastic Optical Network 3129.5 Elastic Optical Network Elements 3149.5.1 Flexible?Grid Fiber 3149.5.2 Bandwidth Variable Transponder 3179.5.3 Flexible Spectrum Selective Switches 3199.5.4 Reconfigurable Optical Add Drop Multiplexers 3209.6 Routing and Spectrum Assignment Algorithms 3219.6.1 Static and Dynamic RSA 3229.6.1.1 Static ILP and Heuristic RSA Solutions 3229.6.1.2 RSA for Time?Varying Traffic 3249.6.1.3 Network Defragmentation RSA 3259.7 Network Control and Management 3259.8 Summary 326References 32610 Software?Defined Optical Networks 33110.1 Introduction 33110.2 Software?Defined Networking 33310.2.1 Functions of SDN Layers 33510.2.1.1 Infrastructure Layer 33610.2.1.2 South Bound Interface 33610.2.1.3 Network Hypervisors 33810.2.1.4 Network Operating System 33910.2.1.5 North Bound Interfaces Layer 34210.2.1.6 Network Application Layer 34210.3 Software?Defined Optical Networking 34310.3.1 SDON Architecture 34410.3.1.1 SDON Data Plane 34510.3.1.2 SDON Control Plane 34910.3.1.3 SDON Application Layer 35410.4 Summary 355References 355Index 359

Recent Posts

Blogging And How You Can Get A Lot From It

Whether you’re just looking to type about a hobby you have or if you want to attempt to run a business, starting a blog might be worthy of your consideration. Before you get started, first take a few minutes to read these expert-provided tips below. Once you learn about blogging,…

5 tips for a good business blog

Follow my blog with BloglovinAre you also looking for a good structure for your business blogs? That you finally have a serious and good structure for all your texts that are online? On your website but also on social media. In this review you will find 5 tips from Susanna Florie from her…

Study tips from a budding engineer

“Why engineering?” is a question I get often. The answer for me is simple: I like to solve problems. Engineering is a popular field for many reasons. Perhaps this is because almost everything around us is created by engineers in one way or another, and there are always new, emerging and exciting technologies impacting…

How do I study mathematics and pass my exam?

Not sure how best to study math ? Are you perhaps someone who starts studying the day before the exam? Then you know yourself that your situation is not the most ideal. Unfortunately, there is no magic bullet to make you a maths crack or pass your exam in no time . It is important to know that mathematics always builds on…