Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness (12th Edition)

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Download Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness (12th Edition) written by Anne Waugh, Allison Grant in PDF format. This book is under the category Anatomy and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 702053252/9780702053252. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

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Specifications

book-author

Anne Waugh, Allison Grant

publisher

Churchill Livingstone; 12th edition (May 12; 2014)

file-type

PDF

pages

522 pages

language

English

isbn10

702053252

isbn13

9780702053252


Book Description

Ross and Wilson’s Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness has been the number one choice for over a million college students since it first published; over 50 years ago. One of the world’s most popular etextbooks of anatomy and physiology; it introduces the structure and functions of the human body and the effects of disease or illness on normal body function. More than any other textbook Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness 9th edition (PDF) uses easy-to-understand; straightforward language; enhanced by color illustrations and a huge range of interactive online activities; to make learning more engaging and visual.

Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness 12e is essential reading for anyone embarking on a career as a healthcare professional; especially in the nursing and allied health professions; alternative / complementary medicine or as paramedics and ambulance technicians.

“There are new sections on the implications of normal ageing on the structure and function of the body systems. The glossary has been expanded; as have the online access; learning outcomes and normal values tables. This book is excellent value for money.” Reviewed by: Nursing Standard

  • Highly illustrated with clear color diagrams and photographs
  • Learning outcomes related to the sections within each chapter
  • Appendix containing useful biological values for easy reference
  • Common suffixes; prefixes and roots commonly used in anatomy and physiology
  • Regular sequences of headings; lists and bullet points help with learning and revision
  • Extended glossary for convenient; fast; and concise reference to important terminology
  • Additional coloured electron photographs and micrographs; as well as updated illustrations
  • Fully revised and updated textbook; with a focus on the most commonly occurring disorders
  • An accompanying Colouring and workbook that facilitates structured learning and revision of the material in this ebook.
  • Carefully refined; clear and unambiguous textbook which omits the unnecessary detail that can confuse the student new to the subject
  • A new; easy-to-use colouring feature has been added to the extensive and varied selection of highly popular web-based online revision activities
  • New sections on the implications of normal ageing on the structure and function of the body systems to reinforce the core material and reflect today’s ageing population
  • Access to additional electronic resources; including high-quality animations; case studies; colouring exercises; self-testing questions; an audio pronunciation guide and weblinks

Note: This purchase only includes the PDF of the book. No online access codes are included

Additional information

book-author

Anne Waugh, Allison Grant

publisher

Churchill Livingstone; 12th edition (May 12; 2014)

file-type

PDF

pages

522 pages

language

English

isbn10

702053252

isbn13

9780702053252

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Front cover
Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness
Copyright page
Table of Contents
Evolve page
Preface
Acknowledgements
Authors’ Acknowledgements
Publisher’s Acknowledgements
Common prefixes, suffixes and roots
Key
1 The body and its constituents
1 Introduction to the human body
Animations
Levels of structural complexity
The internal environment and homeostasis
Homeostasis
Control systems
Negative feedback mechanisms (Fig. 1.4)
Positive feedback mechanisms
Homeostatic imbalance
Survival needs of the body
Communication
Transport systems
Blood (Ch. 4)
Plasma.
Blood cells.
Cardiovascular system (Ch. 5)
Blood vessels.
Heart.
Lymphatic system (Ch. 6)
Internal communication
Nervous system (Ch. 7)
Endocrine system (Ch. 9)
Communication with the external environment
Special senses (Ch. 8)
Verbal communication
Non-verbal communication
Intake of raw materials and elimination of waste
Intake of oxygen
Ingestion of nutrients (eating)
Digestion
Alimentary canal.
Accessory organs.
Metabolism
Elimination of wastes
Carbon dioxide
Urine
Faeces
Protection and survival
Protection against the external environment
Defence against infection
Non-specific defence mechanisms
Specific defence mechanisms
Movement
Survival of the species
Transmission of inherited characteristics
Reproduction (Ch. 18)
Introduction to ageing
Introduction to the study of illness
Aetiology
Pathogenesis
Inflammation.
Tumours.
Abnormal immune mechanisms.
Thrombosis, embolism and infarction.
Degeneration.
Metabolic abnormalities.
Genetic abnormalities.
Further reading
2 Introduction to the chemistry of life
Animations
Atoms, molecules and compounds
Atomic structure
Atomic number and atomic weight
Isotopes.
Molecules and compounds
Covalent and ionic bonds.
Covalent bonds
Ionic bonds
Electrolytes
Measurement of substances in body fluids
Acids, bases and pH
The pH scale
pH values of body fluids
Buffers
Acidosis and alkalosis
Important biological molecules
Carbohydrates
Amino acids and proteins
Lipids
Nucleotides
Nucleic acids
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Enzymes
Movement of substances within body fluids
Diffusion
Osmosis
Body fluids
Extracellular fluid
Intracellular fluid
3 The cells, tissues and organisation of the body
Animations
The cell: structure and functions
Plasma membrane
Membrane proteins
Organelles 3.1
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Golgi apparatus
Lysosomes
Cytoskeleton
Microfilaments.
Microtubules.
Centrosome.
Cell extensions.
The cell cycle
Interphase
Mitosis (Figs 3.8 and 3.9) 3.2
Prophase.
Metaphase.
Anaphase.
Telophase.
Transport of substances across cell membranes
Passive transport
Diffusion
Facilitated diffusion
Osmosis
Active transport 3.5
The sodium–potassium pump
Bulk transport (Fig. 3.11)
Tissues
Epithelial tissue (Fig. 3.12)
Simple epithelium
Squamous (pavement) epithelium
Cuboidal epithelium
Columnar epithelium
Stratified epithelia
Stratified squamous epithelium (Fig. 3.13)
Keratinised stratified epithelium.
Non-keratinised stratified epithelium.
Transitional epithelium (Fig. 3.15)
Connective tissue
Cells in connective tissue
Fibroblasts.
Fat cells.
Macrophages.
Leukocytes.
Mast cells.
Loose (areolar) connective tissue (Fig. 3.18)
Adipose tissue (Fig. 3.19)
White adipose tissue.
Brown adipose tissue.
Reticular tissue (Fig. 3.20)
Dense connective tissue
Fibrous tissue (Fig. 3.21A)
Elastic tissue (Fig. 3.21B)
Blood
Cartilage
Hyaline cartilage (Fig. 3.22A)
Fibrocartilage (Fig. 3.22B)
Elastic fibrocartilage (Fig. 3.22C)
Bone
Muscle tissue
Skeletal muscle (Fig. 3.23)
Smooth muscle (Fig. 3.24)
Cardiac muscle (Fig. 3.25)
Nervous tissue
Tissue regeneration
Membranes
Epithelial membranes
Mucous membrane 3.6
Serous membrane 3.7
Synovial membrane 3.8
Glands
Organisation of the body
Anatomical terms
The anatomical position.
Directional terms.
Regional terms.
Body planes (Fig. 3.29)
Median plane.
Coronal plane.
Transverse plane.
Anatomical reference icons used in this book
The skeleton
Axial skeleton
Skull
Functions
Vertebral column 3.9
Functions
Thoracic cage
Functions
Appendicular skeleton
The shoulder girdles and upper limbs.
The pelvic girdle and lower limbs.
Functions
Cavities of the body
Cranial cavity
Thoracic cavity
Contents of the thoracic cavity
Abdominal cavity 3.10
Contents
Pelvic cavity
Contents
Changes in cell size and number
Cell death
Apoptosis
Necrosis
Neoplasms or tumours
Causes of neoplasms
Carcinogens
Chemical carcinogens
Ionising radiation
Oncogenic viruses
Host factors
Growth of tumours
Cell differentiation
Encapsulation and spread of tumours
Local spread
Body cavities spread
Lymphatic spread
Blood spread
Effects of tumours
Pressure effects
Hormonal effects
Cachexia
Causes of death in malignant disease
Infection
Organ failure
Carcinomatosis
Haemorrhage
2 Communication
4 The blood
Animations
Plasma
Plasma proteins
Albumins.
Globulins.
Clotting factors.
Electrolytes
Nutrients
Waste products
Hormones (see Ch. 9)
Gases
Cellular content of blood 4.1
Erythrocytes (red blood cells) 4.2
Life span and function of erythrocytes
Haemoglobin
Oxygen transport
Low pH
Low oxygen levels (hypoxia)
Temperature
Control of erythropoiesis
Destruction of erythrocytes
Blood groups 4.3
The ABO system
The Rhesus system 4.4
Leukocytes (white blood cells) 4.5
Granulocytes (polymorphonuclear leukocytes)
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
Agranulocytes
Monocytes
The monocyte–macrophage system.
Lymphocytes
Platelets (thrombocytes) 4.6
Haemostasis
1. Vasoconstriction.
2. Platelet plug formation.
3. Coagulation (blood clotting).
4. Fibrinolysis.
Control of coagulation
Erythrocyte disorders
Anaemias
Iron deficiency anaemia
Deficient intake
High requirements
Malabsorption
Vitamin B12/folic acid deficiency anaemias
Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia
Pernicious anaemia
Dietary deficiency of vitamin B12
Other causes of vitamin B12 deficiency
Complications of vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia
Folic acid deficiency anaemia
Aplastic anaemia
Haemolytic anaemias
Congenital haemolytic anaemias
Sickle cell anaemia
Complications.
Thalassaemia
Haemolytic disease of the newborn
Acquired haemolytic anaemias
Chemical agents
Autoimmunity
Blood transfusion reactions
Polycythaemia
Relative increase in erythrocyte count
True increase in erythrocyte count
Physiological.
Pathological.
Leukocyte disorders
Leukopenia
Granulocytopenia (neutropenia)
Leukocytosis
Leukaemia
Causes of leukaemia
Ionising radiation.
Chemicals.
Genetic factors.
Types of leukaemia
Acute leukaemias
Acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML).
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
Chronic leukaemias
Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL).
Haemorrhagic diseases
Thrombocytopenia
Reduced platelet production
Increased platelet destruction
Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura.
Vitamin K deficiency
Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn
Deficiency in adults
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
Congenital disorders
The haemophilias
von Willebrand disease
5 The cardiovascular system
Animations
Blood vessels
Arteries and arterioles
Anastomoses and end-arteries
Capillaries and sinusoids
Capillary refill time
Veins and venules
Blood supply
Control of blood vessel diameter
Blood vessel diameter and blood flow
Local regulation of blood flow
Capillary exchange
Exchange of gases
Exchange of other substances
Capillary fluid dynamics
Heart
Position 5.2
Organs associated with the heart (Fig. 5.10)
Structure
The heart wall
Pericardium
Myocardium
Fibrous tissue in the heart.
Endocardium
Interior of the heart 5.3, 5.4
Flow of blood through the heart (Fig. 5.14) 5.5
Blood supply to the heart (the coronary circulation) 5.6
Arterial supply (Fig. 5.17).
Venous drainage.
Conducting system of the heart (Fig. 5.18) 5.7
Sinoatrial node (SA node)
Atrioventricular node (AV node)
Atrioventricular bundle (AV bundle or bundle of His)
Nerve supply to the heart
Factors affecting heart rate
The cardiac cycle
Stages of the cardiac cycle
Heart sounds
Electrical changes in the heart 5.8
Cardiac output
Stroke volume
Arterial blood pressure.
Blood volume.
Venous return
The position of the body.
Muscular contraction.
The respiratory pump.
Heart rate
Autonomic nervous system.
Circulating chemicals.
Position.
Exercise.
Emotional states.
Gender.
Age.
Temperature.
Baroreceptor reflex.
Blood pressure
Systolic and diastolic pressures.
Elasticity of arterial walls.
Factors determining blood pressure
Cardiac output
Peripheral or arteriolar resistance
Autoregulation
Control of blood pressure (BP)
Short-term blood pressure regulation
Baroreceptors
Chemoreceptors
Higher centres in the brain
Long-term blood pressure regulation
Pressure in the pulmonary circulation
Pulse
Factors affecting the pulse 5.9
Circulation of the blood
Pulmonary circulation 5.10
Systemic or general circulation
Major blood vessels
Aorta (Fig. 5.28)
Thoracic aorta (Fig. 5.28)
Ascending aorta.
Arch of the aorta.
Descending aorta in the thorax.
Abdominal aorta (Fig. 5.28)
Venae cavae (Fig. 5.29)
Superior vena cava
Inferior vena cava
Circulation in the head and neck
Arterial supply
Carotid arteries.
External carotid artery (Fig. 5.30).
Internal carotid artery.
Circulus arteriosus (circle of Willis [Fig. 5.31]).
Venous return
Circulation in the upper limb
Arterial supply
The subclavian arteries.
Venous return
Circulation in the thorax
Arterial supply
Venous return
Circulation in the abdomen
Arterial supply
Paired branches.
Unpaired branches.
Venous return
Portal circulation 5.11
Portal vein.
Circulation in the pelvis and lower limb
Arterial supply
Common iliac arteries.
Venous return
Deep veins.
Superficial veins (Fig. 5.44).
Summary of the main blood vessels
Fetal circulation
Features of the fetal circulation 5.12
Placenta
Structure
Functions
Exchange of nutrients and wastes.
Protection of the fetus.
Maintenance of pregnancy.
Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG).
Progesterone and oestrogen.
Fetal adaptations (Fig. 5.47A)
Ductus venosus.
Ductus arteriosus.
Foramen ovale.
Changes at birth (Fig. 5.47B)
Ageing and the cardiovascular system
Ageing and the heart
Ageing and blood vessels
Shock
Hypovolaemic shock
Cardiogenic shock
Septic shock (bacteraemic, endotoxic)
Neurogenic shock
Anaphylactic shock
Physiological changes during shock
Compensated shock
Uncompensated shock
Thrombosis and embolism
Thrombosis
Slow blood flow.
Damage to the blood vessel intima.
Increased blood coagulability.
Embolism
Pulmonary embolism.
Infarction and ischaemia
Blood vessel pathology
Atheroma
Pathological changes
Causes of atheroma
Effects of atheroma 5.13
Narrowing of an artery
Occlusion of an artery
Complications of atheroma
Thrombosis and infarction (p. 120)
Haemorrhage
Aneurysm
Arteriosclerosis
Aneurysms
Types of aneurysm
Venous thrombosis
Superficial thrombophlebitis
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
Varicosed veins
Sites and effects of varicose veins
Varicose veins of the legs
Haemorrhoids
Scrotal varicocele
Oesophageal varices
Tumours of blood and lymph vessels
Angiomas
Haemangiomas.
Capillary haemangiomas.
Oedema
Sites of oedema
Causes of oedema
Increased venous hydrostatic (blood) pressure
Decreased plasma osmotic pressure
Impaired lymphatic drainage
Increased small-vessel permeability
Effusions and ascites
Pleural effusion.
Ascites.
Diseases of the heart
Heart (cardiac) failure
Compensatory mechanisms in heart failure
Acute heart failure
Chronic heart failure
Right-sided (congestive cardiac) failure
Resistance to blood flow through the lungs.
Weakness of the myocardium.
Left-sided (left ventricular) failure
Disorders of heart valves 5.14
Stenosis
Incompetence
Ischaemic heart disease
Angina pectoris
Myocardial infarction
Complications
Rheumatic heart disease
Acute rheumatic heart disease.
Chronic rheumatic heart disease.
Infective endocarditis
Bacteraemia
Depressed immune response
Heart abnormalities
Cardiac arrhythmias
Sinus bradycardia.
Sinus tachycardia.
Asystole
Fibrillation
Heart block
Congenital abnormalities
Patent ductus arteriosus
Atrial septal defect
Coarctation of the aorta
Fallot’s tetralogy
Disorders of blood pressure
Hypertension
Essential hypertension
Risk factors.
Malignant (accelerated) hypertension
Secondary hypertension
Effects and complications of hypertension
Heart.
Brain.
Kidneys.
Blood vessels.
Pulmonary hypertension
Hypotension
6 The lymphatic system
Animations
Functions of the lymphatic system
Tissue drainage
Absorption in the small intestine (Ch. 12)
Immunity (Ch. 15)
Lymph and lymph vessels
Lymph
Lymph capillaries
Larger lymph vessels
Thoracic duct
Right lymphatic duct
Lymphatic organs and tissues
Lymph nodes 6.3
Structure
Functions
Filtering and phagocytosis
Proliferation of lymphocytes
Spleen 6.4
Organs associated with the spleen
Structure (Fig. 6.8)
Functions
Phagocytosis
Storage of blood
Immune response
Erythropoiesis
Thymus gland 6.5
Organs associated with the thymus
Structure
Function
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
Tonsils.
Aggregated lymphoid follicles (Peyer’s patches).
Lymph vessel pathology
Spread of disease
Malignant disease
Infection
Lymphangitis.
Lymphatic obstruction
Tumours
Surgery
Diseases of lymph nodes
Lymphadenitis
Infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever)
Other diseases
Lymphomas
Hodgkin’s disease
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL)
Disorders of the spleen
Splenomegaly
Infections
Chronic infections.
Circulatory disorders
Blood disease
Tumours
Diseases of the thymus gland
7 The nervous system
Animations
Cells and tissues of the nervous system
Neurones (Fig. 7.2) 7.2
Cell bodies
Axons and dendrites
Axons
Structure of an axon.
Myelinated neurones
Unmyelinated neurones
Dendrites
The nerve impulse (action potential) 7.3
The synapse and neurotransmitters 7.4
Nerves
Sensory or afferent nerves
Sensory receptors
Somatic, cutaneous or common senses.
Proprioceptor senses.
Special senses.
Autonomic afferent nerves.
Motor or efferent nerves
Mixed nerves
Neuroglia
Astrocytes
Oligodendrocytes
Ependymal cells
Microglia
Response of nervous tissue to injury
Peripheral nerve regeneration (Fig. 7.13)
Neuroglial damage
Astrocytes.
Oligodendrocytes.
Microglia.
Central nervous system
The meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
The meninges (Fig. 7.14)
Dura mater
Arachnoid mater
Pia mater
Ventricles of the brain and the cerebrospinal fluid 7.5
The lateral ventricles
The third ventricle
The fourth ventricle
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Functions of cerebrospinal fluid
Brain
Blood supply and venous drainage
Cerebrum
Cerebral tracts and basal ganglia (Fig. 7.19)
Basal ganglia
Functions of the cerebral cortex
Functional areas of the cerebral cortex (Fig. 7.20)
Motor areas of the cerebral cortex
The primary motor area.
Motor speech (Broca’s) area.
Sensory areas of the cerebral cortex
The somatosensory area.
The auditory (hearing) area.
The olfactory (smell) area.
The taste area.
The visual area.
Association areas
The premotor area.
The prefrontal area.
Sensory speech (Wernicke’s) area.
The parieto-occipitotemporal area
Diencephalon (see Fig. 7.17)
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Brain stem (Fig. 7.17)
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblongata
Decussation (crossing) of the pyramids.
Sensory decussation.
The cardiovascular centre (CVC).
The respiratory centre.
Reflex centres.
Reticular formation
Functions
Cerebellum
Functions
Spinal cord
Grey matter
Posterior columns of grey matter
Anterior columns of grey matter
White matter
Sensory nerve tracts in the spinal cord
Motor nerve tracts in the spinal cord
Voluntary muscle movement
The upper motor neurone.
The lower motor neurone.
Involuntary muscle movement
Upper motor neurones.
Spinal reflexes.
Stretch reflexes.
Autonomic reflexes.
Peripheral nervous system
Spinal nerves
Nerve roots (Fig. 7.31)
Branches
Plexuses
Cervical plexus (Fig. 7.33)
Brachial plexus
Lumbar plexus (Figs 7.37–7.39)
Sacral plexus (Figs 7.37–7.39)
Coccygeal plexus (Fig. 7.37)
Thoracic nerves
Cranial nerves (Fig. 7.40) 7.10
I. Olfactory nerves (sensory)
II. Optic nerves (sensory)
III. Oculomotor nerves (motor)
IV. Trochlear nerves (motor)
V. Trigeminal nerves (mixed)
VI. Abducens nerves (motor)
VII. Facial nerves (mixed)
VIII. Vestibulocochlear (auditory) nerves (sensory)
IX. Glossopharyngeal nerves (mixed)
X. Vagus nerves (mixed) (Fig. 7.42)
XI. Accessory nerves (motor)
XII. Hypoglossal nerves (motor)
Autonomic nervous system 7.11, 7.12, 7.13
Sympathetic nervous system
The preganglionic neurone.
The postganglionic neurone.
Sympathetic ganglia
The lateral chains of sympathetic ganglia.
Prevertebral ganglia.
Parasympathetic nervous system
The preganglionic neurone.
The postganglionic neurone.
Functions of the autonomic nervous system
Effects of autonomic stimulation
Cardiovascular system
Sympathetic stimulation
Parasympathetic stimulation
Respiratory system
Sympathetic stimulation.
Parasympathetic stimulation.
Digestive and urinary systems
Sympathetic stimulation
Parasympathetic stimulation
Eye
Sympathetic stimulation.
Parasympathetic stimulation.
Skin
Sympathetic stimulation
Afferent impulses from viscera
Visceral pain
Referred pain (Fig. 7.45)
Effect of ageing on the nervous system
Disorders of the brain
Increased intracranial pressure
Effects of increased ICP
Displacement of the brain
Obstruction of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid
Vascular damage
Neural damage
Bone changes
Cerebral oedema
Hydrocephalus
Head injuries
Acceleration–deceleration injuries
Complications of head injury
Traumatic intracranial haemorrhage
Extradural haemorrhage.
Acute subdural haemorrhage.
Chronic subdural haemorrhage.
Intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral oedema.
Meningitis
Post-traumatic epilepsy
Vegetative states
Cerebral hypoxia
Stroke
Cerebral infarction 7.17
Spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage
Intracerebral haemorrhage.
Subarachnoid haemorrhage.
Dementia
Alzheimer disease
Huntington disease
Secondary dementias
Parkinson disease 7.18
Effects of poisons on the brain
Infections of the central nervous system
Bacterial infections
Bacterial meningitis
Viral infections
Viral meningitis
Viral encephalitis
Herpes zoster (shingles)
Poliomyelitis
Rabies
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease
Myalgic encephalitis (ME)
Demyelinating diseases
Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Effects of multiple sclerosis
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Diseases of the spinal cord
Motor neurones
Upper motor neurone (UMN) lesions
Lower motor neurone (LMN) lesions
Motor neurone disease
Mixed motor and sensory conditions
Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord
Compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots
Prolapsed intervertebral disc (Fig. 7.49)
Syringomyelia
Diseases of peripheral nerves
Peripheral neuropathy
Polyneuropathy
Mononeuropathy
Guillain–Barré syndrome
Bell’s palsy
Developmental abnormalities of the nervous system
Spina bifida
Occult spina bifida
Meningocele
Meningomyelocele
Hydrocephalus
Tumours of the nervous system
Slow-growing tumours
Rapidly growing tumours
Specific tumours
Metastases in the brain
8 The special senses
Animations
Hearing and the ear
Structure
Outer ear
The auricle (pinna)
External acoustic meatus (auditory canal)
Middle ear (tympanic cavity)
Auditory ossicles (Fig. 8.3)
The malleus.
The incus.
The stapes.
Inner ear (Fig. 8.4)
The bony labyrinth.
The membranous labyrinth.
The vestibule
The semicircular canals
The cochlea
Physiology of hearing 8.1
Balance and the ear
The semicircular canals and vestibule (Fig. 8.4)
Physiology of balance
Sight and the eye
Structure (Fig. 8.8)
Sclera and cornea
Choroid (Figs 8.8 and 8.9)
Ciliary body
Iris
Lens (Fig. 8.10)
Retina
Blood supply to the eye
Interior of the eye
Optic nerves (second cranial nerves) (Fig. 8.13)
Optic chiasma
Optic tracts
Physiology of sight 8.2
The electromagnetic spectrum
Refraction of the light rays
Focusing of an image on the retina
Lens
Size of the pupils
Accommodation
Near vision
Constriction of the pupils.
Convergence (movement of the eyeballs).
Changing the refractory power of the lens.
Distant vision
Functions of the retina
Colour blindness.
Dark adaptation.
Binocular vision 8.3
Extraocular muscles of the eye
Nerve supply to the muscles of the eye
Accessory organs of the eye
Eyebrows
Eyelids (palpebrae)
Conjunctiva
Eyelid margins
Functions
Lacrimal apparatus (Fig. 8.22)
Functions
Sense of smell
Olfactory nerves (first cranial nerves)
Physiology of smell
Adaptation.
Sense of taste
Physiology of taste
The effect of ageing on the special senses
Presbycusis
Vision
Presbyopia
Cataracts
Disorders of the ear
Hearing loss
Conductive hearing impairment
Otosclerosis.
Serous otitis media.
Sensorineural hearing impairment
Ménière’s disease.
Presbycusis.
Ear infections
External otitis
Acute otitis media
Chronic otitis media
Labyrinthitis
Motion sickness
Disorders of the eye
Inflammatory conditions
Stye
Blepharitis
Conjunctivitis
Infection.
Neonatal conjunctivitis.
Allergic conjunctivitis.
Trachoma
Corneal ulcer
Glaucoma
Primary glaucomas
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).
Acute closed-angle glaucoma.
Chronic closed-angle glaucoma.
Strabismus (squint, cross-eye)
Presbyopia
Cataract
Retinopathies
Vascular retinopathies
Diabetic retinopathy
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)
Retinal detachment
Retinitis pigmentosa
Tumours
Choroidal malignant melanoma
Retinoblastoma
Refractive errors of the eye
9 The endocrine system
Animations
Overview of hormone action
Pituitary gland and hypothalamus
Blood supply
Arterial blood.
Venous drainage.
The influence of the hypothalamus on the pituitary gland
Anterior pituitary
Growth hormone (GH)
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH, corticotrophin)
Prolactin
Gonadotrophins
In both sexes.
In females.
In males.
Posterior pituitary
Oxytocin
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)
Thyroid gland (Fig. 9.7)
Thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine
Calcitonin
Parathyroid glands
Function
Adrenal glands
Adrenal cortex
Glucocorticoids
Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system.
Sex hormones
Adrenal medulla 9.3
Adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine)
Response to stress
Pancreatic islets
Insulin
Glucagon
Somatostatin (GHRIH)
Pineal gland
Melatonin
Organs with secondary endocrine functions
Local hormones
Histamine
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)
Prostaglandins (PGs)
The effects of ageing on endocrine function
Adrenal cortex
Pancreatic islets
Disorders of the pituitary gland
Hypersecretion of anterior pituitary hormones
Gigantism and acromegaly
Gigantism.
Acromegaly.
Hyperprolactinaemia
Hyposecretion of anterior pituitary hormones
Ischaemic necrosis
Pituitary dwarfism (Lorain–Lévi syndrome)
Fröhlich’s syndrome
Disorders of the posterior pituitary
Diabetes insipidus
Disorders of the thyroid gland
Hyperthyroidism
Graves’ disease
Exophthalmos.
Toxic nodular goitre
Hypothyroidism
Autoimmune thyroiditis.
Congenital hypothyroidism.
Simple goitre 9.4
Tumours of the thyroid gland
Benign tumours
Disorders of the parathyroid glands
Hyperparathyroidism
Hypoparathyroidism
Tetany
Hypocalcaemia
Disorders of the adrenal cortex
Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids (Cushing’s syndrome)
Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids
Hypersecretion of mineralocorticoids
Hyposecretion of mineralocorticoids
Chronic adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison’s disease)
Acute adrenocortical insufficiency (Addisonian crisis)
Disorders of the adrenal medulla
Tumours
Phaeochromocytoma
Neuroblastoma
Disorders of the pancreatic islets
Diabetes mellitus (DM)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Pathophysiology of DM
Raised plasma glucose level
Glycosuria and polyuria
Weight loss
Ketosis and ketoacidosis
Acute complications of diabetes mellitus
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Hypoglycaemic coma
Long-term complications of diabetes mellitus
Cardiovascular disturbances
Diabetic macroangiopathy.
Diabetic microangiopathy.
Infection
Renal failure
Visual impairment and blindness
Diabetic foot
3 Intake of raw materials and elimination of waste
10 The respiratory system
Animations
Nose and nasal cavity
Position and structure
Lining of the nasal cavity 10.3
Openings into the nasal cavity
Respiratory function of the nose
Warming.
Filtering and cleaning.
Humidification.
The sense of smell
Pharynx
Position
Structures associated with the pharynx
The nasopharynx
The oropharynx
The laryngopharynx
Structure
Mucous membrane lining
Submucosa
Smooth muscle
Blood and nerve supply
Functions
Passageway for air and food
Warming and humidifying
Hearing
Protection
Speech
Larynx
Position
Structures associated with the larynx
Structure
Cartilages
The thyroid cartilage (Figs 10.5 and 10.6).
The cricoid cartilage (Fig. 10.7).
The arytenoid cartilages.
The epiglottis (Figs 10.4–10.6 and 10.8).
Blood and nerve supply
Interior of the larynx (Fig. 10.8)
Functions
Production of sound.
Speech.
Protection of the lower respiratory tract.
Passageway for air.
Humidifying, filtering and warming.
Trachea
Position
Structures associated with the trachea (Fig. 10.10)
Structure
Blood and nerve supply, lymph drainage
Functions
Support and patency.
Mucociliary escalator.
Cough reflex.
Warming, humidifying and filtering.
Lungs
Position and gross structure (Fig. 10.13)
The apex
The base
The costal surface
The medial surface
Pleura and pleural cavity
The visceral pleura
The parietal pleura
The pleural cavity
Interior of the lungs
Pulmonary blood supply (Fig. 10.16)
Bronchi and bronchioles
The right bronchus.
The left bronchus.
Structure 10.4
Structural changes in the bronchial passages
Cartilage.
Smooth muscle.
Epithelial lining.
Blood and nerve supply, lymph drainage
Functions
Control of air entry.
Respiratory bronchioles and alveoli 10.5
Structure
Nerve supply to bronchioles
Functions
External respiration.
Defence against infection.
Warming and humidifying.
Respiration
Breathing (pulmonary ventilation).
Exchange of gases.
Breathing
Muscles of breathing
Intercostal muscles
The external intercostal muscles
The internal intercostal muscles
Diaphragm 10.7
Accessory muscles of respiration (Fig. 10.22A)
Cycle of breathing 10.8
Inspiration
Expiration
Physiological variables affecting breathing
Elasticity.
Compliance.
Airway resistance.
Lung volumes and capacities (Fig. 10.23)
Tidal volume (TV).
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV).
Inspiratory capacity (IC).
Functional residual capacity (FRC).
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV).
Residual volume (RV).
Vital capacity (VC).
Total lung capacity (TLC).
Alveolar ventilation.
Exchange of gases
Composition of air
Alveolar air
Diffusion of gases
External respiration (Fig. 10.24A) 10.9
Internal respiration (Fig. 10.24B) 10.10
Transport of gases in the bloodstream
Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
Regulation of air and blood flow in the lung
Control of respiration
The respiratory centre
Chemoreceptors
Central chemoreceptors.
Peripheral chemoreceptors.
Exercise and respiration
Other factors that influence respiration
Ageing and the respiratory system
Disorders of the upper respiratory tract
Infectious and inflammatory disorders
Common cold and influenza
Sinusitis
Tonsillitis
Pharyngitis, laryngitis and tracheitis
Diphtheria
Hay fever (allergic rhinitis)
Obstructive lung disorders
Bronchitis
Acute bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis
Increased size and number of mucus glands.
Oedema and other inflammatory changes.
Reduction in number and function of ciliated cells.
Fibrosis of the airways.
Breathlessness (dyspnoea).
Emphysema (Figs 10.28, 10.29)
Pulmonary emphysema
Panacinar emphysema
Centrilobular emphysema
Interstitial emphysema
Asthma (Fig. 10.30)
Atopic (childhood onset, extrinsic) asthma
Non-atopic (adult onset, intrinsic) asthma
Bronchiectasis
Cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis)
Restrictive disorders
Pneumoconioses
Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis
Silicosis
Asbestosis
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis
Pulmonary toxins
Paraquat.
Drugs.
High concentration oxygen therapy.
Lung infections
Pneumonia (Fig. 10.31)
Impaired coughing.
Damage to the epithelial lining of the tract.
Impaired alveolar phagocytosis.
Hospitalisation.
Other factors.
Causative organisms
Lobar pneumonia (Fig. 10.31A)
Bronchopneumonia (Fig. 10.31B)
Lung abscess
Sources of infection
Outcomes
Tuberculosis (TB)
Pulmonary tuberculosis
Primary tuberculosis
Secondary TB
Non-pulmonary TB
Miliary TB
Lymph node TB
Joint and bone TB
Other affected tissues
Lung tumours
Bronchial carcinoma
Spread of bronchial carcinoma
Local spread.
Lymphatic spread.
Blood spread.
Pleural mesothelioma
Lung collapse (Fig. 10.32)
Obstruction of an airway (absorption collapse, Fig. 10.32A)
Impaired surfactant function
Pressure collapse
Pneumothorax
Spontaneous pneumothorax.
Traumatic pneumothorax.
Tension pneumothorax (Fig. 10.33).
Haemothorax
Pleural effusion
Alveolar hypoventilation
11 Introduction to nutrition
The balanced diet
Bread, rice, potatoes, pasta
Fruit and vegetables
Milk and dairy foods
Meat, fish, eggs, beans
Foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar
Additional recommendations
Groups of people with specific dietary requirements
Nutrients
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
Functions of digestible carbohydrates
Proteins (nitrogenous foods)
Amino acids (see Fig. 2.8)
Nitrogen balance
Biological value of protein
Functions of proteins
Fats
Fats (triglycerides)
Cholesterol
Functions of fats
Vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins
Vitamin A (retinol)
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Water-soluble vitamins
Vitamin B complex
Vitamin B1 (thiamin).
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin).
Vitamin B3 (niacin).
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine).
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin).
Folic acid (folate).
Pantothenic acid.
Biotin.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Minerals, trace elements and water
Minerals and trace elements
Calcium
Phosphate
Sodium
Potassium
Iron
Iodine
Water
Functions of water
Non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)
Functions of NSP (dietary fibre)
Nutrition and ageing
Nutritional disorders in older adults
Malnutrition
Obesity
Vitamin deficiency
Constipation
Disorders of nutrition
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)
Kwashiorkor
Marasmus
Malabsorption
Obesity
Conditions with dietary implications
Further reading
12 The digestive system
Animations
Ingestion.
Propulsion.
Digestion.
Absorption.
Elimination.
Organs of the digestive system (Fig. 12.1)
Alimentary canal
Accessory organs
Basic structure of the alimentary canal (Fig. 12.2)
Adventitia or serosa
Peritoneum
Muscle layer
Submucosa
Mucosa
Mucous membrane
Nerve supply
The parasympathetic supply.
The sympathetic supply.
Mouth (Fig. 12.7)
Tongue
Blood supply
Nerve supply
Functions of the tongue
Teeth
Functions of the teeth
Structure of a tooth (Fig. 12.12)
Blood supply
Nerve supply
Salivary glands (Fig. 12.13)
Parotid glands
Submandibular glands
Sublingual glands
Structure of the salivary glands
Blood supply
Composition of saliva
Secretion of saliva
Functions of saliva
Chemical digestion of polysaccharides
Lubrication of food
Cleaning and lubricating the mouth
Non-specific defence
Taste
Pharynx
Blood supply
Nerve supply
Oesophagus (Fig. 12.14)
Structure of the oesophagus
Blood supply
Arterial.
Venous drainage.
Functions of the mouth, pharynx and oesophagus
Formation of a bolus
Swallowing (deglutition) (Fig. 12.16)
1. Oral stage.
2. Pharyngeal stage.
3. Oesophageal stage.
Stomach
Organs associated with the stomach (Fig. 12.17)
Structure of the stomach (Fig. 12.18)
Walls of the stomach
Muscle layer.
Mucosa.
Blood supply.
Gastric juice and functions of the stomach
Gastric juice
Functions of gastric juice
Secretion of gastric juice
1. Cephalic phase.
2. Gastric phase.
3. Intestinal phase.
Functions of the stomach
Small intestine (Figs 12.23 and 12.24)
Duodenum.
Jejunum.
Ileum.
Structure of the small intestine
Peritoneum
Mucosa
Blood supply
Intestinal juice
Functions of the small intestine
Chemical digestion in the small intestine
Pancreatic juice
Functions
Digestion of proteins.
Digestion of carbohydrates.
Digestion of fats.
Control of secretion
Bile
Functions
Release from the gall bladder
Intestinal secretions
Chemical digestion associated with enterocytes
Control of secretion
Absorption of nutrients (Fig. 12.27)
Large intestine, rectum and anal canal
The caecum
The colon
The ascending colon.
The transverse colon.
The descending colon.
The sigmoid colon.
The rectum
The anal canal
Structure
Blood supply
Functions of the large intestine, rectum and anal canal
Absorption
Microbial activity
Mass movement
Defaecation
Constituents of faeces.
Pancreas (Fig. 12.32)
The exocrine pancreas
The endocrine pancreas
Blood supply
Liver
Organs associated with the liver
The portal fissure
Blood supply (see Figs 5.38 and 5.40)
Structure
Functions of the liver
Carbohydrate metabolism
Fat metabolism
Protein metabolism
Deamination of amino acids.
Transamination.
Synthesis of plasma proteins.
Breakdown of erythrocytes and defence against microbes
Detoxification of drugs and toxic substances
Inactivation of hormones
Production of heat
Secretion of bile
Storage
Composition of bile
Functions of bile
Fat digestion.
Excretion of bilirubin.
Biliary tract
Bile ducts (Fig. 12.38) 12.12
Structure
Gall bladder
Structure
Peritoneum.
Muscle layer.
Mucous membrane.
Blood supply
Functions of the gall bladder
Summary of digestion and absorption of nutrients
Metabolism
Catabolism.
Anabolism.
Metabolic pathways
Energy
Energy balance
Metabolic rate 12.13
Central metabolic pathways
Carbohydrate metabolism
Carbohydrate and energy release (Fig. 12.40)
Aerobic respiration (catabolism).
Anaerobic catabolism.
Fate of the end products of carbohydrate metabolism
Lactic acid.
Carbon dioxide.
Metabolic water.
Protein metabolism
Amino acid pool (Fig. 12.41)
Sources of amino acids
Exogenous.
Endogenous.
Loss of amino acids
Deamination.
Excretion.
Amino acids and energy release (see Fig. 12.44)
Fat metabolism (Fig. 12.43)
Fatty acids and energy release
Glycerol and energy release (Fig. 12.44)
Effects of ageing on the digestive system
Diseases of the mouth
Inflammatory and infectious conditions
Thrush (oral candidiasis)
Gingivitis
Recurrent aphthous ulceration
Viral infections
Acute herpetic gingivostomatitis.
Secondary or recurrent herpes lesions (cold sores).
Tumours of the mouth
Squamous cell carcinoma
Congenital disorders
Cleft palate and cleft lip (harelip)
Dental caries
Diseases of the pharynx
Diseases of salivary glands
Mumps
Tumours of the salivary glands
Salivary adenoma
Carcinoma
Diseases of the oesophagus
Oesophageal varices (Fig. 12.46)
Inflammatory and infectious conditions
Acute oesophagitis
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD)
Barrett’s oesophagus
Achalasia
Tumours of the oesophagus
Malignant tumours
Congenital abnormalities
Diseases of the stomach
Gastritis
Acute gastritis
Chronic gastritis
Helicobacter-associated gastritis.
Autoimmune chronic gastritis.
Peptic ulcer disease
Blood supply.
Secretion of mucus.
Epithelial cell replacement.
Acute peptic ulcers
Chronic peptic ulcers
Complications of peptic ulcers
Haemorrhage
Perforation
Anaemia
Gastric outflow obstruction
Malignancy
Tumours of the stomach
Malignant tumours
Congenital pyloric stenosis
Diseases of the intestines
Appendicitis
Complications of appendicitis
Peritonitis.
Abscess formation.
Adhesions.
Gastrointestinal infections
Typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever
Other Salmonella infections
Escherichia coli (E. coli) food poisoning
Staphylococcal food poisoning
Clostridium perfringens food poisoning
Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea
Campylobacter food poisoning
Cholera
Dysentery
Bacillary dysentery.
Amoebiasis (amoebic dysentery).
Viral gastroenteritis
Rotavirus.
Norovirus.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Crohn’s disease
Ulcerative colitis
Diverticular disease
Tumours of the small and large intestines
Benign tumours
Colorectal cancer
Hernias
Sites of hernias (Fig. 12.51A)
Inguinal hernia.
Femoral hernia.
Umbilical hernia.
Incisional hernia.
Hiatus hernia.
Rolling hiatus hernia
Sliding hiatus hernia
Peritoneal hernia.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
Volvulus
Intussusception
Intestinal obstruction
Mechanical causes
Neurological causes of obstruction
Vascular causes of obstruction
Effects of intestinal obstruction
Malabsorption
Coeliac disease
Tropical sprue
Diseases of the pancreas
Pancreatitis
Acute pancreatitis
Chronic pancreatitis
Cystic fibrosis (see p. 266)
Tumours of the pancreas
Malignant tumours
Diseases of the liver
Acute hepatitis
Viral hepatitis
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis D.
Hepatitis C
Toxic substances
Circulatory disturbances
Chronic hepatitis
Cirrhosis of the liver
Liver failure
Hepatic encephalopathy
Blood coagulation defects
Oliguria and renal failure
Oedema and ascites
Jaundice
Tumours of the liver
Malignant tumours
Diseases of the gall bladder and bile ducts
Gallstones (cholelithiasis)
Cholecystitis
Acute cholecystitis
Chronic cholecystitis
Cholangitis
Tumours of the biliary tract
Malignant tumours
Jaundice
Types of jaundice
Pre-hepatic jaundice
Intra-hepatic jaundice
Post-hepatic jaundice
13 The urinary system
Animations
Kidneys
Organs associated with the kidneys (Figs 13.1 and 13.2)
Right kidney
Left kidney
Gross structure of the kidney 13.2
Microscopic structure of the kidney 13.3
The nephron (Fig. 13.4)
Functions of the kidney
Formation of urine
Filtration (Fig. 13.10) 13.4, 13.5
Autoregulation.
Selective reabsorption (Fig. 13.11) 13.6
Hormones that influence selective reabsorption 13.7
Parathyroid hormone.
Antidiuretic hormone, ADH.
Aldosterone.
Atrial natriuretic peptide, ANP.
Tubular secretion (Fig. 13.11) 13.8
Summary of urine formation
Composition of urine
Water balance and urine output
Electrolyte balance
Sodium and potassium balance
Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system. (Fig. 13.13)
ANP.
Calcium balance
pH balance 13.9
Ureters
Structure 13.10
Function
Urinary bladder
Organs associated with the bladder
Structure (Fig. 13.20) 13.11
Urethra
Micturition
The effects of ageing of the urinary system
Diseases of the kidneys
Glomerulonephritis (GN)
Effects of glomerulonephritis
Haematuria.
Asymptomatic proteinuria.
Acute nephritis.
Nephrotic syndrome.
Chronic renal failure.
Nephrotic syndrome
Diabetic nephropathy
Hypertension and the kidneys
Secondary hypertension
Malignant hypertension
Acute pyelonephritis
Ascending infection.
Blood-borne infection.
Pathophysiology
Reflux nephropathy
Renal failure
Acute renal failure
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
Chronic renal failure
Polyuria.
Acidosis.
Electrolyte imbalance.
Anaemia.
Hypertension.
End-stage renal failure
Renal calculi 13.13
Small calculi 13.14
Large calculi (staghorn calculus)
Congenital abnormalities of the kidneys
Misplaced (ectopic) kidney
Polycystic disease
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).
Tumours of the kidney
Malignant tumours
Renal adenocarcinoma
Nephroblastoma (Wilms’ tumour)
Diseases of the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder and urethra
Obstruction to the outflow of urine
Hydronephrosis 13.15
Complete sustained obstruction
Partial or intermittent obstruction
Spinal lesions
Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
Ureteritis
Cystitis
Predisposing factors.
Urethritis
Tumours of the bladder
Transitional cell carcinomas
Solid tumours
Urinary incontinence
Stress incontinence
Urge incontinence
Overflow incontinence
4 Protection and survival
14 The skin
Animation
The skin
Structure of the skin
Epidermis
Dermis (Fig. 14.2)
Blood and lymph vessels.
Sensory nerve endings.
Sweat glands
Hairs
Arrector pili (Fig. 14.2).
Sebaceous glands (Fig. 14.2).
Nails (Fig. 14.6)
Functions of the skin
Protection
Regulation of body temperature
Heat production
Heat loss
Mechanisms of heat loss (Fig. 14.7).
Control of body temperature
Activity of the sweat glands.
Regulation of blood flow through the skin.
Fever
Hypothermia
Formation of vitamin D
Cutaneous sensation
Absorption
Excretion
Wound healing
Conditions required for wound healing
Systemic factors.
Local factors.
Primary healing (healing by first intention)
Inflammation.
Proliferation.
Maturation.
Secondary healing (healing by second intention)
Inflammation.
Proliferation.
Maturation.
Fibrosis (scar formation)
Adhesions.
Fibrosis of infarcts.
Tissue shrinkage.
Complications of wound healing
Infection.
Effects of ageing on the skin
Disorders of the skin
Infections
Viral infections
Human papilloma virus (HPV)
Herpes viruses
Bacterial infections
Impetigo
Cellulitis
Fungal infections (mycoses)
Ringworm and tinea pedis
Non-infective inflammatory conditions
Dermatitis (eczema)
Psoriasis
Acne vulgaris
Pressure ulcers
Predisposing factors
Burns
Complications of burns
Dehydration and hypovolaemia.
Shock.
Hypothermia.
Infection.
Renal failure.
Contractures.
Malignant tumours
Basal cell carcinoma
Malignant melanoma
Kaposi’s sarcoma
15 Resistance and immunity
Animations
Non-specific defence mechanisms.
Specific defence mechanisms.
Non-specific defence mechanisms
Defence at body surfaces
Phagocytosis 15.1
Natural antimicrobial substances
Hydrochloric acid.
Lysozyme.
Antibodies.
Saliva.
Interferons.
Complement 15.2.
The inflammatory response 15.3
Causes of inflammation
Acute inflammation
Increased blood flow
Increased tissue fluid formation
Migration of leukocytes
Chemotaxis.
Increased temperature
Pain
Suppuration (pus formation)
Outcomes of acute inflammation
Resolution.
Development of chronic inflammation.
Chronic inflammation
Immunological surveillance
Immunity
Specificity.
Memory.
Tolerance.
Lymphocytes
T-cells
B-cells
Cell-mediated immunity 15.4
Cytotoxic T-cells
Helper T-cells
Suppressor T-cells
Memory T-cells
Antibody-mediated (humoral) immunity 15.5
Plasma cells
Memory B-cells
Acquired immunity
The primary response.
The secondary response.
Active naturally acquired immunity
Active artificially acquired immunity
Passive naturally acquired immunity
Passive artificially acquired immunity
Summary of the immune response to a bacterial infection
Ageing and immunity
Abnormal immune function
Hypersensitivity (allergy) 15.7
Type I, anaphylactic hypersensitivity
Type II, cytotoxic hypersensitivity
Type III, immune-complex-mediated hypersensitivity
Type IV, delayed type hypersensitivity
Autoimmune disease
Immunodeficiency
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Stages of HIV infection.
16 The musculoskeletal system
Animations
Bone
Functions of bones
Types of bones
Long bones.
Short, irregular, flat and sesamoid bones.
Bone structure
Long bones
Blood and nerve supply
Short, irregular, flat and sesamoid bones
Microscopic structure of bone
Bone cells
Osteoblasts
Osteocytes
Osteoclasts
Compact (cortical) bone
Spongy (cancellous, trabecular) bone
Development of bone tissue 16.1
Development of long bones
Hormonal regulation of bone growth
Exercise and bone
Diet and bone
Bone markings
Healing of bone 16.2
Factors that delay healing of fractures
Tissue fragments between bone ends.
Deficient blood supply.
Poor alignment of bone ends.
Continued mobility of bone ends.
Miscellaneous.
Complications of fractures
Infection (osteomyelitis, p. 432).
Fat embolism.
Axial skeleton
Skull (Figs 16.10 and 16.11)
Sinuses
Cranium
Frontal bone
Parietal bones
Temporal bones (Fig. 16.12)
Occipital bone (Fig. 16.13)
Sphenoid bone (Fig. 16.14)
Ethmoid bone (Fig. 16.15)
Face
Zygomatic (cheek) bones
Maxilla (upper jaw bone)
Nasal bones
Lacrimal bones
Vomer
Palatine bones
Inferior conchae
Mandible (lower jaw bone, Fig. 16.17)
Hyoid bone
Fontanelles of the skull (Fig. 16.18)
Functions of the skull
Vertebral column (Fig. 16.19) 16.3
Characteristics of a typical vertebra (Fig. 16.20)
The body.
The vertebral (neural) arch.
Region-specific vertebral characteristics
Cervical vertebrae (Fig. 16.21)
Thoracic vertebrae (Fig. 16.23)
Lumbar vertebrae (Fig. 16.20)
Sacrum (Fig. 16.24)
Coccyx (Fig. 16.24)
Features of the vertebral column
Intervertebral discs
Intervertebral foramina
Ligaments of the vertebral column (Fig. 16.25)
Curves of the vertebral column (Fig. 16.27)
Movement of the vertebral column
Functions of the vertebral column
Thoracic cage (Fig. 16.28)
Sternum (breast bone, Fig. 16.29)
Ribs
Appendicular skeleton
Shoulder girdle and upper limb
Shoulder girdle
Clavicle (collar bone, Fig. 16.31)
Scapula (shoulder blade, Fig. 16.32)
The upper limb
Humerus (Fig. 16.33)
Ulna and radius (Fig. 16.34)
Carpal (wrist) bones (Fig. 16.35)
Metacarpal bones (bones of the hand)
Phalanges (finger bones)
Pelvic girdle and lower limb
The pelvic girdle
Innominate (hip) bones (Fig. 16.36)
The pelvis (Fig. 16.37)
Differences between male and female pelves (Fig. 16.38).
The lower limb
Femur (thigh bone, Fig. 16.39)
Tibia (shin bone, Fig. 16.40)
Fibula (Fig. 16.40)
Patella (knee cap)
Tarsal (ankle) bones (Fig. 16.41)
Metatarsals (bones of the foot, Fig. 16.41)
Phalanges (toe bones, Fig. 16.41)
Arches of the foot.
Posterior tibialis muscle
Short muscles of the foot
Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament (‘spring’ ligament)
Plantar ligaments and interosseous membranes
Joints
Fibrous joints
Cartilaginous joints
Synovial joints
Characteristics of a synovial joint
Articular or hyaline cartilage
Capsule or capsular ligament
Synovial membrane
Synovial fluid.
Other intracapsular structures
Extracapsular structures
Nerve and blood supply
Movements at synovial joints
Types of synovial joint
Ball and socket joints
Hinge joints
Gliding joints
Pivot joints
Condyloid joints
Saddle joints
Main synovial joints of the limbs 16.4
Shoulder joint (Fig. 16.47)
Muscles and movements (see Fig. 16.65)
Elbow joint (Fig. 16.48)
Muscles and movements (see Fig. 16.65)
Proximal and distal radioulnar joints
Muscles and movements (see Fig. 16.65)
Wrist joint (Fig. 16.49)
Muscles and movements (see Fig. 16.65)
Joints of the hands and fingers
Hip joint (Fig. 16.51)
Muscles and movements (see Fig. 16.66)
Knee joint (Fig. 16.52)
Muscles and movements (see Fig. 16.66)
Ankle joint (Fig. 16.53)
Muscles and movements (see Fig. 16.66)
Joints of the feet and toes
Skeletal muscle
Organisation of skeletal muscle (Fig. 16.54)
Skeletal muscle cells (fibres)
Structure
Actin, myosin and sarcomeres.
Contraction
The neuromuscular junction 16.6
Motor units
Action of skeletal muscle
Muscle tone
Muscle fatigue
Muscle recovery
Factors affecting skeletal muscle performance
The action of skeletal muscles
Isometric and isotonic contraction 16.7
Muscle terminology
Principal skeletal muscles
Muscles of the face and neck (Fig. 16.58)
Muscles of the face
Occipitofrontalis (unpaired).
Levator palpebrae superioris.
Orbicularis oculi.
Buccinator.
Orbicularis oris (unpaired).
Masseter.
Temporalis.
Pterygoid.
Muscles of the neck
Sternocleidomastoid.
Trapezius.
Muscles of the trunk
Muscles of the back
Latissimus dorsi.
Teres major.
Quadratus lumborum.
Sacrospinalis (erector spinae).
Muscles of the abdominal wall
Rectus abdominis.
External oblique.
Internal oblique.
Transversus abdominis.
Inguinal canal
Muscles of the thorax
Muscles of the pelvic floor (Fig. 16.64)
Levator ani.
Coccygeus.
Muscles of the shoulder and upper limb (Fig. 16.65)
Deltoid.
Pectoralis major.
Coracobrachialis.
Biceps.
Brachialis.
Triceps.
Brachioradialis.
Pronator quadratus.
Pronator teres.
Supinator.
Flexor carpi radialis.
Flexor carpi ulnaris.
Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis.
Extensor carpi ulnaris.
Palmaris longus.
Extensor digitorum.
Muscles that control finger movements.
Muscles of the hip and lower limb (Fig. 16.66)
Psoas.
Iliacus.
Quadriceps femoris.
Obturators.
Gluteals.
Sartorius.
Adductor group.
Hamstrings.
Gastrocnemius.
Anterior tibialis.
Soleus.
Ageing and the musculoskeletal system
Diseases of bone
Osteoporosis
Paget’s disease
Rickets and osteomalacia
Osteomyelitis
Developmental abnormalities of bone
Achondroplasia
Osteogenesis imperfecta (‘brittle bone syndrome’)
Tumours of bone
Benign tumours
Malignant tumours
Metastatic tumours
Primary tumours
Disorders of joints
Inflammatory joint disease (arthritis)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, rheumatoid disease)
Other types of polyarthritis
Ankylosing spondylitis.
Psoriatic arthritis.
Reiter’s syndrome (polyarthritis with urethritis and conjunctivitis).
Rheumatic fever.
Infective arthritis
Osteoarthritis (osteoarthrosis, OA)
Traumatic injury to joints
Sprains, strains and dislocations
Penetrating injuries
Gout
Connective tissue diseases
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Diseases of muscle
Myasthenia gravis
Muscular dystrophies
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy
Myotonic dystrophy
Rotator cuff injury
17 Introduction to genetics
Animations
Chromosomes, genes and DNA
Chromosomes
Genes
DNA
The genetic code
Mitochondrial DNA
Mutation
Protein synthesis
Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)
Transcription 17.4
Translation 17.5
Gene expression
Cell division
DNA replication
Mitosis
Meiosis
First meiotic division
Second meiotic division
The genetic basis of inheritance
Autosomal inheritance
Punnett squares 17.8
Co-dominance
Sex-linked inheritance 17.9
Ageing and genetics
Ageing and DNA
Cell senescence (ageing).
Genetic basis of disease
Cancer
Inherited disease
Gene mutations
Phenylketonuria
Mitochondrial abnormalities
Chromosomal abnormalities
Down syndrome
Cri-du-chat syndrome
Abnormalities of the sex chromosomes
Turner syndrome.
Klinefelter syndrome.
18 The reproductive systems
Animations
Female reproductive system
External genitalia (vulva) 18.1
Labia majora
Labia minora
Clitoris
Vestibular glands 18.2
Blood supply, lymph drainage and nerve supply
Arterial supply.
Venous drainage.
Lymph drainage.
Nerve supply.
Perineum
Internal genitalia
Vagina 18.3
Hymen.
Structure of the vagina
Blood supply, lymph drainage and nerve supply
Arterial supply.
Venous drainage.
Lymph drainage.
Nerve supply.
Functions of the vagina
Uterus
Fundus.
Body.
Cervix (‘neck’ of the uterus).
Structure
Perimetrium.
Myometrium.
Endometrium.
Blood supply, lymph drainage and nerve supply
Arterial supply.
Venous drainage.
Lymph drainage.
Nerve supply.
Supporting structures
Broad ligaments.
Round ligaments.
Uterosacral ligaments.
Transverse cervical (cardinal) ligaments.
Pubocervical fascia.
Functions of the uterus
Uterine tubes
Structure
Functions
Ovaries 18.4
Structure
Medulla.
Cortex.
Blood supply, lymph drainage and nerve supply
Arterial supply.
Venous drainage.
Lymph drainage.
Nerve supply.
Functions
Puberty in the female
The reproductive cycle
Menstrual phase
Proliferative phase
Secretory phase
Menopause
Breasts 18.7
Structure
The nipple.
Blood supply, lymph drainage and nerve supply
Arterial supply.
Venous drainage.
Lymph drainage.
Nerve supply.
Functions
Male reproductive system
Scrotum
Testes 18.8
Tunica vaginalis.
Tunica albuginea.
Tunica vasculosa.
Structure
Functions
Spermatic cords
Blood supply, lymph drainage and nerve supply
Arterial supply.
Venous drainage.
Lymph drainage.
Nerve supply.
The deferent duct
Seminal vesicles 18.10
Functions
Ejaculatory ducts
Prostate gland
Functions
Urethra and penis 18.11
Urethra
Penis 18.12
Ejaculation
Puberty in the male
Human development
Nourishment during intrauterine growth.
The first 3 months
Later pregnancy
Ageing and the reproductive systems
Ageing and reproduction in the female
Ageing and reproduction in the male
Sexually transmitted infections
Chlamydia
Gonorrhoea
Syphilis
Trichomonas vaginalis
Candidiasis
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hepatitis B infection
Genital herpes
Diseases of the female reproductive system
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Disorders of the uterus
Cervical carcinoma
Disorders of the endometrium
Endometriosis
Endometrial hyperplasia
Endometrial carcinoma
Disorders of the myometrium
Adenomyosis
Leiomyoma (fibroid, myoma)
Disorders of the uterine tubes and ovaries
Acute salpingitis
Ectopic pregnancy
Ovarian tumours
Metastatic ovarian tumours
Female infertility
Disorders of the breast
Mastitis (inflammation of the breast)
Tumours of the breast
Benign tumours
Malignant tumours
Diseases of the male reproductive system
Infections of the penis
Infections of the urethra
Epididymis and testes
Infections
Specific epididymitis.
Orchitis (inflammation of the testis).
Undescended testis (cryptorchidism)
Hydrocele
Testicular tumours
Prostate gland
Infections
Benign prostatic enlargement
Malignant prostatic tumours
Breast
Gynaecomastia
Malignant tumours
Male infertility
Glossary
Normal values
Metric measures, units and SI symbols
Hydrogen ion concentration (pH)
Some normal plasma levels in adults
Arterial blood gases
Blood pressure
Heart rate
Respiration rate
Blood count
Diet
Urine
Body temperatures
Cerebrospinal fluid pressure
Intraocular pressure
Bibliography
Index
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

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