Vacuum and Ultravacuum: Physics and Technology 1st Edition

Download Vacuum and Ultravacuum: Physics and Technology 1st Edition written by Igor Bello in PDF format. This book is under the category Physics and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 1498782043/978-1498782043. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

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Specifications

book-author

Igor Bello

publisher

CRC Press; 1st edition (November 9; 2017)

file-type

PDF

language

English

asin

B0773WK59F

isbn10

1498782043

isbn13

978-1498782043


Book Description

The ebook titled “Vacuum and Ultravacuum: Physics and Technology 1st Edition” has a significant influence on human life in a variety of contexts and industries, including metallurgy, the food and electronic industries, the production and development of materials, microelectronics, physics, materials science, space science, device fabrication, engineering, the pharmaceutical industry, chemistry, technology of low temperature, and biology. The surface finish of watches, shiny ornamental papers, and light fixtures are all examples of decorative coatings that are manufactured employing vacuum technical procedures. These coatings are also utilized in jewelry and a variety of other everyday products. Vacuum analytical techniques and vacuum technologies are the cornerstones of the technological processes; deposition; material synthesis; and material analyses; all of which are utilized in the development of novel materials; increasing the value of industrial products; controlling the technological processes; and ensuring that high product quality is maintained. This ebook offers a more in-depth look into the physics and technology of vacuums, with the use of both physical models and calculated instances.

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Content: Part 1: Physics of Low pressures Chapter 1: Fundamental Quantities in Vacuum Physics1.1 Gases and Other Forms of Matters1.2 Avogadro Law1.3 Standard Molar Volume1.4 Gas Molar Quantity1.5 Loschmidt Number1.6 Vacuum1.7 Barometric Equation1.8 Vacuum Regions1.9 Basic Quantities and Units in Vacuum Technique 1.10 Examples for Gas Force Effects and Mass Flow RatesChapter 2: Molecular Kinetic Theory and its Implications2.1 Bernoulli Equation as Implication of Molecular Kinetic Theory of Gases2.2 Ideal Gas Law 2.3 Boltzmann Equation2.4 Compressibility of Ideal Gases: Boyle’s Law2.5 Volumetric Expansion of Ideal Gases: Gay-Lussac Law2.6 Pressure Expansion of Ideal Gases: Charles’ Law2.7 Dalton Law of Partial Pressures2.8 Amagat Law of Partial Volumes2.9 Measurement of Gas Molar Masses2.10 Examples Applied to Ideal Gas Laws2.11 Partition of Molecular Energy2.12 Partition of Molecular Energy by Quantum Mechanics2.13 Velocities of Molecules and their Distribution2.14 Average Thermal Velocity2.15 The Most Probable Velocity2.16 Root Mean Square Velocity2.17 Velocity Distribution Functions Respecting the Direction of Molecular Motion2.18 Molecular Flux and Molecular Flux Density2.19 Mean Free Path of Particles2.20 Mean Free Path of Molecules in a Binary Gas Mixtures2.21 Mean Free path of Molecules in a Gas of the Same Kind2.22 Mean Free Path of Electrons in a Single Molecular Gas2.23 Mean Free Path of Ions in a Gas of the Same Kind2.24 Mean Free Path of Arbitrary Ions in a Single Gas Environment2.25 Mean Free Path of Electrons in an Electron Environment2.26 Sutherland Corrections for Mean Free Paths2.27 Distribution of Molecules According to their Free Paths2.28 Practical Implication of Mean Free Paths and their Distribution2.29 Criterion of Mean Free Path2.30 Examples for Molecular Kinetic Theory of GasesChapter 3: Thermodynamics of Gases at Low Pressures3.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Enthalpy Applied to Ideal gases3.2 Definition of Gas Heat Capacities3.3 Isochoric Processes: Molar Heat of Ideal Gases at Constant Volume3.4 Isobaric Processes of Ideal Gases and Mayer’s Formula 3.5 Isothermal Processes of Ideal Gases3.6 Adiabatic Processes of Ideal Gases3.7 Polytropic Processes of Ideal Gases3.8 Measurement of Gas Heat Capacities3.9 Measurement of Heat Capacity Ratio3.10 The Second Law of Thermodynamics Applied to Ideal Gases3.11 Entropy of Gas Systems3.12 Thermodynamic Free Energy3.13 Thermodynamic Equilibrium of Gaseous Phases with their Other Phases3.14 Equilibrium of Gaseous Phases from Kinetic Theory of Gases3.15 Saturated Vapor Pressure of some Materials used in Vacuum Technology3.16 Vacuum Thermal Evaporation3.17 Thermal Evaporation from Multiple Sources3.18 Conditions at Vacuum Thermal Evaporation3.19 Scaling of Evaporation Systems3.20 Different Thermal Evaporation Techniques3.21 Cross Contamination at Thermal Evaporation3.22 Degassing of Evaporation Sources3.23 Examples Applied to Thermodynamics of Gases and Thin Film Deposition3.24 Sputtering, Deposition, and Sputtering YieldChapter 4: Real Gases4.1 Attractive and Repulsive Forces in Real Gases4.2 State Equations of Real Gases4.3 Van der Waals State Equation of Real Gases4.4 Others States Equations of Real Gases4.5. Internal Energy of Real Gases4.6 Heat of Vaporization4.7 Heating or Cooling of Real Gases at Adiabatic Expansion4.8 Liquefaction of Gases4.9 Examples of Real GasesChapter 5: Transfer Phenomena in Gases at Vacuum Conditions5.1 Transfer Processes at Low Vacuum, Viscous Conditions5.2 Internal Friction of Gases – Viscosity at Low Vacuum, Viscous Conditions5.3 Diffusion of Gases at Low Vacuum, Viscous Conditions5.4 Thermal Conductivity at Viscous Low Vacuum Conditions5.5 Transport Phenomena at High Vacuum, Free Molecular Conditions5.6 Gas Friction with Walls at High Vacuum, Free Molecular Conditions5.7 Diffusion at High Vacuum, Free Molecular Conditions5.8 Thermal Conductivity at High Vacuum, Free Molecular Conditions5.9 Evaluation of Transfer Coefficients5.10 Examples for Transfer Coefficients5.11 Diffusion of Electrically Charged Particles and Their Mobility5.12 Ambipolar DiffusionChapter 6: Molecular Collisions6.1 Elastic Direct Collisions of Two Molecules6.2 Energy Loss of Backscattered Particles upon their Collisions with Solids6.3 Molecular Collisions with Walls6.4 Heat Transfer and Thermal Accommodation Coefficients6.5 Thermal Accommodation Coefficients at Free Molecular Conditions6.6 Thermal Accommodation Coefficients for Plate Configurations at Free Molecular Conditions6.7 Thermal Accommodation Coefficients for Coaxial Wire-Cylinder Configurations at Free Molecular Conditions6.8 Thermal Accommodation Coefficients for Parallel Plates at Free Molecular Conditions6.9 Thermal Accommodation Coefficients for Coaxial Cylinders at Free Molecular Conditions6.10 The Distance of Temperature Discontinuity: Temperature Jump6.11 Heat Transfer between Parallel Plates at Transition Conditions6.12 Heat Transfer between Coaxial Cylinders at Transition Conditions6.13 Slip Coefficients, Diffusive Reflection and Tangential Momentum Accommodation6.14 Slip Coefficient and Viscous Drag Force on a Plate in the Gas Slip Regime6.15 Coefficient of Tangential Momentum Accommodation at Free Molecular FlowChapter 7: Gas Flow at Vacuum Conditions7.1 Gas Flow through Long Ducts in a Laminar Regime: Poiseuille Equation7.2 Laminar Conductance of Ducts with Non-Circular Cross Sections7.3 Intermediate Gas Flow Regime and Gas Slip Flow7.4 Gas Flow in the Molecular Regime7.5 Gas Flow via Long Cylindrical Tubes in the Molecular Regime7.6 Molecular Conductance of Long Ducts with Rectangular Slit Cross-Sections7.7 Knudsen Formula for Molecular Gas Flow7.8 Molecular Conductance of Long Ducts with Different Shapes by Knudsen Formula7.9 Molecular Conductance for Long Ducts by Universal Smoluchowski Formula7.10 Molecular Flow of Gases via Apertures and Orifices7.11 Thermal Transpiration7.12 Effusion Rate of Two Different Gases7.13 Effect of Diaphragm Aperture at Molecular Flow7.14 Molecular Flow via Short Vacuum Ducts7.15 Short Tubes with Circular Cross Sections by Clausing’s Transmission Theory7.16 Transmission Probabilities for Molecular Conductance of Short Ducts7.17 Examples for Calculation of Short Ducts7.18 Transmission Probability by the Mote Carlo Method7.19 Beaming Phenomena at Gas Flow7.20 Molecular Conductance and Resistance in Serial Duct Connections7.21 Molecular Conductance/Resistance in Complex Vacuum Circuits7.22 Effective Pumping Speed in the Molecular Flow Regime7.23 Gas Flow via Capillaries7.24 Flow Time through Capillaries7.25 Molecular Beams in Vacuum7.26 Compressible Gas Flow and Gas JetChapter 8: Sorption8.1 Adsorption8.2. Henry Adsorption Isotherms8.3 Monomolecular Layer8.4 Freundlich Adsorption Isotherms8.5 Langmuir Adsorption Theory8.6 Polymolecular Adsorption by BET Adsorption Theory 8.7 Rate of Adsorption and Desorption8.8 Adsorption Surfaces8.9 Methods for the Determination of True Surface Area8.10 Surface Migration of Adsorbed Molecules8.11 Absorption8.12 Absorption and Gas Flow via Solids8.13 Absorption and Permeation of Gases through Solids8.14 Outgassing and Degassing of MaterialsChapter 9: Pumping Vacuum Systems9.1 Pumping Vacuum Systems in the Viscous Regime of a Gas Flow 9.2 Pumping Vacuum Systems in the Free Molecular Regime of a Gas FlowPart 2: Vacuum ProductionChapter 10: Categorization of Vacuum PumpsChapter 11: Mechanical Displacement Pumps11.1 Piston Pumps 11.2 Rotary Oil Vane Pumps11.3 Rotary Oil Piston Pumps11.4 Rotary Oil Pumps with Large Pumping Capacities11.5 Determination of Ideal Pumping Speeds of Rotary Oil Vane Pumps11.6 Experimental Pumping Speeds of Rotary Oil Pumps11.7 Pumping Speed Measured by the Method of Constant Pressure11.8 Pumping Speed Determined by the Method of Constant Volume11.9 Sealing, Lubrication and Safety Precaution at the Operation of Rotary Oil Pumps11.10 Contamination of Vacuum Systems and its Suppression11.11 Suppression of Vacuum Contamination by Traps11.12 Liquid and Water Ring Pumps Chapter 12: Dry Displacement Pumps12.1 Dry Piston Pumps12.2 Dry Rotary Vane Pumps12.3 Dry Diaphragm Pumps12.4 Roots Pumps12.5 Tri-lobed Pumps12.6 Rotary Claw and Hook Pumps12.7 Screw Pumps12.8 Scroll Vacuum PumpsChapter 13: Mechanical Kinetic Pumps13.1 Molecular Drag Pumps13.2 Molecular Drag Pumps at Low Vacuum (Laminar Flow)13.3 Molecular Drag Pump Operating at Molecular Flow13.4 Turbomolecular Pumps13.5 Side Channel or Regenerative Vacuum PumpsChapter 14: Kinetic Propellant Pumps and Accessories14.1 Vacuum Water Jet Pumps14.2 Vapor Jet Ejector Pumps14.3 Diffusion Pumps14.4 Determination of Pumping Speed of Diffusion Pumps 14.5 Towards Contamination Free VacuumChapter 15: Capture Pumps15.1 Cryosorption Pumps15.2 Cryogenic Pumps15.3 Getters as Vacuum Chemical Pumps15.4 Evaporable and Flash Getters as Chemical Pumps15.5 Sublimation Getter Pumps15.6 Non-evaporable Getters as Vacuum Chemical Pumps15.7 Electrostatic Ion Pumps15.8 Electrostatic Getter Triode Ion Pumps and Orbitron Pumps15.9 Hybrid Magnetic Ion Sputter PumpsPart 3: Low Pressure MeasurementsChapter 16: Introduction into the Low Pressure Measurements16.1 Total Pressure MeasurementsChapter 17: Force Gauges with Manometric Liquids17.1 U-Tube Manometers17.2 Buoyant manometers17.3 McLeod Compression GaugesChapter 18: Force Gauges with Elastic Deformation Elements18.1 Bourdon Vacuum Gauges18.2 Diaphragm and Capsule Gauges18.3 Capacitance Diaphragm Gauges18.4 Miniature Diaphragm Gauges18.5 Piezoresistive Vacuum GaugesChapter 19: Force Gauges with Solid Sensing Elements19.1 Piston Vacuum Gauges19.2 Vane Vacuum Gauges 19.3 Molecular Knudsen GaugesChapter 20: Viscosity Molecular Gauges20.1 Dynamic Viscosity Gauges20.2 Oscillation and Decremental Viscosity Disc Gauge20.3 Viscosity vacuum Gauges with Oscillating Fibers and Ribbons20.4 Viscosity Gauges with Electrical Excitation: Becker’s Gauges20.5 Oscillating Fork Quartz Crystal Viscosity Gauges20.6 Spinning Rotor GaugesChapter 21: Vacuum Thermal Gauges21.1 Resistor Thermal Conductivity Gauges – Pirani Gauges21.2 Thermistor Vacuum Gauges21.3 Thermocouple Vacuum Gauges21.4 Dilatation Thermal Gauges21.5 Unconventional Thermal Vacuum GaugesChapter 22: Ionization Gauges with Hot Filaments22.1 Bayard-Alpert Gauges22.2 Modulated Bayard-Alpert Gauges22.3 Nottingham Ionization Gauges22.4 Orbitron Gauges22.5 Extractor Gauges with Hot Filaments22.6 Extractor Ionization Gauges with Electrostatic Radial Cylindrical Deflectors22.7 Extractor Ionization Gauges with Electrostatic Hemispherical Deflectors22.8 Ionization Gauges with Bessel Analyzers22.9 Klopfer Ion Gauge22.10 Lafferty Hot Filament Gauges with Magnetic Field 22.11 High Pressure Ionization Gauges with Hot FilamentsChapter 23: Electric Discharge Vacuum Gauges23.1 Electric Discharge Tube Gauges23.2 Vacuum Testers23.3 Discharge Pressure Gauges with Optical Sensing23.4 Cold Cathode Ionization Gauges with Magnetic FieldChapter 24: Vacuum Gauges with Radioactive EmittersChapter 25: Partial Pressure Measurement at Vacuum Conditions25.1 Direct Methods of Partial Pressure Measurements25.2 Indirect Methods of Partial Pressure Measurements25.3 Mass Spectrometers25.4 Mass Spectrometer with Magnetic Sector Field25.5 Double Focusing Mass Spectrometers25.6 Thompson Parabola Mass Spectrometers25.7 Trochotrons: Cycloidal Mass Spectrometers25.8 Wien Filters25.9 Mass Spectrometers with Crossed Magnetic and Radial Electric Fields25.10 Dynamic Mass Spectrometers with Combined Electric Fields25.11 Time of Flight Mass Spectrometers25.12 Radio Frequency Resonance Mass Spectrometers25.13 Farvitrons, Pendelions25.14 Omegatrons25.15 Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometers25.16 Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers25.17 Monopole Mass SpectrometersChapter 26: Energy Analyzers of Electrically Charged Particles26.1 Parallel-Plate Electrostatic Energy Analyzers26.2 Radial Cylindrical Electrostatic Analyzers26.3 Cylindrical Mirror Analyzers26.4 Concentric Hemispherical Analyzers 26.5 Retarding Energy AnalyzersChapter 27: Gas Flow Measurements and Controls27.1 Flowmeters Based on Volumetric Measurements 27.2 Measurements of Gas Flows by Accumulation Methods 27.3 Measurements of Gas Flow by Calibrated Apertures 27.4 Venturi Flowmeters and Pitot Velocity Tubes 27.5 Rotameters27.6 Thermal Mass Flowmeters and ControllersChapter 28: Leak Detection28.1 Accumulation Methods of Leak Detections28.2 High Pressure Methods of Leak Detections28.3 Leak Detections with Testing Fluids28.4 Leak Detections using Electric Discharges28.5 Vacuometric Methods of Leak Detections28.6 Leak Detections using Gas Permeations28.7 Luminescence Leak Detections28.8 Radioactive Methods of Leak Detections28.9 Halogen Leak Detectors28.10 Mass Spectrometric Methods of Leak Detections29 Appendix of Solved Mathematical Problems30 Subject Index31 Author Index32 List of Tables

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